Rural communication


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Rural communication

  2. 2. RURAL COMMUNICATION & MEDIA <ul><li>Rural Communication has recently emerged as a key concern for communicators of both profit-oriented corporations exploring rural areas to expand marketing their products, as also by those in social service institutions trying to reach social (especially) health related messages in rural, tribal and far-flung areas in the countryside. </li></ul>
  3. 3. RURAL COMMUNICATION & MEDIA <ul><li>There are a number of factors that make rural messages effective. </li></ul><ul><li>Media is of two types : </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Media </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional (non-conventional) Media </li></ul><ul><li>The utility of mass-media in rural communication is enormous. However, traditional media is often seen to be more effective among the rural audience. </li></ul>
  4. 4. KEY CONCEPTS <ul><li>THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>As can be clearly seen from the mode, a sender sends (an encoded) message, using a selected media, which the receiver receives after having decoded it (so as to be properly understood). The receiver (or the target audience ‘responds’ back to sender (of the messages), to whom this response also works as a feedback on his message/media. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>It is also apparent from the model that much of the message could go waste as ‘noise’. This could happen due to several reasons. The messages having not been encoded properly; inappropriate selection of media; improper messages; messages not having been decoded properly. The net effect is that the senders message do not reach, the target audience, or having reached it may mean nothing, or atleast not meaning what it is intended to have been communicated. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS MODEL <ul><li>The rural environment has a lot of influence on the receiver and therefore he or she may not receive the intended message for any of the following three reasons : </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Attention – where the consumer may not notice the stimuli provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Distortion – where the message is twisted to hear what the consumer wants to hear. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Recall – where the consumer permanently retains only a small fraction of the messages that reach him/her. </li></ul>
  7. 7. EFFECTIVE MESSAGES <ul><li>A major challenge for rural communicator is how to make the communicated messages effective. The message must be meaningful to the rural consumer. Message decisions need to take into account the following aspects for their effectiveness : </li></ul><ul><li>Languages </li></ul><ul><li>Pictorial Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Message Form – The effective communication to rural consumer should be : utilitarian, & narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Source of the message – Credibility of the source is critical for rural markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Context Association – Associations create interest, hold attention and provide meaning. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>SOCIAL </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>BEHAVIOURAL INFLUENCES </li></ul>Show
  10. 10. MEDIA DECISIONS Show
  11. 11. MEDIA <ul><li>It is important to understand the media that is being adopted by the rural marketers. The forms of media used are of two types : </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Media (Conventional Media) – Including television, radio, print, cinema/theatres, word of mouth, video on wheels. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Media (Non-Conventional Media) – Including puppetry, folk theatres, demonstrations, Melas, wall paintings, post cards, posters, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MEDIA VEHICLES AVAILABLE <ul><li>MASS MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>TELEVISION </li></ul><ul><li>RADIO - HIGH AUDIENCE </li></ul><ul><li>PRINT MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>CINEMAS </li></ul><ul><li>WORD-OF-MOUTH </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO-ON-WHEELS </li></ul>
  13. 13. MEDIA VEHICLES AVAILABLE <ul><li>TRADITIONAL MEDIA </li></ul><ul><li>WALL PAINTINGS </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT MAIL </li></ul><ul><li>FOLK THEATRE </li></ul><ul><li>BANNERS PLACED ON ELEPHANTS & CAMELS </li></ul><ul><li>PUPPETRY </li></ul><ul><li>CONTESTS TO PROMOTE THE PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>AUDIO-VISUAL VANS </li></ul><ul><li>STALLS AT LOCAL FAIRS </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Effectiveness of the media to be used for rural communication is important. Factors that affect media effectiveness are : </li></ul><ul><li>Audience Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Media Preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Channel and Programmes viewed </li></ul><ul><li>Media Viewing & Listening Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Rural communication is best applied when it follows a participatory approach, involving participation of rural audience. </li></ul>MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS Show
  16. 16. MEDIA EFFECTIVENESS <ul><li>AUDIENCE PROFILE </li></ul><ul><li>Rural audiences are exposed to mass media, and can be easily reached, and young male members are majority viewers of television. </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA PREFERENCE </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional media can be more effective with rural audience. Interpersonal communication (IPC) was ranked most effective, followed by TV/VCR, print media, and then radio. </li></ul><ul><li>CHANNELS AND PROGRAMMES VIEWED </li></ul><ul><li>MEDIA VIEWING AND LISTENING BEHAVIOUR </li></ul><ul><li>Television programmes in rural areas like DD-1, etc is very popular. Radio is a popular media in rural markets, especially Vividh Bharti, etc. Household subscription to newspapers is low. But newspaper is read at common gathering/meeting place, tea shop. </li></ul>
  17. 17. RURAL COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES <ul><li>SPREAD AND DIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>The large number of consumers scattered across the country, many of whom are not tuned to mass media. Rural markets vary by geography, demography, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>LOW LITERACY LEVELS </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate that it would be unrealistic to use print media. </li></ul><ul><li>POR INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES </li></ul><ul><li>Such a lack of roads, telecom facilities, postal services, etc. This undermines the utility of press and even TV viewership is affected by low voltage and uncertain supplies </li></ul>
  18. 18. RURAL COMMUNICATION - CHALLENGES <ul><li>UNIQUE MEDIA HABITS </li></ul><ul><li>All the readership is secondary. </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF RESEARCH DATA </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions on message and media-mix are largely dependent on feedback from sales networks. </li></ul><ul><li>LINGUISTIC & SOCIO-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES </li></ul><ul><li>DIFFERENT LEISURE TIME ACTIVITIES </li></ul><ul><li>For people in rural areas, as agricultural activities have no fixed timings, and often requiring work during nights and in odd hours. The difficulty is to find the time slot for the ads, as the leisure times are situation based. </li></ul>
  19. 19. RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES <ul><li>MANAGING SPREAD AND DIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>Languages : The message has to be understood. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying geographical locations with a larger concentration of rural consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>Locating potential consumers with a higher propensity to spend. </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF AUDIO-VIDEO MEDIUM </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy rates being less in rural areas, and TV and Radio having much more reach in rural masses compared to print media, communication through electronic media must be given priority over press. </li></ul>
  20. 20. RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES <ul><li>APPROPRIATE COMMUNICATION MIX </li></ul><ul><li>Needs to be used giving priority to local promotional tools over advertising, as advertising in rural areas is marked by selective attention and retention. Usually 70:30 is recommended. </li></ul><ul><li>TAILOR-MADE COMMUNICATION </li></ul><ul><li>Ad messages should be modified to suit to regional requirements, in order to counter linguistic, social and cultural differences. </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF PUBLICITY VANS / ANIMALS </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in remote/tribal and hilly areas. </li></ul>
  21. 21. RURAL COMMUNICATION - STRATEGIES <ul><li>USE OF STALLS & HAATS </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in village festivals to spread messages and can also include brand trials. </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF CINEMA HALLS AND VIDEO PARLOURS </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in those states/regions having maximum exposure to cinema. </li></ul><ul><li>USE OF LOGOS AND SYMBOLS </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS ON OPINION LEADERS OR REFERENCE GROUPS </li></ul>