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EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks
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EarthSci 3 - Minerals and Rocks

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  • Convergent boundaries are where the plates move towards each other. There are three types of convergent boundary, each defined by what type of crust (continental or oceanic) is coming together. Therefore we can have: continent-continent collision, continent-oceanic crust collision or ocean-ocean collision….
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    • 1. is a solid combination ofmore than one mineralformations.
    • 2. is a solid formationthat occurs naturallyin the earth.
    • 3. Igneous Rocks• These are rocks formed by the cooling of molten rock (magma.) volcano Magma cools and solidifies forming igneous rocks magma
    • 4. Sedimentary Rocks• Sedimentary Rocks are rocks formed when particles of sediment build up and are Getting older “cemented together” by the effect of pressure and minerals. Fragments washed to the sea Rocks are broken up by the action of weather sea Sedimentary rocks
    • 5. Metamorphic Rocks• Metamorphic rocks are formed by the effect of heat and pressure on existing rocks.• This can greatly affect the hardness, texture or layer patterns of the rocks. Pressure from surface rocks metamorphic rock forming here Magma heat
    • 6.  Igneous rock begins as magma. Magma can form: ▪ When rock is heated ▪ When pressure is released ▪ When rock changes composition Magma freezes between 700 °C and 1,250 °C Magma is a mixture of many minerals http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/igneous.htm
    • 7.  Felsic: light colored rocks that are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium Mafic: dark colored rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, poor in silicon Coarse-grained: takes longer to cool, giving mineral crystals more time to grow Fine-grained: cools quickly with little to no crystals
    • 8. Coarse-Grained Fine-GrainedFelsic Granite RhyoliteMafic Gabbro Basalt
    • 9.  Intrusive Igneous Rocks: magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface Extrusive Rocks: forms when magma erupts onto the Earth’s surface (lava), cools quickly with very small or no crystals formed http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/ig_intrusive.html&edu=high&fr=t
    • 10. ____________ is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms fromthe very rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidlythat crystals do not form. Is this rock Felsic or Mafic? Is it fine-grained or coarse-grained? Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive?
    • 11. Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from thevery rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidlythat crystals do not form. Is this rock Felsic or Mafic? Is it fine-grained or coarse-grained? Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive? Mafic, fine grained, extrusive
    • 12.  Sedimentary rock is formed by erosion Sediments are moved from one place to another Sediments are deposited in layers, with the older ones on the bottom The layers become http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/sediment.htm compacted and cemented
    • 13.  Sedimentary Rocks are formed at or near the Earth’s surface No heat and pressure involved Strata – layers of rock Stratification – the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers
    • 14. Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartz_________ is a term mostoften used for clasticsedimentary rocks that arecomposed of large angularfragments (over twomillimeters in diameter).The spaces between thelarge angular fragments canbe filled with a matrix ofsmaller particles or a mineralcement that binds the rocktogether.
    • 15. Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartzBreccia is a term most oftenused for clastic sedimentaryrocks that are composed oflarge angular fragments(over two millimeters indiameter).The spaces between thelarge angular fragments canbe filled with a matrix ofsmaller particles or a mineralcement that binds the rocktogether.
    • 16. Chemical Sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rock__________is a sedimentaryrock composed primarily ofcalcium carbonate (CaCO3) inthe form of the mineral calcite. Itmost commonly forms in clear,warm, shallow marine waters.It is usually an organicsedimentary rock that formsfrom the accumulation of shell,coral, algal and fecal debris.
    • 17. Chemical Sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rockLimestone is a sedimentary rockcomposed primarily of calciumcarbonate (CaCO3) in the form ofthe mineral calcite. It mostcommonly forms in clear, warm,shallow marine waters.It is usually an organicsedimentary rock that formsfrom the accumulation of shell,coral, algal and fecal debris.
    • 18. Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animals_________ is an organicsedimentary rock thatforms from theaccumulation andpreservation of plantmaterials, usually in aswamp environment.Coal is a combustible rockand along with oil andnatural gas it is one of thethree most importantfossil fuels.
    • 19. Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animalsCoal is an organicsedimentary rock thatforms from theaccumulation andpreservation of plantmaterials, usually in aswamp environment.Coal is a combustible rockand along with oil andnatural gas it is one of thethree most importantfossil fuels.
    • 20.  Meaning to change shape Changes with temperature and pressure, but remains solid Usually takes place deep in the Earth http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/metamorph.htm
    • 21.  Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma  Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new minerals_________ is a fine-grained non-foliated metamorphic rock producedby contact metamorphism http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/meta_contact.html&edu=h igh&fr=t
    • 22.  Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma  Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new mineralsHornfels is a fine-grained non-foliatedmetamorphic rock produced bycontact metamorphism http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/meta_contact.html&edu=h igh&fr=t
    • 23.  Regional Metamorphism – pressure builds up in rocks that is deep within the Earth  Large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide and the rock is deformed and chemically changed by heat and pressurehttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/meta_regional.html&edu=high&fr=t
    • 24.  Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat minerals________ is foliatedmetamorphic rockthat has a bandedappearance and ismade up of granularmineral grains.It typically containsabundant quartz orfeldspar minerals.
    • 25.  Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat mineralsGneiss is foliatedmetamorphic rockthat has a bandedappearance and ismade up of granularmineral grains.It typically containsabundant quartz orfeldspar minerals.
    • 26.  Non-Foliated – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bands_________ is a non-foliated metamorphicrock that is producedfrom themetamorphism oflimestone.It is composedprimarily of calciumcarbonate.
    • 27.  Non-Foliated – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bandsMarble is a non-foliated metamorphicrock that is producedfrom themetamorphism oflimestone.It is composedprimarily of calciumcarbonate.
    • 28.  Determine if the following rock samples are foliated or non-foliated: Amphibolite Quartzite Phyllite Foliated
    • 29. The Rock Cycle Igneous metamorphic Sedimentary
    • 30.  Felsic: light colored rocks that are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium Mafic: dark colored rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, poor in silicon Coarse-grained: takes longer to cool, giving mineral crystals more time to grow Fine-grained: cools quickly with little to no crystals
    • 31. Coarse-Grained Fine-GrainedFelsic Granite RhyoliteMafic Gabbro Basalt
    • 32.  Intrusive Igneous Rocks: magma pushes into surrounding rock below the Earth’s surface Extrusive Rocks: forms when magma erupts onto the Earth’s surface (lava), cools quickly with very small or no crystals formed http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/ig_intrusive.html&edu=high&fr=t
    • 33. Obsidian is a dark-colored volcanic glass that forms from thevery rapid cooling of molten rock material. It cools so rapidlythat crystals do not form. Is this rock Felsic or Mafic? Is it fine-grained or coarse-grained? Is this rock Intrusive or Extrusive? Mafic, fine grained, extrusive
    • 34.  Sedimentary rock is formed by weathering then sedimentation Sediments are moved from one place to another Sediments are deposited in layers, with the older ones on the bottom The layers become compacted and cemented together http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/sediment.htm
    • 35. Clastic – made of fragments of rock cemented together with calcite or quartzBreccia is a term most oftenused for clastic sedimentaryrocks that are composed oflarge angular fragments(over two millimeters indiameter).The spaces between thelarge angular fragments canbe filled with a matrix ofsmaller particles or a mineralcement that binds the rocktogether.
    • 36. Chemical Sedimentary – minerals crystallize out of solution to become rockLimestone is a sedimentary rockcomposed primarily of calciumcarbonate (CaCO3) in the form ofthe mineral calcite. It mostcommonly forms in clear, warm,shallow marine waters.It is usually an organicsedimentary rock that formsfrom the accumulation of shell,coral, algal and fecal debris.
    • 37. Organic sedimentary – remains of plants and animalsCoal is an organicsedimentary rock thatforms from theaccumulation andpreservation of plantmaterials, usually in aswamp environment.Coal is a combustible rockand along with oil andnatural gas it is one of thethree most importantfossil fuels.
    • 38.  Meaning to change shape Changes with temperature and pressure, but remains solid Usually takes place deep in the Earth http://www.fi.edu/fellows/payton/rocks/create/metamorph.htm
    • 39.  Contact Metamorphism – heated by nearby magma  Increased temperature changes the composition of the rock, minerals are changed into new mineralsHornfel is a fine-grained non-foliatedmetamorphic rock produced bycontact metamorphism http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/meta_contact.html&edu=h igh&fr=t
    • 40.  Regional Metamorphism – pressure builds up in rocks that is deep within the Earth  Large pieces of the Earth’s crust collide and the rock is deformed and chemically changed by heat and pressurehttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/geology/meta_regional.html&edu=high&fr=t
    • 41.  Foliated - contain aligned grains of flat mineralsGneiss is foliatedmetamorphic rockthat has a bandedappearance and ismade up of granularmineral grains.It typically containsabundant quartz orfeldspar minerals.
    • 42.  Non-Foliated – mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bandsMarble is a non-foliated metamorphicrock that is producedfrom themetamorphism oflimestone.It is composedprimarily of calciumcarbonate.
    • 43. The Rock Cycle Igneous metamorphic Sedimentary

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