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Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
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Gujarati english dictonary
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Gujarati english dictonary
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Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
Gujarati english dictonary
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Gujarati english dictonary

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GUJARATI TO ENGLISH DICTIONARY …

GUJARATI TO ENGLISH DICTIONARY

CHANDER G MENGHANI

CHANDERAUGUST@GMAIL.COM

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  • 1. Gujarati- English Learner’s Dictionary Babu Suthar (Second draft) A Nirman Foundation Project Department of South Asia Studies University of Pennsylvania 820 Williams Hall 36th and Spruce Philadelphia PA 19104  Babu Suthar
  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3 In Memory of Harivallabh Bhayani
  • 4. 4 ↓ We will revise this draft again after we receive comments and suggestions from the scholars and the users. There are still problems with phonetic transcription of some words. We will fix them as soon as we get feedback from the scholars. Meanwhile, we request the users to consult us before using information from this dictionary in their reserach. ↓ Babu Suthar bsuthar@sas.upenn.edu
  • 5. 5 Introduction Gujarati is a poor language of the rich people. This language does not have scientifically written grammar books. Whatever grammar books it has are mainly pedagogic. It does not have well written dictionaries either. There are some, monolingual as well as bilingual, but many of them are impressionistic and outdated. This language is divided into many social and geographical dialects, but very few of them have been explored. Many dialects still await their documentation. It has attracted many linguists, but their impact on the language, speakers, and writers has been negligible. Gujaratis are everywhere, and so is Gujarati; but Gujarati rarely is taught systematically. The children of Gujarati Diaspora learn some Gujarati either from their parents or from Gujarati language classes run mainly by Hindu temples. There is no well written teaching material either. Some individuals have created some material, but much of it lacks professionalism. In addition, it is also faulty either in grammar or in pragmatics or both. This is unfortunate. In order to overcome this situation, partially if not fully, the Department of South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania has taken a leadership role. They have encouraged designing teaching material under which we have created three textbooks: Gujarati Reader 1, 2 and 3. The Reader 1 is devoted to the writing system, while the Reader 2 is devoted to written conversations. The Reader 3 is a collection of Aesop’s fables rendered in Gujarati. This dictionary is a part of that project but it has been funded by the Nirman Foundation, Washington DC. It is perhaps the first dictionary of the language created for the beginning student who is learning Gujarati language as a second language. It is also the first dictionary in Gujarati which gives phonetic transcription of the head words in International Phonetic Alphabet. Besides, it is also the first one that gives graphemic transcription of each head words. This dictionary will certainly facilitate the learner in learning the differences between spoken and written Gujarati. I am thankful to Nirman Foundation. Without their support this dream would have remained unfulfilled. I am also thankful to Prof. Bhikhu Parekh and Dr. Chandrakant Shrof for taking personal interest in this project. I can not forget Prof. Guy Welbon, former Chairperson of the South Asia Regional Studies, University of Pennsylvania, who underlined the need of creating teaching material and supported all the projects. This dictionary is the third project that he supported. I am also thankful to Prof. Michael W. Meister, the Chairperson of the Department of South Asia, for encouraging me in finishing this work. Finally, I am thankful to Prof. Buckley, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Bharti Modi, Ex. Chairperson, Department of Linguistics, The M.S. University of Baroda for ofering me guidance on various issues related to compiling dictionary. Babu Suthar Sunday, June 29, 2003
  • 6. 6 Content 1. Explanatory notes 7 2. Abbriviations 10 3. Dictionary 12 A 12 Aa 20 ; 25 : 26 w 26 W 29 ¢ 30 Ae 30 AE 32 Ao 32 AO 33 k 33 ` 41 g 46 3 52 c 55 2 62 j 65 z 70 4 73 5 75 6 77 7 79 t 80 9 87 d 88 0 96 n 100 p 111 f 132 b 137 - 146 m 154 y 167 r 168 l 175 v 183 = 200 q 205 s 205 h 229
  • 7. 7 x 235 }a 235 4. Gujarati Parts of speech 236 5. Numerals 255
  • 8. 8 Explanatory Notes: Structure of the entries: Each entry contains five parts in the following order: 1. Head- word, 2. Phonetic transcription, 3. Graphemic transcription, 4. Grammatical designation and 5. Gloss. In addition, some entries may contain example. 1. Head-word: Head-word is the word to be glossed. It is given here in Gujarati script. Spellings such as gÅga, p¨jo, 5*6I, sNt and sMp are avoided in favor of more traditional spellings g&ga, p&jo, 5&6I, s&t and s&p. 2. Phonetic transcription: For each head-word phonetic transcription is given here in Broad transcription. Syllabic division is also marked. This will facilitate the learners in learning how to pronounce the words and how to relate them with their grapheme structure. However, stress pattern is left unmarked. Phonetic transcription is given in International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) which is given bellow: Vowels: Front Central Back Close i u Close-mid e o Open-mid ´ ø Open a
  • 9. 9 Consonants: Pharyngeal vl. h vd. g g˙ ˜ Velar vl. k k˙ vd. Ô Ô˙ µ j Palatal vl. c c˙ vd. Î Î˙ ¯ Æ Retroflex vl. ˇ ˇ˙ Post alveolar vl. ß Alveolar vd. r l vd. d d˙ n Dental vl. t t˙ s Labiodental vd. v vd. b b˙ m Bilabial vl. p p˙ non-asp. asp. Plosive Fricative Nasal Trill Approximant Lateral approximant
  • 10. 10 3. Graphemic transcription: For each word graphemic transcription is also given using the following symbols. This will help students learning the relationship between sound and later with is not always symmetrical in Gujarati. Vowels: A Aa ; : w W ¢ a i ii u uu ru≤ Ae AE Ao AO A& AŠ e i o u m h Consonants: k ` g 3 k kh g gh c 2 j z c ch Ô Ôh 4 5 6 7 8 ˇ ˇh Î Îh ¯ t 9 d 0 n t th d dh n p f b - m p ph b bh m y r l v y r l v = q s ß s° s h X x }a h Æ kß gn 4. Gloss: Gloss illustrates the main sense of the word. In some cases, more than one meaning are given in the order of their prominence.
  • 11. 11 Abbriviations adj. adjective advb. adverb conj. conjunction fem. feminine hon. honorific masc. masculine neut. neuter postp postposition pron. pronoun v.intr. intransitive verb v.dat. dative verb v.exp. experiencer verb v.tr. transitive verb Symbols: / . / syllabic break < . > boundary of the letter
  • 12. A Akb&0 /k.bn.d˙/ <.k.b~.dh> adj. . 1. intact. 2. neither opened nor broken. Ak6avu& /k.Îa.vu~/ <.k.Îa.vu~> v.intr. to get angry. Ak6avu& /k.Îa.vu~/ <.k.Îa.vu~> v.intr. to have cramp. AkmRk /.kr.m.k/ <.k.rm.k> adj. . intransitive. a verb that does not take a direct verb. AksIr /k.sir/ <.k.sii.r> adj. . effective. AkSmat /.ks.mat/ <.k.sma.t> neut. . accident AkSmate /.ks.ma.te/ <.k.sma.te> advb.. accidentally. AkXam8 /k.Æa.m¯/ <.k.Æa.m.¯> fem. 1. perplexity. 2. acute worry. AkXavu& /k.Æa.vu~/ <.k.Æa.vu~> v.intr. . to get angry. Akk6 /k.k.Î/ </.kk.Î> adj. 1. stiff. 2. unbending. AkkrmI /k.kr.mi/ <.kk.r.mii> adj. unfortunate. Akkl /k.kl/ <.kk.l> fem. . sense. Axt /k.ß.t/ <.kß.t> adj. .1. whole. 2. unbroken. Axy /k.ß.j/ <.kß.j> adj. 1.imperishable. 2. inexhaustible. Axr /k.ß.r/ <.kß.r> masc. .1. a letter, 2. a syllable Axr /k.ß.r/ <.kß.r> adj. . indestructible. Axr=Š /k.ß.r.ß.h/ <.kß.r.ß.h> adv.. 1.literally. 2. letter by letter. 3. word by word. Axa&= /k.ßa~.ß/ <.kßa~.s> masc. a degree of latitude. A`&6 /.k˙¯.Î/ <.kh~.Î> adj. 1.unbroken. 2. ceaseless. A`&&i6t /.k˙¯.Îit/ <.kh~.Îi.t> adj. . 1.unbroken. 2. constant. A`tro /.k˙t.ro/ <.kh.t.ro> masc. .1. an experiment. 2. a trial A`bar /k˙.bar/ <.kh.ba.r> neut. . a news paper A`a6o /.k˙a.Îo/ <.kha.do> masc. . a gymnasium A`at /.k˙at/ <.kha.t> masc. .1. a bay. 2. a gulf Agi8t /.g.¯it/ adj. .<.g.¯i.t> 1. innumerable. 2. uncounable. Ag8otr /.g.¯o.tr/ <.g.¯o.t.t> adj. . sixty nine. Ag*ya=I /.g.¯ja.ßi/ <.g.¯ja.ßii> adj. . seventy nine.
  • 13. 13 AgTy /.gt.j/ <.g.tj> neut. important. AgTyta /.gt.j.ta/ <.g.tj.ta> fem. . importance. Agm cetI /.gm.ce.ti/ <.g.m.ce.tii> fem. 1.forsight. 2. precaution. Agm va8I /.gm.va.¯i/ <.g.va.¯ii> fem.1. prophecy. 2. mysterious words. AgMy /.gm.j/ <.g.mj> adj. .1. mysterious. 2. inaccessible. Agrb]aI /.gr.bt.ti/ <.g.r.b.ttii> fem. . incense stick. Agv6 /g.vÎ/ <.g.v.Î> fem. inconvenience. Agaw /.ga.u~/ <.ga.u> prep.. before. AgawnI /.ga.u~.ni/ <.ga.u.nii> adj. . previous (in terms of time). Agaw9I /.ga.u.t˙i/ <.ga.u.thii> advb. .in advance. AgasI /.ga.si/ <.ga.sii> fem. . terrace. Aigyar /.gi.jar/ <.gi.ja.r> adj. .eleven. Aigyarmu& /.gi.jar.mu~/ <.gi.ja.r.mu~> neut. the eleventh day after death. Aigyars /.gi.ja.rs/ <.gi.ja.r.s> fem. the eleventh day of a fortnight of a Hindu lunar month. AigyarI /.gi.ja.ri/ <.gi.ja.rii> fem. . a small fire temple in which Parsis keep their sacred fire. Agocr /.go.cr/ <.go.c.r> adj. 1.beyond senses. 2. imperceptible. AiGn /g.ni/ <.gni> masc. .fire AiGndah /g.ni.dah/ <.gni.da.h> masc. . cremation ceremony. AiGns&Skar /g.ni.sam.ska.r/ <.gni.s~.ska.r> masc. . cremation ceremony. A3i4t /.g˙.ˇit/ adj. improper. A3ru& /.g˙.ru~/ <.gh.ru~> adj. difficult. Ac&bo /.cm.bo/ <.c~.bo> masc. .1. a surprise, 2. an astonishment Acank /.ca.nk/ <.ca.n.k> advb. . 1.suddenly, 2. accidentally AcUk /.cuk/ <.cuu.k> advb. .1.without a mistake, 2. sure A2t /.c˙t/ <.ch.t> fem. .1.scarcity, 2. shortage A2tu& /.c˙.tu~/ <.ch.tu~> advb. .1.secret, 2. hidden A2bDa /.c˙b.Îa/ <.ch.b.Îa> masc. . chicken-pox (honorific). A2Ut /.c˙ut/ <.chu.t> adj. . untouchable
  • 14. 14 A2o6o /.c˙o.Îo/ <.cho.Îo> masc. a chain of gold or silver Ajgr /Ô.gr/ <.Ô.g.r> masc. . a python Ajb /.Ôb/ <.Ô.b> adj. .1. strange, 2. surprising Ajmavvu& /Ô.mav.vu~/ <.Ô.ma.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to try, 2. to test. Ajmo /Ô.mo/ <.Ô.mo> masc. . parsley AjvaXvu& /Ô.vaÆ.vu~/ <.Ô.va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to cleanse. AjvaXIyu& /Ô.va.Æi.Ôu~/ <.Ô.va.Æii.ju~> neut. 1. the bright half of a lunar month, 2. Small holes in the roof foe admitting sun-light. AjvaXu& /Ô.va.Æu~/ <.Ô.va.Æu~> neut. .light Aj&po /.Ô.mpo/ <.Ô~.po> masc. . restlessness Aja8 /.Ôa¯/ <.Ôa.¯> adj. . ignorant Aja*yu& /.Ôa.¯yu~/ <.Ôa.¯ju~> adj.1.unknown, 2. stranger AjaybI /.Ôa.j.bi/ <.Ôa.j.bii> fem. .1. a wonder, 2. a surprise A@8R /.Ôir.¯/ <.Ôii.r¯> neut. indigestion Ajey /.Ôej/ <.Ôe.j> adj. . unconquerable Ajo6 /.Ôo.Î/ <.Ôo.Î> adj. . unique A}aan /g.na.n/ <.gna.n> neut. . ignorance A}aanI /g.na.ni/ <.gna.nii> adj. .ignorant A4k /.ˇk/ <.ˇ.k> fem. .1. surname, 2. a family name. 3. last name. A4kvu& /.ˇk.vu~/ <.ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. . to stop. A4kX /ˇ.kÆ/ <.ˇ.k.Æ> fem. . an inference A4p4u& /ˇ.p.ˇu~/ adj. <.ˇ.p.ˇu~> 1.intricate, 2. complex A4vavu& /ˇ.va.vu~/ <.ˇ.va.vu~> v.intr. . to wander. A5vai6k /ˇ˙.va.Îik/ <.ˇh.va.Îi.k> adj. . weekly A5vai6yu& /ˇ˙.va.Îi.ju~/ <.ˇh.va.Îi.ju~> neut. a week A5&g /.ˇ˙˜.g/ <.ˇh~.g> adj. . out and out. A55a; /.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.i/ <.ˇhˇha.i> fem. . a religious vows of the Jains. A person who takes this vow fasts for the period of eight days. A55a8u& /.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.¯u~/ <.ˇhˇha.¯u~> adj. . ninety eight. A55avn /.ˇ˙ˇ˙a.vn/ <.ˇhˇha.v.n> adj. fifty eight. A5yotr /.ˇ˙jo.tr/ <.ˇhjo.t.r> adj. . seventy eight.
  • 15. 15 A5yasI /.ˇ˙ja.si/ <.ˇhja.sii> adj. . eighty eight. A6kvu& /.Îk.vu~/ <.Î.k.vu~> v.tr. .to touch. A6`e p6`e /Î.k˙e pÎ.k˙e/ <.Î.khe p.Î.khe> adv..1. beside, 2. adjacent to, 3. side by side. A6g /.Îg/ <.Î.g> adj. .1. immovable, 2. unperturbed. A6c8 /Î.c¯/ <.Î.c.¯> fem. . obstacle A6talIs /Î.ta.lis/ <.Î.ta.lii.s> adj. forty eight. A6d /.Îd/ <.Î.d> masc. a kind of pulse A60u& /Î.d˙u~/ <.Î.dhu~> adj. half. A6plu& /.Îp.lu~/ <.Î.p.lu~> neut. .1.a mischief, 2. a prank A6vu& /Î.vu~/ <.Î.vu~> v.tr. . to touch. A6s5 /Î.sˇ˙/ <.Î.s.ˇh> adj. .sixty eight. A6oA6 /Îo.Î/ <.Îo..Î> postp. .very closely. A66o /Î.Îo/ <.ÎÎo> masc. .a meeting place of unsocial element. A7Xk /.Î˙.Æk/ <.Î.Æ.k> adj. . plentiful. A7ar /.Î˙ar/ <.Îha.r> adj. . eighteen. A7I /.Î˙i/ <.Îhii> adj. . two and a half. A8gmo /¯.g.mo/ <.¯.g.mo> masc. . dislike. A836 /¯.g˙Î/ <.¯.gh.Î> adj. . unskilled A80ayuR& /¯.d˙a.rju~/ <.¯.dha.rju~> adj. & advb. unexpected. A8manItu& /¯.ma.ni.tu~/ <.¯.ma.nii.tu~> adj. .unfavorable. A8vr /¯.vr/ <.¯.v.r> masc. a relative of the bridgroom who assists him during marriage ritual. Ai8 /.¯i/ <.¯i> fem. sharp point of anything. Aiti9 /.ti.t˙i/ <.ti.thi> masc. . a guest who comes without prior information. Aitrek /.ti.rek/ <.ti.re.k> masc. . an excess AtIt /.tit/ <.tii.t> masc. . past. Atu4 /.tuˇ/ <.tu.ˇ> adj. . unbreakable. A]ar /ˇ.ˇr/ <.tt.r> neut. .perfume ATy&t /t.jn.t/ <.tj~.t> adj. . excessive ATyacar /t.ja.car/ <.tja.ca.r> masc. . tyranny ATyare /t.ja.re/ <.tja.re> adv.. just now A{a /t.r/ <.tr> advb.. at this place
  • 16. 16 A96avu& /t˙.Îa.vu~/ <.th.Îa.vu~> v.intr. .1. to collide, 2. to hit against. A9a8u& /.t˙a.¯u~/ <.tha.¯u~> neut. . pickle Ada /.da/ <.da> fem. . action. Adalt /.da.lt/ <.da.l.t> fem. . a judicial court. Adavt /.da.vt/ <.da.v.t> fem. . enmity. A±+y /.drß.j/ <.dr.ßj> adj. . invisible. Ade`a; /.de.k˙ai/ <.de.kha.i> fem. . jealously Ade`u& /.de.k˙u~/ <.de.khu~> adj. . jealous Ad-Ut /d.b˙ut/ <.d.bhu.t> adj. . wonderful A0kcru& /d˙.kc.ru~/ <.dh.k.c.ru~> adj. partly baked or cooked. A0m /.d˙m/ <.dh.m> adj. mean. A0mUw& /d˙.mu.u~/ <.dh.mu.u> adj. . half-dead. A0mR /.d˙r.m/ <.dh.rm> masc. .1. the reverse of religion, 2. immoral. A0vc /d˙.vc/ <.dh.v.c> advb..1. in the middle, 2. midway. Ai0kar /.d˙i.kar/ <.dhi.ka.r> masc. . a right. A0Iru& /.d˙i.ru~/ <.dhii.ru~> adj. . impatient. A0uru& /.d˙u.ru~/ <.dhu.ru~> adj. . incomplete. A)0r /d˙.d˙r/ <.dhdh.r> advb..1. unsupported, 2. hanging in mid air. An9R /.nr.t˙/ <.n.rth> masc. . a misinterpretation. An&t /.nn.t/ <.n~.t> adj. .1.endless, 2. infinite. Anaj /.naÔ/ <.na.Ô> neut. .grain. Ana9 /.nat˙/ <.na.th> adj. . orphan. Ana9a[am /.na.t˙a.ßr.m/ <.na.tha.ßr.m> masc. . an orphanage. Anadr /.na.dr/ <.na.d.r> masc. . an insult. Anamt /.na.mt/ <.na.m.t> fem. . deposit. AnamI /.na.mi/ <.na.mii> adj. . nameless. Ainyimt /.nij.mit/ <.ni.j.mi.t> adj. irregular. Aini¾t /.niß.cit/ <.ni.ßci.t> adj. . uncertain. AnIit /.ni.ti/ <.nii.ti> fem. immorality. Anukr8 /.nu.k.r¯/ <.nu.k.r.¯> neut. immitation.
  • 17. 17 AnukUX /.nu.kuÆ/ <.nu.kuu.Æ> adj. . suitable. Anuk/m /.nu.krm/ <.nu.kr.m> masc. .1. order, 2. sequence. Anu-v /.nu.b˙v/ <.nu.bh.v> masc. experience. Anu-vI /.nu.b˙.vi/ <.nu.bh.vii> adj. experienced. Anuman /.nu.man/ <.nu.ma.n> neut. . an inference. Anuvad /.nu.vad/ <.nu.va.d> masc. translation. Anusrvu& /.nu.sr.vu~/ <.nu.s.r.vu~> v.intr to follow. AnuSnatk /.nus.na.tk/ <.nu.sna.t.k> adj. post-graduate. AnuSvar /.nus.var/ <.nu.sva.r> neut. a sign written on the top of a letter that indicates a nasal sound or nasalization of a vowel. Ane /.ne/ <.ne> conj.. and. Anek /.nek/ <.ne.k> adj. . many. ANyay /n.jaj/ <.nja.j> masc. . injustice. Apco /.p.co/ <.p.co> masc. . indigestion. Apj= /p.Ôß/ <.p.Ô.ß> masc. .disgrace. Apman /p.man/ <.p.ma.n> neut. . an insult Apvad /p.vad/ <.p.va.d> masc. . an exception. Apiv{a /.p.vit.r/ <.p.vi.tr> adj. unholy. Ap=Bd /p.ßb.d/ <.p.ß.bd> masc. an abuse. Ap=ukn /p.ßu.kn/ <.p.ßu.k.n> masc. . ill-omen. Ap&g /.p˜.g/ adj. . <.p~.g> 1. lame, 2. crippled. Apasro /.pa.s.ro/ <.pa.s.ro> masc. . a Jain monestry. ApUj /.puÔ/ <.puu.Ô> adj. . not worshipped. Apexa /.pek.ßa/ <.pe.kßa> fem. . expectation. Ap/g4 /.pr.gˇ/ <.pr.g.ˇ> adj. . unpublished. Aip/y /p.ri.j/ <.pri.j> adj. . disguisting. Afva /p˙.va/ <.ph.va> fem. . a rumors. Afsos /p˙.sos/ <.ph.so.s> masc. .1. repentance, 2. alas. Abj /.bÔ/ <.b.Ô> adj. . one thousand millions. Abjopit /.b.Ôo.p.ti/ <.b.Ôo.p.tii> adj. a millionaire A-8 /.b˙¯/ <.bh.¯> adj. . illiterate.
  • 18. 18 A-av /.b˙av/ <.bha.v> masc. . dislike. Ai-n&dn /.b˙i.nn.dn/ <.bhi.n~.d.n> masc. congratulation. (Honorific) Ai-neta /.b˙i.ne.ta/ <.bhi.ne.ta> masc. . a male actor. Ai-p/a.y /.b˙i.pra.j/ <.bhi.pra.j> masc. . an opinion. Ai-man /.b˙i.man/ <.bhi.ma.n> neut. . arrogance. Ai-manI /.b˙i.ma.ni/ <.bhi.ma.nii> adj. . arrogant. A_yas /b˙.ja.s/ <.bhja.s> masc. .1. study, 2. practice. Amr /.mr/ <.m.r> adj. immortal. Amaru& /.ma.ru~/ <.ma.ru~> pron.. our (exclusive). Amas /.mas/ <.ma.s> fem. . the last day of the dark half of a lunar month. Amuk /.muk/ <.mu.k> adj. . some. AmULy /.mul.j/ <.muu.lj> adj. .priceless. Ame /.me/ <.me> pron.. we (exclusive). AyoGy /.jog.j/ <.jo.gj> adj. . improper. ArIso /.ri.so/ <.rii.so> masc. .a mirror. Are /.re/ <.re> inter.. an exclamation expressing surprise, `oh’. A9R /r.t˙/ <.rth> masc. 1. meaning, 2. wealth. Alg /.lg/ <.l.g> adj. . separate. AlI /.li/ <.lii> fem. . a female friend for a female. Alop /.lop/ <.lo.p> adj. . invisible. AlOkIk /.lu.kik/ <.lu.kii.k> adj. . devine. Avd=a /v.d.ßa/ <.v.d.ßa> fem. . misfortune. Avnvu& /v.n.vu~/ <.v.n.vu~> adj. . new. Avyv /.v.jv/ <.v.j.v> masc. .a limb. Avro0 /v.rod˙/ <.v.ro.dh> masc. .a hurdle. Avlokn /v.lo.kn/ <.v.lo.k.n> neut. . observation. Av+y /vß.j/ <.v.ßj> advb. . surely. Avsr /v.sr/ <.v.s.r> masc. an occasion. Avsan /v.san/ <.v.sa.n> neut. death. AvXa; /v.Æai/ <.v.Æa.i> fem. improper behavior.
  • 19. 19 AvXu& /v.Æu~/ <.v.Æu~> adj. up side down. Avaj /.vaÔ/ <.va.Ô> masc. .1.voice, 2. sound. Avarnvar /.var.n.var/ <.va.r.n.va.r> advb. .frequently. AvaXu& /.va.Æu~/ <.va.Æu~> neut. . the gums of teeth. Aivny /.vi.nj/ <.vi.n.j> masc. .immodesty. A=kt /.ßk.t/ <.ß.kt> adj. . weak. A=a&t /.ßa~n.t/ <.ßa~.t> adj. . troubled. A=u)0 /.ßud˙.d˙/ <.ßu.dhdh> adj. . impure. A=u- /.ßub˙/ <.ßu.bh> adj. inauspicious. Aqa6 /.ßaÎ/ <.s°°a.Î> masc. ninth month of the Vikram era. AsTy /.st.j/ <.s.tj> neut. .1. false, 2. untrue. Asr /.sr/ <.s.r> fem. .effect. Asl /.sl/ <.s.l> adj. .original. Ashkar /.sh.kar/ <.s.h.ka.r> masc. . non-co-operation. Ashay /.s.haj/ <.s.ha.j> adj. . helpless. As¬ /.sh.j/ <.s.hj> adj. . unbearable. As&~y /.s¯.k˙j/ <.s~.khj> adj. innumerable. As&toq /.sn.toß/ <.s~.to.s°> masc. . dissatisfaction. As&-v /.sm.b˙v/ <.s~.bh.v> adj. .impossible. As&mt /.sm.mt/ <.s~.m.t> adj. .disagreeing. As&SkarI /.sams.ka.ri/ <.s~.ska.rii> adj. . uncivilized. Asa)y /.sa.d˙j/ <.sa.dhj> adj. . incurable. Asur /.sur/ <.suu.r> masc. . demon. AiS9r /.st˙i.r/ <.sthi.r> adj. . unstable. ASpQ4 /.spß.ˇ/ <.sp.s°ˇ> adj. . vague. ASvC2 /.svc.c˙/ <.sv.cch> adj. . impure. ASvS9 /.svs.t˙/ <.sv.sth> adj. 1.restless 2. sick. ASva-aivk /.sva.b˙a.vi.k/ <.sva.bha.vi.k> adj. . unnatural. ASvIkar /.svi.kar/ <.svii.ka.r> masc. 1.rejection 2. denial. Aih&sk /.him.sk/ <.hi~.s.k> adj. . non-violent.
  • 20. 20 Aihsa /.him.sa/ <.hi~.sa> fem. . non- vilence. AhI& /.hi~/ <.hi~> advb. . here. AhI&ya& /.hi~.ja~/ <.hi~.ja~> advb. .same as AhI&. Ahoho /.ho.ho/ <.ho.ho> excl.. an exclamation expressing surprise. AX`am8u& /Æ.k˙am.¯u~/ <.Æ.kha.m.¯u~> adj. .1. unfavorable 2. disagreeable. AXgu& /Æ.gu~/ <.Æ.gu~> adj. .1.detached 2. uncommon. A&kur /˜.ku.r/ <~.ku.r> masc. .1. a sprout 2. an offshoot. A&g /˜.g/ <~.g> neut. . the body. A&grxk /˜.g.rk.ß.k/ <~.g.r.kß.k> masc. .a body-guard. A&gU5I /˜.gu.ˇ˙i/ <~.guu.ˇhii> fem. . a finger ring. A&gU5o /˜.gu.ˇ˙o/ <~.gu.ˇho> masc. .a thumb. A&g/ej /˜.g.reÔ/ <~.gre.Ô> masc. . an Englishman. A&g/e@ /˜.g.re.Ôi/ <~.gre.Ôii> fem. .English. A&t /n.t/ <~.t> masc. . an end. A&tr /n.tr/ <~.t.r> neut. . distance. A&tr /n.tr/ <~.nt.r> neut. .1.the heart 2. the mind. [an abstract notion that refers to one’s conscience.] A&itm /n.tim/ <~.ti.m> adj. . last. A&te /n.te/ <~.te> advb. .1. finally 2. at last. A&dr /n.dr/ <~.d.r> postp. .1. in 2. within 3. inside 4. into. A&daj /n.daÔ/ <~.da.Ô> masc. . an estimate. A&0a0U&0I /n.d˙a.d˙u~n.d˙i/ <~.dha.dhuu~.dhii> fem. . chaos. A&0apo /n.d˙a.po/ <~.dha.po> masc. . blindness. A&0arIyu& /n.d˙a.ri.ju~/ <~.dha.rii.ju~> neut. . the dark half of a lunar month. A&0aru& /n.d˙a.ru~/ <~.dha.ri.ju~> neut. . darkness. A&bo6o /m.bo.Îo/ <~.bo.Îo> masc. . a knot of plaited hair of a woman. A&= /mß/ <~.ß> masc. .a part, a section Aa Aa /a/ <a> proun.. this. Aakar /a.kar/ <a.ka.r> masc. .1. shape 2. form. Aaka= /a.kaß/ <a.ka.ß> neut. . sky. Aaka&xa /a.ka~.kßa/ <a.ka~.kßa> fem. . desire.
  • 21. 21 Aak<it /ak.ru.ti/ <a.kru≤.ti> fem. . a diagram. Aak/m8 /ak.r.m¯/ <a.kr.m.¯> neut. . an attack. Aaxep /ak.ßep/ <a.kße.p> masc. .accusation. Aa`re /a.k˙.re/ <a.kh.re> advb. .finally. Aa`lo /ak˙.lo/ <a.kh.lo> masc. . a bull. Aag /ag/ <a.g> fem. . fire. Aagbo4 /ag.boˇ/ <a.g.bo.ˇ> fem. a steamer. Aagm /a.gm/ <a.g.m> masc. religious texts of the Jains. Aaglu& /ag.lu~/ <a.g.lu~> adj. . previous. AagX /a.gÆ/ <a.g.Æ> advb. .1. in front of 2. in future. AagamI /a.ga.mi/ <a.ga.mii> advb. 1.ensuing 2. forthcoming. AagahI /a.ga.hi/ <a.gaa.hii> fem. .a prediction. Aaigyo /a.gi.jo/ <a.gi.jo> masc. . 1. a fire fly, 2. a glowworm, 3. a lightning bug. Aag/h /ag.r.h/ <a.gr.h> masc. .a strong request. Aa3at /a.g˙at/ <a.gha.t> masc. a shock. Aa3u& /a.g˙u~/ <a.ghu~> advb. . distant. Aacrkucr /a.cr ku.cr/ neut. .miscellaneous food or household articles. Aacar /a.cr/ <a.ca.r> masc. .behavior. AacayR /a.car.j/ <a.ca.rj> masc. 1. a principal 2. a spritual leader. (Honorific) Aa2u& /a.c˙u~/ <a.chu~> adj. dim. Aaj /aÔ/ <a.Ô> fem. today. Aa@@ /a.Ôi.Ôi/ <a.Ôii.Ôii> fem. an humble request. Aa@vn /a.Ôi.vn/ <a.Ôii.v.n> adj. . lifelong. Aaju baju /a.Ôu ba.Ôu/ <a.Ôu.ba.Ôu> adv. around. Aa4lu& /aˇ.lu~/ <a.ˇ.lu~> adj. .this much. Aa4o /a.ˇo/ <a.ˇo> masc. . flour. Aa5 /aˇ˙/ <a.ˇh> adj. . eight. Aa5m /a.ˇ˙m/ <a.ˇh.m> fem. . the eighth day of bright or dark half of the Hindu month. Aa68I /aÎ.¯i/ <a.Î.¯ii> fem. . a wooden round stood to shape rotali or puri . Aa6{aIs /a.Ît.ris/ <a.Î.trii.s> adj. . thirty eight. Aa6u& /a.Îu~/ <a.Îu~> adj. . crosswise. Aa6o=pa6o= /a.Îoß.pa.Îoß/ <a.Îo.ß.pa.Îo.ß> masc. neighbours.
  • 22. 22 Aa8vu& /a¯.vu~/ <a.¯.vu~> v.tr. .1. to fetch 2. to bring. Aa8u& /a.¯u~/ <a.¯u~> neut. . AaTma /at.ma/ <a.tma> masc. . soul. Aa9m8u& /a.t˙m.¯u~/ <a.th.m.¯u~> adj. . western. Aa9mvu& /a.t˙m.vu~/ <a.th.m.vu~> v.intr .to set. Aadr /a.dr/ <a.d.r> masc. .respect. Aad=R /a.dr.ß/ <a.d.rß> adj. . ideal. Aada=I=I /a.da.ßi.ßi/ <a.da.ßii.ßii> fem. . migraine. Aaid /a.di/ <a.di> adj. first. Aaid /a.di/ <a.di> advb. . etc. AaidvasI /a.di.va.si/ <a.di.va.sii> masc. .1. aboriginal, 2. tribal. Aadu& /a.du~/ <a.du~> neut. .green ginger. Aade= /a.deß/ <a.de.ß> masc. . an order. Aa0ar /a.d˙ar/ <a.dha.r> masc. .1. a support 2. an evidence. Aa0uink /a.d˙u.nik/ <a.dhu.ni.k> adj. . modern. Aa0e6 /a.d˙eÎ/ <a.dhe.Î> adj. . elderly. Aa)yaiTmk /a.d˙jat.mik/ <a.dhja.tmi.k> adj. spiritual. Aan&d /a.nn.d/ <a.n~.d> masc. .1. pleasure 2. joy. AanakanI /a.na.ka.ni/ <a.na.ka.ni> fem. 1.hesitation 2. indecision. Aap8e /ap.¯e/ <a.p.¯e> pron.. we (inclusive). Aapi]a /a.pt.ti/ <a.p.¯e> fem. . trouble. AapmeXe /ap.me.Æe/ <a.p.me.Æe> advb. . atomatically. Aaple /ap.le/ <a.p.le> fem. . give and take. AapvItI /ap.vi.ti/ <a.p.vii.tii> fem. .1. autobiography 2. good and bad events of life. Aapvu& /ap.vu~/ <a.p.vu~> v.tr. . to give. AapoAap /a.po.ap/ <a.po.a.p> advb. . automatically. Aafro /ap˙.ro/ <a.ph.ro> masc. . gas due to indigestion. AafUs /a.p˙u:s/ <a.phuu.s> fem. . a kind of mango. Aab£ /ab.ru/ <a.b.ruu> fem. .reputation. AabehUb /a.be.hub/ <a.be.hu.b> adj. . exact. Aabohva /a.bo.h.va/ <a.bo.h.va> fem. . climate. Aa- /ab˙/ <a.bh> neut. . sky.
  • 23. 23 Aa-ar /a.b˙ar/ <a.bha.r> masc. . thanks. Aa-as /a.b˙as/ <a.bha.s> masc. .illusion. Aa-Uq8 /a.b˙u.߯/ <a.bhu.s°.¯> neut. . ornaments. Aam /am/ <a.m> advb. .in this manner. Aamjnta /am.Ôn.ta/ <a.m.Ô.n.ta> adj. .1. the common people, 2. laymen. Aam8e /am.¯e/ <a.m.¯e> pron.. these persons. Aamtem /am.tem/ <a.m.te.m> advb. .here and there. Aam9I /am.t˙i/ <a.m.thii> advb. .from this side. AamdanI /am.da.ni/ <a.m.da.nii> fem. .income. AamNya /amn.ja/ <a.m.nja> fem. . respect for the elders. Aamr8 /a.m.r¯/ <a.m.r.¯> advb. . till the end of life. AamlI /am.li/ <a.m.lii> fem. .the tamrid tree. AamXvu& /a.mÆ.vu~/ <a.m.Æ.vu~> v.tr. . to twist together. Aam&{a8 /a.mn.tr¯/ <a.m.ntr.¯> neut. an invitation. Aam&{a8 pi{aka /a.mn.tr¯ p.tri.ka/ <a.m.ntr.¯ p.tri.ka> fem. .an invitation letter. Aayno /aj.no/ <a.j.no> masc. . a mirror. Aaya. /a.ja/ <a.ja> fem. . a maid servent. Aayat /a.jat/ fem. . import. Aayojn /a.jo.Ôn/ <a.ja.t> neut. . management. AartI /ar.ti/ <a.r.tii> fem. .1. a sacred lamp 2. a religious prayer sung with a sacred lamp. Aarpar /ar.par/ <a.r.pa.r> advb. . through one end to another. Aar&- /a.rm.b˙/ <a.r~.bh> masc. . beginning. Aaram /a.ram/ <a.ra.m> masc. . rest. AaroGy /a.rog.j/ <a.ro.gj> neut. . health. Aarop /a.rop/ <a.ro.p> masc. . accusation. Aalvu& /al.vu~/ <a.l.vu~> v.tr. .to give. Aavk /a.vk/ <a.v.k> fem. income. Aavkar /av.kar/ <a.v.ka.r> masc. . welcome. Aav6t /av.Ît/ <a.v.Î.t> fem. . a skill. Aav6vu& /a.vÎ.vu~/ <a.v.Î.vu~> v.exp.. to know.
  • 24. 24 Aav6u& /av.Îu~/ <a.v.Îu~> adj. . of this size. Aavrda /a.vr.da/ <a.v.r.da> fem. .life-span. Aavvu& /av.vu~/ <a.v.vu~> v.intr. to come. Aavu& /a.vu~/ <a.vu~> advb. .of this kind. Aaveg /a.veg/ <a.ve.g> masc. . an excitement. Aave= /a.veß/ <a.ve.ß> masc. . an emotional excitement. Aa=y /a.ßj/ <a.ß.j> masc. . an intention. Aa=re /aß.re/ <a.ß.re> advb. .1. about 2. approximately 3. roughly. Aa=ro /aß.ro/ <a.ß.ro> masc. .shelter. Aa=a /a.ßa/ <a.ßa> fem. . hope. Aa=a7 /a.ßaÎ˙/ <a.ßa.Îh> masc. . the nine month of the Hindu calendar. Aai=q /a.ßiß/ <a.ßi.s°> fem. . a blessing. Aai=vaRd /a.ßir.vad/ <a.ßi.rva.d> masc. a blessing. (honorific) Aa¾yR /aß.cr.j/ <a.ßc.rj> neut. . a surprise. Aa[am /aß.rm/ <a.ßr.m> masc. .a hermitage. Aa¼asn /aß.va.sn/ <a.ßva.ß.n> masc. . consolation. Aasn /a.sn/ <a.s.n> neut. . a seat (formal). Aas pas /as.pas/ <a.s.pa.s> advb. around. Aasman /as.man/ <a.s.ma.n> neut. . the sky. AaiStk /as.ti.k/ <a.sti.k> adj. . theistic. Aaso /a.so/ <a.so> masc. . the last month of Hindu calander. AaS9a /as.t˙a/ <a.stha> fem. .1. faith 2. devotion. AaSvad /as.va.d/ <a.sva.d> masc. .a tasting. Aahaha /a.ha.ha/ <a.ha.ha> inter.. an exclamation signifying surprise. Aahar /a.har/ <a.ha.r> masc. . food (formal). AahIr /a.hir/ <a.hii.r> masc. . a shepherd community. Aahuit /a.hu.ti/ <a.huu.ti> fem. .1. an offering 2. a sacrifice. AaXs /a.Æs/ <a.Æ.s> fem. .laziness. AaXo4vu& /a.Æoˇ.vu~/ <a.Æo.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. . to wallow. Aa&k /a~k/ <a~.k> masc. . tables of multiplications. Aa&k6a=aS{a /a~k.Îa.ßaß.tr/ <a~.k.Îa.ßa.str> neut. . statistics.
  • 25. 25 Aa&k6o /a~k.Îo/ <a~.k.Îo> masc. .1. a number 2. a number-sign. Aa&kvu& /a~k.vu~/ <a~.k.vu~> v.tr. . to estimate a price. Aa&` /a~k˙/ <a~.kh> fem. . an eye. Aa&g8u& /a~g.¯u~/ <a~.g.¯u~> neut. . open space in front of a house. Aa&gXIyat /a~.g.Æi.jat/ <a~.g.Æi.ja.t> adj. . a child of the former husband of a remarried woman. Aa&ckvu& /a~.ck.vu~/ <a~.c.k.vu~> v.tr. . to snatch forcfully. Aa&ckI /a~c.ki/ <a~.c.kii> fem. .hiccup. Aa&cko /a~c.ko/ <a~.c.ko> masc. . a jerk. Aa&jvu& /a~Ô.vu~/ <a~.Ô.vu~> v.tr. . to anoint eyes with collyrium. Aa&tr6u& /a~.tr.Îu~/ <a~.t.r.Îu~> neut. . intestine. Aa&trraiQ4^y /a~n.tr. raß.ˇri.ja/ <a~.t.r.ra.s°ˇri.j> adj. . international. Aa&trvu& /a~.tr.vu~/ <a~.t.r.vu~> v.tr. .to block. Aa&trIk /a~t.rik/ <a~.t.rii.k> adj. . internal. Aa&doln /a~n.do.ln/ <a~.do.l.n> neut. . agitation. Aa&08 /a~.d˙¯/ <a~.dh.¯> neut. . water boild for cooking food. Aa&bo /a~.bo/ <a~.bo> masc. . a mango tree. Aa&su& u/a~.su~/ <a~.su~> neut. . a tear. ; ;C2vu& /ic.c˙.vu~/ <i.cch.vu~> v.tr. . to wish. ;C2a /ic.c˙a/ <i.ccha> fem. .1. desire 2. wish. ;jner /iÔ.ner/ <i.Ô.ne.r> masc. . an engineer. ;jaro /i.Ôa.ro/ <i.Ôa.ro> masc. .monopoly. ;jjt /iÔ.Ôt/ <i.ÔÔ.t> fem. .1. reputation 2. a woman’s chasity. ;55oter /iˇ˙.ˇ˙o.ter/ <i.ˇhˇho.te.r> adj. . seventy eight. ;5yasI /i.ˇ˙ja.si/ <i.ˇhja.sii> adj. . eighty eight. ;tr /i.tr/ <i.t.r> adj. . another. ;ithas /i.ti.has/ <i.ti.ha.s> masc. .history. ;nam /i.nam/ <i.na.m> neut. .1. a gift 2. a present 3. a prize. ;mam /i:.mam/ <i.ma.m> masc. . the chief prise of Muslims (honorific). ;mart /i:.ma.rt/ <i.ma.r.t> fem. . a big building.
  • 26. 26 ;yX /i:.jÆ/ <i.j.Æ> fem. . a kind of worm. ;laj /i:.laÔ/ <i.la.Ô> masc. .a cure. ;laycI /i:.la.j.ci/ <i.la.j.cii> fem. .cardamom. ;+k /i:ß.k/ <i.ßk> masc. . love. ;iSptal /i:s.pi.tal/ <i.spi.ta.l> fem. . a hospital. ;Slam /is.lam/ <i.sla.m> masc. . Islam. ;N±Iy /in.dri.j/ <i.ndrii.j> fem. . a sense. : :ja /iŠ.Ôa/ <ii.Ôa> fem. .injury. :6lI /iŠÎ.li/ <ii.Î.lii> fem. . a South Indian food dish. :d /iŠd/ <ii.d> fem. . a festival of Muslims. :d6u& /iŠd.Îu~/ <ii.d.Îu~> neut. . a food item made out of fermented flour. :=an /iŠ.ßan/ <ii.ßa.n> fem. .north-east. :¼r /iŠß.vr/ <ii.ßv.r> masc. .god. :sa: /iŠ.sa.iŠ/ <ii.sa.ii> masc. a Christian. :&4 /iŠˇ/ <ii~.ˇ> fem. .a brick. :&6u& /i~Š.¯du~/ <ii~.Îu~> neut. . an egg. w wkr6o /u.kr.Îo/ <u.k.r.Îo> masc. .a dunghill. wkXvu& /u.kÆ.vu~/ <u.k.Æ.vu~> v.intr. . to boil. wkXa4 /uk.Æaˇ/ <u.k.Æa.ˇ> masc. . uneasiness and perspiration caused by heat. wkaXvu& /u.kaÆ.vu~/ <u.ka.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to make something boiled. wkel /u.kel/ <u.ke.l> masc. . a solution. wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l.vu~> v.tr. .to read (in the sense of deciphering). wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l.vu~> v.tr. .to solve. wkelvu& /u.kel.vu~/ <u.ke.l.vu~> v.tr. . to untwined. w`a8u& /u.k˙a.¯u~/ <u.kha.¯u~> neut. . a riddle. wgamvu& /u.gam.vu~/ <u.ga.m.vu~> v.tr. . to raise something to strike. w3ra8I /ug˙.ra.¯i/ <u.g.ra.¯ii> fem. . collection of money due from. w3ravvu&& /ug˙.rav.vu~/ <u.gh.ra.v.vu~> v.tr. .to collect money by contribution. wca4 /u.caˇ/ <u.ca.ˇ> masc. . restlessness. wcapt /u.ca.pt/ <u.ca.p.t> fem. . misappropriation.
  • 27. 27 wCcar /uc.car/ <u.cca.r> masc. . pronunciation. wCcarvu& /u.ccar.vu~/ <u.cca.r.vu~> v.tr. . to pronounce. wC2vas /uc.c˙.vas/ <u.cch.va.s> masc. . exhaling. w2Xvu& /u.c˙Æ.vu~/ <u.ch.Æ.vu~> v.intr. 1. to jump, 2. to be tossed. w2aXvu& /u.c˙aÆ.vu~/ <u.cha.Æ.vu~> v.tr. . to toss up. w2ervu& /u.c˙er.vu~/ <u.che.r.vu~> v.tr. . to raise. wjagro /u.Ôag.ro/ <u.Ôa.g.ro> masc. . abstinence from sleep. wja8I /u.Ôa.¯i/ <u.Ôa.¯ii> fem. a picnic. wjj6 /uÔ.ÔÎ/ <u.ÔÔ.Î> adj. barren (land) w5m8u& /u.ˇ˙m.¯u~/ <u.ˇh.m.¯u~> neut. a ritual performed after death. w5vu& /uˇ˙.vu~/ <u.ˇh.vu~> v.intr. . to get up. w5a6vu& /u.ˇ˙aÎ.vu~/ <u.ˇha.Î.vu~> v.tr. . to wake up. w5a&trI /u.ˇ˙a~n.t.ri/ <u.ˇha~.t.rii> fem. . a theft. w6aw /u.Îa.u/ <u.Îa.u> adj. . extravagant. w6avvu& /u.Îav.vu~/ <u.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. . to make something fly. w6avvu& /u.Îav.vu~/ <u.Îa.v.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. . to use up. wtarvu& /u.tar.vu~/ <u.ta.r.vu~> v.tr. . to unload. See wtrvu& wtarvu& /u.tar.vu~/ <u.ta.r.vu~> v.tr. .to make a copy. wtaru& /u.ta.ru~/ <u.ta.ru~> masc. . a passenger. wtaro /u.ta.ro/ <u.ta.ro> masc. .1. an inn. 2. a lodging house. wtaro /u.ta.ro/ <u.ta.ro> masc. .1. a copy. 2. a transcript. wtavX /u.ta.vÆ/ <u.ta.v.Æ> fem. . haste. w]am /ut.tm/ <u.tt.m> adj. . the best. w]ar /ut.tr/ <u.tt.r> masc. . an answer. w]ar /ut.tr/ <u.tt.r> masc. the North. w]aejk /ut.te.Ôk/ adj. . stimulating. wTpi]a /ut.pt.ti/ <u.tte.Ô.k> fem. . production. wTpadk /ut.pa.dk/ <u.tpa.d.k> masc. 1. a producer. 2. a manufacturer. wTpadn /ut.pa.dn/ <u.tpa.d.n> neut. . an act of producing. wTsv /ut.sv/ <u.ts.v> masc. . a festival.
  • 28. 28 wTsah /ut.sah/ <u.tsa.h> masc. .1. enthusiasm. 2. zeal. w9lavvu& /ut˙.lav.vu~/ <u.th.la.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to depose. 2. to over turn. See w9lvu& wdar /u.dar/ <u.da.r> adj. . generous. wdas /u.das/ <u.da.s> adj. .1.unconcerned. 2. dejected. wdahr8 /u.da.h.r¯/ <u.da.h.r.¯> neut. 1. an example. 2. an illustration. wd3a4n /ud.g˙a.ˇn/ <u.d.gha.ˇ.n> neut. . an inauguration. w¥e= /ud.de.ß/ <u.dde.ß> masc. . an intention. w)0ar /ud˙.d˙a.r/ <u.dhdha.r> masc. . salvation. wd-v /ud.b˙.v/ <u.d.bh.v> masc. .1. birth. 2. creation. wdyog /ud.jo.g/ <u.djo.g> masc. .1. a vocation. 2. an industry. w0rs /ud˙.rs/ <u.dh.r.s> fem. . cough. w0ar /u.d˙ar/ <u.da.r> adj. . given or taken on credit. wnaXu& /u.na.Æu~/ <u.na.Æu~> adj. . pertaining to summer. wnaXo /u.na.Æo/ <u.na.Æo> masc. . summer. wpkar /up.kar/ <u.p.ka.r> masc. . an obligation. wpcar /up.car/ <u.p.ca.r> masc. .1. a remedy. 2. cure. w pjvu& /u.pÔ.vu~/ <u.p.Ô.vu~> v.intr. .to grow wpjavvu& /up.Ôav.vu~/ <u.p.Ôa.v.vu~> v.tr. to reproduce. wpde= /up.deß/ <u.p.de.ß> masc. . preaching. wpngr /up.n.gr/ <u.p.n.g.r> neut. . a suburb. wpnam /up.nam/ <u.p.na.m> neut. . a nickname. wpyog /up.jog/ <u.p.jo.g> masc. . use. wpr /u.pr/ <u.p.r> postp. 1. above. 2. on. 3. over something. wpra&t /up.ra~t/ <u.p.ra~.t> advb. .1. additionally. 2. besides. wprI /up.ri/ <u.p.rii> masc. . a superior officier. wpvas /up.vas/ <u.p.va.s> masc. . a fasting. wps&har /up.sam.har/ <u.p.s~.ha.r> masc. a summary. wpa6 /u.paÎ/ <u.pa.Î> masc. . withdrawal of money. wpa6vu& /u.paÎ.vu~/ <u.pa.Î.vu~> v.tr. . to lift. wpay /u.paj/ <u.pa.j> masc. . a cure.
  • 29. 29 wmda /um.da/ adj. . <u.m.da> 1. best. 2. excellent. wmr /u.mr/ <u.m.r> fem. . age. wmXko /u.mÆ.ko/ <u.m.Æ.ko> masc. . an outburst of warm feeling. wm&g /u.m˜.g/ <u.m~.g> masc. zeal. wmervu& /u.mer.vu~/ <u.me.r.vu~> v.tr. .to add. wmero /u.me.ro/ <u.me.ro> masc. . an addition. wl4avvu& /ul.ˇav.vu~/ <u.l.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. . to turn up side down. wlecvu& /u.lec.vu~/ <u.le.c.vu~> v.tr. . to raise up water. wLle` /ul.lek˙/ <u.lle.kh.vu~> masc. . a mention. w+kervu& /uß.ker.vu~/ <u.ßke.r.vu~> v.tr. . to instigate. w&dr /un.dr/ masc. .<u~.d.r> 1. a rat. 2. a mouse. w&bro /um.b.ro/ <u~.b.ro> masc. the threshold of a door. W WkXvu& /u.k .vu~/ <uu.k.Æ.vu~> v.intr. . to boil. WkaXvu& /u.ka.Æ.vu~/ <u.ka.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to boil. W`6vu& /u.k˙Î.vu~/ <uu.kh.Î.vu~> v.intr. . to be ripped off. W`a6vu& /u.k˙aÎ.vu~/ <uu.k˙a.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to tear off, 2. to dismember. Wgrvu& /u.gr.vu~/ <uu.g.r.vu~> v.intr. . to escape. Wgvu& /ug.vu~/ <uu.g.vu~> v.intr. . to grow. Wgvu& /ug.vu~/ <uu.g.vu~> v.intr. . to rise. Wckvu& /u.ck.vu~/ <uu.c.k.vu~> v.tr. .1. to life. 2. to raise. W2rvu& /u.c˙r.vu~/ <uu.ch.r.vu~> v.intr. . to be brought up. Wjvvu& /u.Ôv.vu~/ <uu.Ô.v.vu~> v.tra. .to celebrate. WjXu& /uÔ.Æu~/ <uu.Ô.Æu~> adj. .1. bright. 2. shining. W5vu& /uˇ˙.vu~/ <uu.ˇh.vu~> v.intr. . to stand up. W6vu& /uÎ.vu~/ <uu.Î.vu~> v.intr. . to fly. W8p /u.¯p/ <uu.¯.p> fem. .a deficiency. Wtrvu& /u.tr.vu~/ <uu.t.r.vu~> v.intr. . to climb down. W9lvu& /u.t˙l.vu~/ <uu.th.l.vu~> v.intr. . to be up-side-down. W9lo /u.t˙.lo/ <uu.th.lo> masc. .1. an upset. 2. an overturning.
  • 30. 30 W0; /u.d˙.i/ <uu.dh.ii> fem. . a white ant. Wn /un/ <uu.n> neut. . wool. Wpj /u.pÔ/ <uu.p.Ô> fem. .1. a farm product. 2. an income. Wp6vu& /u.pÎ.vu~/ <uu.p.Î.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be lifted. 2. to set out a journey. W-aW- /u.b˙a.ub˙/ <uu.bha.uu.bh> advb. hurriedly. W-u& /u.b˙u~/ <uu.bhu~> adj. . standing upright. Wl4I /ul.ti/ <uu.l.ˇii> fem. . vomiting. Wl4u& /ul.ˇu~/ <uu.l.ˇu~> adj. .1. opposite. 2. contrary. WlXvu& /u.lÆ.vu~/ <uu.l.Æ.vu~> v.intr. . to be bumped. Whapoh /u.ha.poh/ <uu.ha.po.h> masc. . uproar. W&3 /u~˜.g/ <uu~.gh> fem. . sleep. W&ckvu& /u~.ck.vu~/ <uu.c.k.vu~> v.tr. .to lift up. W&ca; /u~.cai/ <uu~.ca.ii> fem. . height. W&cu& /u~.cu~/ <uu~.cu~> adj. . high. W&4 /u~ˇ/ <uu~.ˇ> neut. . a camel.. W&6a; /un.Îa.i/ <uu~.Îa.ii> fem. . depth. W&6u& /u~¯.Îu~/ <uu~.Îu~> adj. . deep. W&0Iyu& /u~n.d˙i.ju~/ <uu~.dhii.ju~> neut. . a food made of vegetables, various types of beans, roots and etc. Popular in South Gujarat. W&0u& /u~n.d˙u~/ <uu.dhu~> adj. . bottom upward. ¢ ¢ju /ru.Ôu/ adj. . <ru≤.Ôu> 1.soft. 2. gentle. ¢8 /ru¯/ <ru≤.¯> neut. . a debt. ¢tu /ru.tu/ <ru≤.tu> fem. . a season. ¢iq /ru.ßi/ <ru≤.s°i> masc. . a sage. Ae Ae /e/ <e> adj. .that. Aek /ek/ <e.k> adj. .one.1. Aek4a8u& /ek.ˇa.¯u~/ <e.k.ˇa.¯u~> neut. . a kind of fasting in which a person eats only once a day. Aek6o /ek.Îo/ <e.k.Îo> masc. . the sign of number 1. Aekta /ek.ta/ <e.k.ta> fem. . unity. AektaXIs /ek.ta.Æis/ <e.k.ta.Æi.s> adj. . forty one. Aek{aIs /e.k.tris/ <e.k.trii.s> adj. . thirty one. Aekdm /ek.dm/ <e.k.d.m> advb. . at once.
  • 31. 31 Aek0aru& /ek.d˙a.ru~/ <e.k.dha.ru~> adj. .1. constant. 2. incessant. AekpxI /ek.p.kßi/ <e.k.p.kßii> adj. . one sided. AekpiTn]v /ek.pt.nit.v/ <e.k.p.tni.ttv> neut. monogamy. Aekm /e.km/ <e.k.m> fem. . fist day of bright or dark half of Hindu month. Aekma{a /ek.mat.r/ <e.k.ma.tr> adj. . the only one of a type. Aekmek /ek.mek/ <e.k.me.k> advb. . mutually. Aekrag /ek.rag/ masc. . <e.k.ra.g> 1. unity. 2. harmony. Aek£p /ek.rup/ <e.k.ruu.p> adj. . of similar form. Aekl dokl /e.kl do.kl/ <e.k.l.do.k.l> adj. . lonely. Aeklpe4u& /e.kl.pe.ˇu~/ <e.k.l./pe.ˇu~> adj. . selfish. Aeklvayu& /e.kl.va.ju~/ <e.k.l.va.ju~> adj. . lonely. Aekvgu& /ek.v.gu~/ <e.k.v.gu~> adj. . all together. Aekvcn /ek.v.cn/ <e.k.v.c.n> neut. . singular. AekvIs /ek.vis/ <e.k.vi.s> adj. . twenty one. Aeks5 /ek.sˇ˙/ <e.k.vi.s> adj. . sixty one. Aeksr`u& /ek.sr.k˙u~/ <e.k.s.r.khu~> adj. . uniform. Aek&dr /ekn.dr/ <e.k~.d.r> advb. . totally. AekaAek /e.ka.ek/ <e.ka.e.k> advb. . suddenly. Aeka8u& /e.ka.¯u~/ <e.ka.¯u~> adj. . ninety one. Aekad=I /e.ka.d.ßi/ <e.ka.d.ßii> fem. . the eleventh day of dark or bright half of a Hindu month. Aeka=I /e.ka.ßi/ <e.ka.ßii> adj. . eighty one. Aeka&kI /e.ka~.ki/ <e.ka~.kii> adj. . one act play. Aeka&t /e.ka~n.t/ <e.ka~.t> neut. . lonely. AekI sa9e /e.ki sa.t˙e/ <e.kii.sa.the> advb. . all at atime. Aekek /ek.kek/ <e.ke.k> advb. . one by one. Aekotr /e.ko.tr/ <e.ko.t.r> adj. . seventy one. Aekya=I /e.kja.ßi/ <e.kja.ßi> adj. . eighty one. Ae4le /eˇ.le/ <e.ˇ.le> advb. . therefore. Ae5u& /´.ˇ˙u~/ <e.thu~> neut. . the left over food.
  • 32. 32 Ae6I /e.Îi/ <e.Îii> fem. . heel. AelcI /el.ci/ <e.l.cii> fem. . cardamom. AelcI /el.ci/ <e.l.cii> masc. . an ambassador. (honorific) Aev6u& /ev.Îu~/ <e.v.Îu~> advb. . of that size. Aevu& /e.vu~/ <e.vu~> advb. . of that manner. Aevama& /e.va.ma~/ <e.va.ma~> advb. . in the mean time. Ae= /´ß/ <e.ß> masc. .enjoyment. . AE AEravt /i.ra.vt/ <i.ra.v.t> masc. . Indra’s elephant (with seven trunks). AE¼yR /i.ßv.rj/ <i.ßv.rj> neut. godliness. Ao Aog8calIs /o.g¯.ca.lis/ <o.g.¯.ca.lii.s> adj. . thirty nine. Aog8{aIs /o.g¯.tris/ <o.g.¯.tri.s> adj. .twenty nine. Aog8pcas /o.g¯.p.cas/ <o.g.¯.p›.ca.s> adj. .forty nine. Aog8sa;5 /o.g¯. sa.iˇ˙/ <o.g.¯.sa.i.ˇh> adj. .fifty nine. Aog*yaAe&=I./og.¯ja. ´~ßi/ <o.g.¯ja.e.ßii> adj. seventy nine. Aog8Is /og.¯is/ <o.g.¯i.s> adj. .nineteen. AoXgvu& /ø.gÆ.vu~/ <o.g.Æ.vu~> v.intr ..to melt. AoicNtu& /ø.cin.tu~/ <o.ci.ntu~> advb. . suddenly. AoC2v /oc.c˙v/ <o.cch.v> masc. . a festival. Ao2abolu& /o.c˙a.bo.lu~/ <o.cha.bo.lu~> adj. . reserved. Ao2u& /o.c˙u~/ <o.chu~> adj. . less than necessary. Aojar /o.Ôar/ <o.Ôa.r> neut. . an instrument. Ao4 /oˇ/ <o.ˇ> masc. . an ebb. Ao4lo /oˇ.lo/ <o.ˇ.lo> masc. . a raised platform adjoining the outer wall of a building. Ao4vu& /oˇ.vu~/ <o.ˇ.vu~> v.tran.. to hem. Ao7vu& /oÎ˙.vu~/ <o.Îh.vu~> v.tr. .1. to wrap over the body. 2. to wear a sari. Aor6o /or.Îo/ <o.r.Îo> masc. . a room. Aorvu& /or.vu~/ <o.r.vu~> v.tr. . to sow seeds. AorI /o.ri/ <o.rii> fem. .1. small-pox 2. measles. Aolvvu& /o.lv.vu~/ <o.l.v.vu~> v.tr. . to extinguish.
  • 33. 33 AosrI /os.ri/ <o.s.rii> fem. . the front open part of a house. Ao=Iku& /o.ßi.ku~/ <o.ßii.ku~> neut. . a pillow. AoX` /o.Æk˙/ <o.Æ.kh> fem. . idenitity. AoXvu& /oÆ.vu~/ <o.Æ.vu~> v.tr. . to comb (hair). AoX&gvu& /o.Ƙ.g.vu~/ <o.Æ~.g.vu~> v.tr. . to cross over. AO AOicTy /u.ci.tj/ <au.ci.tj> adj. . appropriateness. AOdICy /u.diŠ.cj/ <u.dii.cj> masc. . a sub-caste of Brahmin AOpcarRIk /up.ca.rik/ <u.p.ca.rii.k> adj. . formal. AOq0 /u.ßd˙/ <u.s°.dh> neut. a medicine. Aodyoigk /u.djo.gik/ <u.djo.gi.k> adj. . industial. K kkko /kk.ko/ <k.kko> masc. . alphabet. kckc /kc. kc/ <k.c.k.c> fem. .1. a boring talk. 2. a quarrel. kc6vu& /k.cÎ.vu~/ <k.c.Î.vu~> v.tr. to trample. kcrape4I /kc.ra pe.ˇi/ <k.c.ra.pe.ˇii> fem. a dust bin. kcro /kc.ro/ <k.c.ro> masc. . garbage. kcva4 /kc.vaˇ/ <k.c.va.ˇ> masc. .1. grumbling. 2. dissatisfaction. kca= /k.caß/ <k.ca.ß> fem. 1.unripenness. 2. imperfection. 3. deficiency. kcu&br /k.cum.br/ <k.cu~,b.r> neut. raw vegetables cut into pieces. kcorI /k.co.ri/ <k.co.rii> fem. . a type of food. kijya`or /k.Ôi.ja.k˙or/ <k.Ôi.ja.kho.r> adj. quarrelsome. kjo6u& /k.Ôo.Îu~/ <k.Ôo.Îu~> neut. . an unfit match. k4ko /kˇ.ko/ <k.ˇ.ko> masc. . a piece. k4ok4I /k.ˇo.k.ˇi/ <k.ˇo.k.ˇii> fem. . a crisis. k4oro /k.ˇo.ro/ <k.ˇo.ro> masc. . a bowl. k58 /k.ˇ˙¯/ <k.ˇh.¯> adj. . hard. k5In /k.ˇ˙in/ <k.ˇhii.n> adj. . difficult. ki5yaro /k.ˇ˙i.ja.ro/ <k.ˇhi.ja.ro> masc. .a woodcutter. k5e6o /k.ˇ˙e.Îo/ <k.ˇhe.Îo> masc. . a railing.
  • 34. 34 k5or /k.ˇ˙or/ <k.ˇho.r> adj. . harsh. k5oX /k.ˇ˙oÆ/ <k.ˇho.Æ> neut. . pulses. k6ko /kÎ.ko/ <k.Î.ko> masc. .1.a piece 2. penniless. k6vu& /kÎ.vu~/ <k.Î.vu~> adj. . bitter in taste. k6akU4 /k.Îa.kuˇ/ <k.Îa.kuu.ˇ> fem. . unnecessary botheration. k6Iyo /k.Îi.jo/ <k.Îii.jo> masc. .1. a mason 2. a brick-layer k6I /k.Îi/ <k.Îii> fem. .1. a hook 2. an earring. k6u& /k.Îu~/ <k.Îu~> neut. . an armlet. k7&gu& /k.Î˙˜.gu/ <k.Îh~.gu~> adj. .1. clumsy 2. awkward in shape. k7I /k.Î˙i/ <k.Îhii> fem. .a food item. k8 /k¯/ <k.¯> masc. a grain. k8svu& /k.¯s.vu~/ <k.¯.s.vu~> v.intr. . to groan. k9Xvu& /k.t˙Æ.vu~/ <k.th.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .to deteriorate. k9a /k.t˙a/ <k.tha> fem. . a stroy. k9akar /k.t˙a.kar/ <k.tha.ka.r> masc. . a story teller. kd /kd/ <k.d> neut. . size. kd£pu& /kd.ru.pu~/ <k.d.ruu.pu~> adj. . ugly. kdavr /k.da.vr/ <k.da.v.r> adj. .huge. kn6gt /k.nÎ.gt/ <k.n.Î.g.t> fem. . harassment. kNya /kn.ja/ <k.nja> fem. .1. an unmarried girl. 2. Virgo. kp4 /k.pˇ/ <k.p.ˇ> neut. . deceit. kp6a&l]aa& /kp.Îa~.lt.ta~/ <k.p.Îa~.l.tta~> neut. pl.. clothes. kp6u& /kp.Îu~/ <k.p.Îu~> neut. . cloth. kpru& /kp.ru~/ <k.p.ru~> adj. . tough. kpaX /k.pa / <k.pa.Æ> neut. . the forehead. kpas /k.pas/ <k.pa.s> masc. . a cotton plant. kpoX /k.poÆ/ <k.po.Æ> adj. . a sub caste in Bania community. kf /kp˙/ <k.ph> masc. .cough. kb@yat /k.b.Ôi.jat/ <k.b.Ôii.ja.t> masc. constipation. kbjo /kb.Ôo/ <k.b.Ôo> masc. . a blouse. kbr /k.br/ <k.b.r> fem. . a grave. kba4 /k.baˇ/ neut. . a cup-board.
  • 35. 35 kbUtr /k.bu.tr/ <k.buu.t.r> neut. . a pigeon. kmnsIb /km.n.sib/ <k.m.n.sii.b> adj. . unfortunate. kmr /k.mr/ <k.m.r> fem. . a waist. kmX /k.mÆ/ <k.m.Æ> neut. . a lotus. kmXo /km.Æo/ <k.m.Æo> masc. . jaundice. kma; /k.ma.i/ <k.ma.ii> fem. . earnings. kmavu& /l.ma.vu~/ <k.ma.vu~> v.intr. . to earn. kmurt /k.mu.rt/ <k.mu.r.t> neut. inauspicious time or hour. kmot /k.mot/ <k.mo.t> neut. . unnatural death. kmosm /k.mo.sm/ <k.mo.s.m> fem. .1. bad weather. 2. untimely. krksr /kr.k.sr/ <k.r.k.s.r> fem. . economy. krgrvu& /kr.gr.vu~/ <k.r.g.r.vu~> v.intr. . to request humbly. krclo /k.rc.lo/ <k.r.c.lo> masc. . a crab. krj /k.rÔ/ <k.r.Ô> neut. . a debt. krmavu& /kr.ma.vu~/ <k.r.ma.vu~> v.intr..to wither. krvu& /kr.vu~/ <k.r.vu~> v.tr. . to do. kra /k.ra/ <k.ra> masc. pl..1. hail- stones. krar /k.rar/ <k.ra.r> masc. . a written agreement. kirya8u& /k.ri.ja.¯u~/ <k.ri.ja.¯u~> neut. . grocery. kiryavr /k.ri.ja.vr/ <k.ri.ja.v.r> neut. . a bride’s father’s gift to bridegroom and his relatives. kru8 /k.ru¯/ <k.ru.¯> adj. .1. pathetic 2. tragic. kru8a /k.ru.¯a/ <k.ru.¯a> fem. . kindness. k£p /k.rup/ <k.ruu.p> adj. . ugly. kro6 /k.roÎ/ <k.ro.Î> adj. . ten millions. kro6 /k.roÎ/ <k.ro.Î> fem. . a spine. kro6rjju /k.roÎ.rÔ.Ôu/ <k.ro.Î.r.ÔÔu> fem. . the spinal cord. kroiXyo /k.ro.Æi.jo/ <k.ro.Æi.jo> masc. . a spider. kl&k /k.lnk/ <k.l~.k> neut. .1. a blot 2. a blemish. kla /k.la/ <k.la> fem. . art. klak /k.lak/ <k.la.k> masc. . an hour. klakar /k.la.kar/ <k.la.ka.r> masc. . an artist.
  • 36. 36 kLpna /kl.p.na/ <k.lp.na> fem. . imagination. kLpvu& /kl.p.vu~/ <k.lp.vu~> v.tr. . to imagine. kLya8 /kl.ja.¯/ <k.lja.¯> neut. . well-being. kviy{aI /k.v.ji.tri/ <k.vji.tri> fem. .a female poet. kiv /k.vi/ masc. . <k.vi> a male poet. k=u& /k.ßu~/ <k.ßu~> adj. . whatever thing. k=u&k /k.ßu~k/ <k.ßu~.k> adj. . something. ksrt /ks.rt/ <k.s.r.t> fem. . an exercise. ksa; /k.sai/ <k.sa.ii> masc. . a butcher. kso4I /k.so.ˇi/ <k.so.ˇii> fem. . a test. khe8 /k.he¯/ <k.he.¯> neut. . a message. khevt /k.he.vt/ <k.he.v.t> fem. . a proverb. khevu& /k.he.vu~/ <k.he.vu~> v.tr. . to say. k¬agru& /kh.ja.g.ru~/ <k.hja.g.ru~> adj. . obedient. kXtr /kÆ.tr/ <k.Æ.t.r> neut. . a kind of body pain. kXI /k.Æi/ <k.Æii> fem. . a bud. k;& /k.i~/ <k.ii~> advb. .1. where? 2. some. k;&k /k.i~k/ <k.ii~.k> advb. . something. k&kav4I /kn.ka.vaˇi/ <k~.ka.v.ˇii> fem. . a small bowl to keep k&ku> k&ku /kn.ku/ <k~.ku> neut. . a red powder/ paste used in rituals and certain social customs such as putting bindi on the forehead. k&kotrI /k.nko.t.ri/ <k~.ko.t.rii> fem. . an invitation letter. k&jUs /kn.Ôus/ <k~.Ôu.s> adj. . miserly. k&4aXvu& /kn.ˇaÆ.vu~/ <k~.ˇa.Æ.vu~> v.intr. . to be bored. k&4aXo /kn.ˇa.Æo/ <k~.ˇa.Æo> masc. . medium. k&5 /k¯t˙/ <k~.ˇh> masc. .1. the throat 2. a vocal tune. k&5I /k¯.ˇ˙i/ <k~.ˇhii> fem. . a kind of necklace. k&do; /kn.doi/ masc. . a confectioner. k&doro /kn.do.ro/ <k~.do.ro> masc. . a waist-band. k&parI /km.pa.ri/ <k~.pa.rii> fem. . a shivering. k&pvu& /kmp.vu~/ <k~.p.vu~> v.intr. .1. to shiver 2. to tremble. k&sar /km.sar/ <k~.sa.r> masc. .a sweet.
  • 37. 37 kak6I /kak.Îi/ <ka.k.Îii> fem. . cucumber. kaka /ka.ka/ <ka.ka> masc. hon.. paternal uncle. kaka@ /ka.ka.Ôi/ <ka.ka.Ôii> masc. . a brother of the father-in-law. kakI /ka.ki/ <ka.kii> fem. . a paternal uncle’s wife. kakI@ /ka.ki.Ôi/ <ka.ka.Ôii> fem. . the wife of the brother of the father-in-law. kag6o /kag.Îo/ <ka.g.Îo> masc. . a crow. kagX /ka.gÆ/ <ka.g.Æ> masc. .1. paper 2. a letter. kagaroX /ka.ga.roÆ/ <ka.ga.ro.Æ> fem. . rowdism. kac /kac/ <ka.c> masc. .1. glass 2. mirror. kacbo /kac.bo/ <ka.c.bo> masc. . a tortoise. kaic&6o /ka.ci¯.Îo/ <ka.c~.Îo> masc. . a chameleon. kacu& /ka.cu~/ <ka.cu~> adj. .1.unripe 2. raw. kajX /ka.ÔÆ/ <ka.Ô.Æ> neut. .eye-salve. kaju /ka.Ôu/ <ka.Ôu> neut. . a cashew-nut. ka4 /kaˇ/ <ka.ˇ> masc. . rust. ka7vu& /kaÎ˙.vu~/ <ka.Îh.vu~> v.tr. . to take out. ka8u& /ka.¯u~/ <ka.¯u~> adj. .1. a hole, 2. one-eyed. katr /ka.tr/ <ka.t.r> fem. . scissors. katrvu& /ka.tr.vu~/ <ka.t.r.vu~> v.tr. . to cut with scissors. katrI /kat.ri/ <ka.t.rii> fem. .a wafer- thin slice. kadv /ka.dv/ <ka.d.v> masc. . mud. kan /kan/ <ka.n> masc. . an ear. kap /kap/ <ka.n> masc. . reduction. kap6 /ka.pÎ/ <ka.p.Î> neut. . cloth. kaplI /kap.li/ <ka.p.lii> fem. . a clipping of a paper. kapvu& /kap.vu~/ <ka.p.vu~> v.tr. . to cut. kapo /ka.po/ <ka.po> masc. .1.a cut. 2 a mark made by cutting. kabr /ka.br/ <ka.b.r> neut. . a kind of bird. kabU /ka.bu/ <ka.buu> masc. . control. kam /kam/ <ka.m> neut. . work kam /kam/ <ka.m> masc. . sexual desire. kamclaw& /kam.c.lau~/ adj. .tentative.
  • 38. 38 kamcor /kam.cor/ <ka.m.co.r> adj. . not inclined to work. kamdar /kam.dar/ <ka.m.da.r> masc. . a manual worker. kamdev /kam.dev/ <ka.m.de.v> masc. . ther god of love. kam0&0o /ka.d˙n.d˙o/ <ka.m.dh~.dho> masc. .1. business 2. profession. kaydo /kaj.do/ <ka.j.do> masc. . a law. kaym /ka.jm/ <ka.j.m> adj. . forever. karkun /kar.kun/ <ka.r.ku.n> masc. . a clerk. kar`anu& /kar.k˙a.nu~/ <ka.r.kha.nu~> neut. . a factory. kar8 /ka.r¯/ <ka.r.¯> neut. .1. a reason 2. a cause. kartk /kar.tk/ <ka.r.t.k> masc. . the first month of Hindu year. kartUs /kar.tus/ <ka.r.tu.s> neut. . a cartridge. kar-ar /kar.b˙ar/ <ka.r.bha.r> masc. . management. kal /kal/ <ka.l> fem. .1.tomrrow 2. yesterday. kavtru& /ka.vt.ru~/ <ka.v.t.ru~> neut. . fraud. kaVy /kav.j/ <ka.vj> neut. . a poem. kaX@ /kaÆ.Ôi/ <ka.Æ.Ôii> fem. . care. kaXju& /kaÆ.Ôu~/ <ka.Æ.Ôuu> neut. .1.the lever. kaXu& /la.Æu~/ <ka.Æu~> adj. . black. kaXotrI /ka.Æo.t.ri/ <ka.Æo.t.rii> fem. . a letter containg someone’s death’s message. ka&krI /ka~k.ri/ <ka~.k.rii> fem. . a smll pebble. ka&kro /ka~k.ro/ <ka~.k.ro> masc. . a pebble. ka&4aXu& /ka~.ˇa.Æu~/ <ka~.ˇa.Æu~> adj. . throny. ka&4o /ka~.ˇo/ <ka~.ˇo> masc. . a thorn. ka&4o /ka~.ˇo/ <ka~.ˇo> masc. . a weighing machine. ka&5o /ka~.ˇ˙o/ <ka~.ˇho> masc. .1. a bank 2. a shore 3 a coast. ka&6u& /ka~¯.Îu~/ <ka~.Îu~> neut. . a wrist. ka&do /ka¯.do/ <ka~.do> masc. . onion. ka&0 /ka~n.d˙/ <ka~.dh> fem. . one of the shoulders. ka&skI /ka~s.ki/ <ka~.s.kii> fem. . a small comb mainly for women. ka&sko /ka~s.ko/ <ka~.s.ko> masc. . a comb. ikLlo /kil.lo/ <ki.llo> masc. . a fortress. ik=or /ki.ßor/ <ki.ßo.r> masc. . a minor boy.
  • 39. 39 ik=orI /ki.ßo.ri/ <ki.ßo.rii> fem. . a minor girl. kI4lI /kiˇ.li/ <kii.ˇ.lii> fem. . a kettle. kI6I. /ki.Îi/ <kii.Îii> fem. . an ant. kI6o /ki.Îo/ <kii.Îo> masc. . an insect. kImt /ki.mt/ <kii.m.t> fem. . price. kIitR /kir.ti/ <kii.rti> fem. . fame. ku4u&b /ku.ˇum.b/ <ku.ˇu~.b> neut. . a family. ku4ev /ku.ˇev/ <ku.ˇe.v> fem. . a bad habit. kutUhl /ku.tu.hl/ <ku.tu.h.l> neut. curiosity. kudrt /kud.rt/ <ku.d.r.t> fem. . nature. kUXdev /kuÆ.dev/ <ku.Æ.de.v> masc. . a family deity. kuStI /kus.ti/ <ku.stii> fem. . wrestling. kuseva /ku.se.va/ <ku.se.vaa> fem. . a disservice. kuha6I /ku.ha.Îi/ <ku.ha.Îii> fem. . a small axe. kuha6o /ku.ha.Îo/ <ku.ha.Îio> masc. . an axe. ku&6X /ku¯.ÎÆ/ <ku~.Î.Æ> masc. a kind of ear ring. ku&-ar /kum.b˙ar/ <ku~.bha.r> masc. . a potter. ku&varu& /ku~.va.ru~/ <ku~.vaa.ru~> adj. . unmarried. kUk6o /kuk.Îo/ <kuu.k.Îo> masc. . a cock. kUk6I /kuk.Îi/ <kuu.k.Îii> fem. . a hen. kUtrI /kut.ri/ <kuu.t.rii> fem. . a female dog. kUtru& /kut.ru~/ <kuu.t.ru~> neut. . a dog. kUtro /kut.ro/ <kuu.t.ro> masc. . a male dog. kU9lI /kut˙.li/ <ku.th.lii> fem. . scandal. kUdvu& /kud.vu~/ <ku.d.vu~> v.intr. . to jump. kudavvu& /ku.dav.vu~/ <ku.da.v.vu~> v.tr. see kuda6vu. kUvo /ku.vo/ <ku.vo> masc. . a water- well. kU&cI /ku~.ci/ <ku~.cii> fem. .1. a key 2. a clue. kU&pX /ku.mpÆ/ <kuu~.p.Æ> fem. . a sprout. ke4lu& /keˇ.lu~/ <ke.ˇ.lu~> adj. . how much. ke6 /k´Î/ <ke.Î> fem. .a waist. ked /k´d/ <ke.d> fem. . a prison. kem /k´m/ <ke.m> advb. .why.
  • 40. 40 kedI /k´.di/ <ke.dii> masc. .a prisoner. kerI /k´.ri/ <ke.rii> fem. .a mango. kev6u& /kev.Îu~/ <ke.v.Îu~> adj. .how big kevu& /ke.vu~/ <ke.vu~> adj. .of what kind. kesr /ke.sr/ <ke.s.r> neut. .saffron. kesrI /kes.ri/ <ke.s.rii> adj. .saffron colored. keX /keÆ/ <ke.Æ> fem. .a banana-tree. keXv8I /ke.Æv.¯i/ <ke.Æ.v.¯ii> fem. .1. bringing up. 2. training. keXvvu& /ke.Æv.vu~/ <ke.Æ.v.vu~> v.tr. .to bring up. keXu& /ke.Æu~/ <ke.Æu~> neut. .a banana. ko; /ko.i/ <ko.i> prono..someone. kogXIyu& /kø.g.Æi.ju~/ <ko.g.Æii.ju~> neut. cholera. kogXo /køg.Æo/ <ko.g.Æo> masc. .1. a mouthful of liquid 2. a gargle. ko5I /ko.ˇ˙i/ <ko.ˇhii> fem. .a large vessel to stor grain. ko6Iyu& /ko.Îi.ju~/ <ko.Îii.ju~> neut. .a kind of earthern lamp. ko7 /koÎ˙/ <ko.Îh> masc. .leprosy. ko8I /kø.¯i/ <ko.¯ii> fem. .an elbow. kotrvu& /ko.tr.vu~/ <ko.t.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to engrave 2. to carve. ko9mIr /kot˙.mir/ <ko.th.mii.r> neut. coriander. ko9XI /kot˙.Æi/ <ko.th.Æii> fem. .a purse of cloth. ko9Xo /koˇ˙.Æo/ <ko.th.Æo> masc. .a large beg of cloth. kodaXI /ko.da.Æi/ <ko.da.Æii> fem. .1. a hoe 2. a spade. konu& /kø.nu~/ <ko.nu~> pron.. whose. kopru& /kop.ru~/ <ko.p.ru~> neut. .a kernel of a coconut. kom /kom/ <ko.m> fem. .a caste-group. komvad /kom.vad/ <ko.m.va.d> masc. .1. communalism 2. castism. korvu& /kor.vu~/ <ko.r.vu~> v.tr. .to bore a hole. kolso /kol.so/ <ko.l.so> masc. .coal. kolahl /ko.la.hl/ <ko.la.h.l> masc. .a continuous loud noise. koi== /ko.ßiß/ <ko.ßi.ß> fem. .an effort. kohvu& /koh.vu~/ <ko.h.vu~> v.intr. .to rot. koXI /ko.Æi/ <ko.Æii> fem. .a caste. koXu& /ko.Æu~/ <ko.Æu~> neut. .a pumpkin. kO4uiMbk /ku.ˇum.bik/ <ku.tu~.mbi.k> adj. pertaining to a family.
  • 41. 41 kO-a&6 /ku.b˙a~nÎ/ <ku.bha~.Î> neut. .a scandal. kO&s /kums/ <ku~.s> masc. .a bracket. Ex. [], {}, ( ). kyare /kja.re/ <kja.re> advb. .when. kya& /kja~/ <k.ja~> advb. .where. k/ur /kru.r/ <kru.r> adj. .cruel. k/o0 /kro.d˙/ <kro.dh> masc. .anger. ` ``6vu& /k˙.k˙Î.vu~/ <kh.kh.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to rattle. ``6avvu& /k˙k˙.Îav.vu~/ <k˙.k˙.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. .to knock (on a door etc.). `ckavu& /k˙c.ka.vu~/ <kh.c.ka.vu~> v.intr. .to hesitate. `ca`c /k˙.ca.k˙c/ <kh.ca.kh.c> advb. densely. `Ccr /k˙c.cr/ <kh.cc.r> neut. .a mule. `jancI /k˙.Ôan.ci/ <kh.Ôa.n.cii> masc. .a cashier. `jano /k˙.Ôa.no/ <kh.Ôa.no> masc. .a treasure. `jUr /k˙.Ôur/ <kh.Ôu.r> neut. .a date fruit. `jU.rI /k˙.Ôu.ri/ <kh.Ôu.rii> fem. .a date tree. `jUro /k˙.Ôu.ro/ <kh.Ôuu.ro> masc. .a centipede. `4kvu& /k˙.ˇk.vu~/ <kh.ˇ.k.vu~> v.exp.. to repent. `4p4 /k˙ˇ.pˇ/ <kh.ˇ.p.ˇ> fem. .an intrigue. `4ml /k˙ˇ.ml/ <kh.ˇ.m.l> masc. .a bug. `4mI5u& /k˙ˇ.mi.ˇ˙u~/ <kh.ˇ.mii.ˇhu~> adj. sour and sweet. `4rag /k˙ˇ.rag/ <kh.ˇ.ra.g> masc. .a quarrel. `4lo /k˙ˇ.lo/ <kh.ˇ.lo> masc. .a law- suit. `4vvu& /k˙.ˇv.vu~/ <kh.ˇ.v.vu~> v.tr. .to make things sour. `4aro /k˙.ˇa.ro/ <kh.ˇa.ro> masc. .a motor truck. `4u&b6u& /k˙.ˇumb.Îu~/ <kh.ˇu~.b.Îu~> adj. slightly sour. `6k /k˙.Îk/ <kh.Î.k> masc. .a rock. `6klo /k˙.Îk.lo/ <kh.Î.k.lo> masc. .a pile. `6kI /k˙Î.ki/ <kh.Î.kii> fem. .a lane. `6tl /k˙Î.tl/ <kh.Î.t.l> adj. .a strongly built.
  • 42. 42 `6bc6u& /k˙Î.bc.Îu~/ <kh.Î.b.c.Îu~> adj. .rough. `6ecok /k˙.Îe.cok/ <kh.Îe.co.k> advb. publicly. `8vu& /k˙¯.vu~/ <kh.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to scratch. `tro /k˙t.ro/ <kh.t.ro> masc. .danger. `tvvu& /k˙.tv.vu~/ <kh.t.v.vu~> v.tr. .to make an entry in a ledger. `dbdvu& /k˙d.bd.vu~/ <kh.d.b.d.vu~> v.intr. .to boil with a simmering sound. `pvu& /k˙p.vu~/ <kh.p.vu~> v.intr. .to be sold. `br /k˙.br/ <kh.b.r> fem. .news. `-o /k˙.b˙o/ <kh.bho> masc. .the shoulder. `m8 /k˙.m¯/ <kh.m.¯> neut. .a food item. `mvu& /k˙m.vu~/ <kh.m.vu~> v.tr. .to tolerate. `mIs /k˙.mis/ <kh.mi.s> neut. .a shirt. `rpvu& /k˙.rp.vu~/ <kh.r.p.vu~> v.tr. .to hoe. `rvu& /k˙r.vu~/ <kh.r.vu~> v.intr. .to fall (fruit, leaves etc.) `rab /k˙.rab/ <kh.ra.b> adj. .bad. `ru& /k˙.ru~/ <kh.ru~> adj. .correct. `re`r /k˙.re.k˙r/ <kh.re.kh.r> advb. .1. truly 2. indeed. `cR /k˙r.c/ <kh.rc> neut. . expense. `las /k˙.las/ <kh.la.s> adj. .1. exhausted 2. the end. `lasI /k˙.la.si/ <kh.la.sii> masc. .a sailor. `lel /k˙.lel/ <kh.le.l> masc. .disturbance. `vas /k˙.vas/ <kh.va.s> fem. .name of a community. `s /k˙s/ <kh.s> fem. .scabies. `s`s /k˙s.k˙s/ <kh.s.kh.s> fem. .poppy seeds. `se6vu& /k˙.seÎ.vu~/ <kh.se.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to move. `X`X /k˙Æ. k˙Æ/ <kh.Æ.kh.Æ> advb. .the rippling sound of a water flow. `&`ervu& /k˙n.k˙er.vu~/ <kh~.khe.r.vu~> v.tr. .to pluck down. `&jrI /k˙µ.Ô.ri/ <kh~.Ô.rii> fem. .a small tambourin. `&jvaXvu& /k˙µ.Ô.vaÆ.vu~/ <kh~.Ô.va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to seratch. `&6 /k˙¯.Î/ <kh~.Î> masc. .1. a part 2. a room. 3. a continent.
  • 43. 43 `&i6yer /k˙¯.Îi.jer/ <kh~.Îi.je.r> neut. .a ruin. `a; /k˙a.i/ <kha.ii> fem. .1. a ditch 2. a trench. `aw0ru& /k˙a.u.d˙.ru~/ <kha.u.dh.ru~> adj. . gluttonous. `ajlI /k˙aÔ.li/ <kha.Ô.lii> fem. .a food item. `aju /k˙a.Ôu/ <kha.Ôu> neut. .a food item. `a4kI /k˙aˇ.ki/ <kha.ˇ.kii> masc. .a butcher. `a4lo /k˙aˇ.lo/ <kha.ˇ.lo> masc. .a cot. `a4vu& /k˙aˇ.vu~/ <kha.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to be benefited. `a4u& /k˙a.ˇu~/ <kha.ˇu~> adj. .sour. `a6I /k˙a.Îi/ <kha.Îii> fem. .a creek. `a6o /k˙a.Îo/ <kha.Îo> masc. .a pit. `a8 /k˙a¯/ <kha.¯> fem. .a mine. `ai8yo /k˙a.¯i.jo/ <kha.¯i.jo> masc. .a miner. `a8u& /k˙a.¯u~/ <kha.¯u~> neut. .a dinner. `atmurt /k˙at.mu.rt/ <kha.t.mu.r.t> neut. .a ceremony of laying a foundation. `atr /k˙a.tr/ <kha.t.r> fem. .hospitality. `atr /k˙a.tr/ <kha.t.r> neut. .fertilizer. `atr /k˙a.tr/ <kha.t.r> neut. .house- breaking (by theif) `atrI/k˙at.ri/ <kha.t.rii> fem. .trust. `atavhI /k˙a.ta.v.hi/ <kha.ta.v.hii> fem. a ledger. `atu& /k˙a.tu~/ <kha.tu~> neut. .an account. `a0a`orakI /k˙a.d˙a.kho.ra.ki/ <kha.dha.kho.ra.kii> fem. .1. maintenance 2. livelihood. `angI /k˙an.gi/ <kha.n.kii> adj. .secret. `anu& /k˙a.nu~/ <kha.nu~> neut. .a drawer. `aboicyu& /k˙a.bo.ci.ju~/ <kha.bo.ci.ju~> neut. .a puddle. `amI /k˙a.mi/ <kha.mii> fem. .a defect. `aru& /k˙a.ru~/ <kha.ru~> adj. .salty. `arek /k˙a.rek/ <kha.re.k> fem. .a dry date. `al /k˙al/ <kha.l> fem. .skin. `alI /k˙a.li/ <kha.lii> adj. .1. empty 2. poor 3. purposelessly. `avu& /k˙a.vu~/ <kha.vu~> v.tr. .to eat. `as /k˙as/ <kha.s> adj. .1.special 2. personal. Ex. Aa maro `as ma8s 2e. `as /k˙as/ <kha.s> advb. .specially. Ex. hu& `as tmara 3er AavI=.
  • 44. 44 `aisyt /k˙a.si.jt/ <kha.si.j.t> fem. .a special quality. `aX /k˙aÆ/ <kha.Æ> fem. .a drain. `a&co /k˙a~.co/ <kha~.co> masc. .1. a turn 2. a lane. `a&6 /k˙a~Î/ <kha~.Î> fem. .sugar. `a&6vu& /k˙a~¯Î.vu~/ <kha~.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to pound. `a&sI /k˙a~.si/ <kha~.sii> fem. .cough. i`skolI /k˙is.ko.li/ <khi.s.ko.lii> fem. .a squirrel. `Ic6I /k˙ic.Îi/ <khii.c.Îii> fem. .a food. `Ico`Ic /k˙i.co.k˙ic/ <khii.co.khii.c> advb. densely. `Ijvvu& /k˙i.Ôv.vu~/ <khii.Ô.v.vu~> v.tr. .to tease. `I8 /k˙i¯/ <khii.¯> fem. .1. a valley 2. a rift. `Ir /k˙ir/ <khii.r> fem. .a food item. `Il /k˙il/ <khii.l> masc. .a pimple. `Ilvu& /k˙il.vu~/ <khii.l.vu~> v.intr. .to blossom. `ISsu& /k˙is.su~/ <khii.ssu~> neut. .a pocket. `ur=I /k˙ur.ßi/ <khu.r.ßii> fem. .a chair. `ulaso /k˙u.la.so/ <khu.la.so> masc. .a clarification. `uLlu& /k˙ul.lu~./ <khu.llu~> adj. .open. `u= /k˙uß/ <khu.ß> adj. .joyful. `u=numa /k˙uß.nu.ma/ <khu.ß.nu.ma> adj. .pleasant (climate). `u=amt /k˙u.ßa.mt/ <khu.ßa.m.t> fem..flattery. `u=I /k˙u.ßi/ <khu.ßii> fem. .pleasure. `UjlI /k˙uÔ.li/ <khu.Ô.lii> fem. .itching sensation. `U4vu& /k˙uˇ.vu~/ <khu.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be used up 2. to run out. `U8o /k˙u.¯o/ <khuu.¯o> masc. .1. an angle 2. a corner. `Un /k˙un/ <khuu.n> neut. .1. blood 2. murder. `Ub /k˙ub/ <khu.b> adj. .1. plentiful 2. much. `UbI /k˙u.bi/ <khu.bii> fem. peculiar quality. `Ulvu& /k˙ul.vu~/ <khuu.l.vu~> v.intr. .to open. `U&cvvu& /k˙u~.cv.vu~/ <khuu.c.v.vu~> v.tr. .to snatch away. `U&cvu& /k˙u~c.vu~/ <kh.c.vu~> v.intr. .to prick. `U&0 /k˙u~d˙/ <khuu~.dh> fem. .a hump.
  • 45. 45 `e6vu& /k˙eÎ.vu~/ <khe.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to plow. `e6Ut /k˙e.Îut/ <khe.Îuu.t> masc. .a farmer. `etr /k˙e.tr/ <khe.t.r> neut. .a farm. `etI /k˙e.ti/ <khe.tii> fem. .farming. `erat /k˙e.rat/ <khe.ra.t> fem. .1. alms- giving 2. charity. `el /k˙el/ <khe.l> masc. .1. a sport.2. a show (of play, cinema etc.) `elvu& /k˙el.vu~/ <khe.l.vu~> v.intr. to play. `ela6I /k˙e.la.Îi/ <khe.la.Îii> masc. .a player. `evna /k˙ev.na/ <khe.v.naa> fem. .care. `e&ca8 /k˙´~.ca¯/ <khe~.ca.¯> neut. .attraction. `o`ru& /k˙ok˙.ru~/ <kho.kh.ru~> adj. .1. dull 2. broken. `o`u& /k˙o.k˙u~/ <kho.khu~> neut. .an empty box. `oja /k˙o.Ôa/ <kho.Ôa> masc. .a Muslim caste. `o4 /k˙oˇ/ <kho.ˇ> fem. .loss. `o4kavu& /k˙oˇ.ka.vu~/ <kho.ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. to stop functioning. `o4u& /k˙o.ˇu~/ <kho.ˇu~> adj. .1.wrong. 2. false. `o6 /k˙oÎ/ <kho.Î> fem. .1. a defect 2. a deficiency. `o6vu& /k˙oÎ.vu~/ <kho.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to erect. `otrvu& /k˙o.tr.vu~/ <kho.t.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to scratch 2. to dig by scrapping. `odvu& /k˙od.vu~/ <kho.d.vu~> v.tr. .to dig. `oda8 /k˙o.da¯/ <kho.da.¯> neut. .a digging. `oprI /k˙op.ri/ <kho.p.rii> fem. .the skull. `obo /k˙o.bo/ <kho.bo> masc. .the shape formed by the joined palms. `orvavu& /k˙or.va.vu~/ <kho.r.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be disrupted. `orak /k˙o.rak/ <kho.ra.k> masc. .food. `olvu& /k˙ol.vu~/ <kho.l.vu~> v.tr. .to open. `ovu& /k˙o.vu~/ <kho.vu~> v.tr. .to miss. `osvu& /k˙os.vu~/ <kho.s.vu~> v.tr. .1. to drive into 2. to penetrate 3. to pierce. `oXa-r8u& /kho.Æa.b˙r.¯u~/ <kho.Æa.bh.r.¯u~> neut. .the celebration of first pregnancy. `oXIyu& /k˙o.Æi.ju~/ <kho.Æii.ju~> neut. .1. a bed or pillow cover 2. the body. `oXo /k˙o.Æo/ <kho.Æo> masc. .the lap.
  • 46. 46 g g;kal /gi.kal/ <g.ii.ka.l> fem. yesterday. gg6vu& /g.gÎ.vu~/ <g.g.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to roll down. gjro /gÔ.ro/ <g.Ô.ro> masc. .a bouquet of flowers. gjvu& /gÔ.vu~/ <g.Ô.vu~> neut. .a pocket. gzl /g.zl/ <g.Ôh.l> fem. .a type of poem. g4g4avvu& /gˇ.g.ˇav.vu~/ <g.ˇ.g.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to swallow quickly. g4r /g.tr/ <g.ˇ.r> fem. .a gutter. g55o /gˇ˙.ˇ˙o/ <g.ˇhˇho> masc. .a lump. g6da pa4u& /gÎ.da.pa.ˇu~/ <g.Î.da.pa.ˇu~> neut. .blows by hand and feet. g6do /gÎ.do/ <g.Î.do> masc. .a punch. g6b6 /gÎ.bÎ/ <g.Î.b.Î> fem. .1. a rowdyism 2. misappropriation. g6m9l /gÎ.m.t˙l/ <g.Î.m.th.l> fem. .hard work. g6I /g.Îi/ <g.Îii> fem. .a fold (of cloth, paper etc.). g7 /gÎ˙/ <g.Îh> masc. .a fortress. g7vI /gÎ˙.vi/ <g.Îh.vii> masc. .a keeper of a fortress. g7vI /gÎ˙.vi/ <g.Îh.vii> fem. .a community. g8karvu& /g¯.kar.vu~/ <g.¯.ka.r.vu~> v.tr. .to care for. g8g8vu& /g¯.g¯.vu~/ <g.¯.g.¯.vu~> v.intra..1. to murmur 2. to grumble. g8trI /g.¯t.ri/ <g.¯.t.rii> fem. .1. calculation 2. counting g8pit /g¯.pti/ <g.¯.p.ti> masc. hon..the god Ganpati. g8vu& /g¯.vu~/ <g.¯.vu~> v.tr. .1. to count 2. to calculate. g8ve= /g¯.veß/ <g.¯.ve.ß> masc. .a uniform. gi8t /g.¯it/ <g.¯i.t> neut. .mathematics. g8e= /g.¯eß/ <g.¯e.ß> masc. the god Ganesh. g*yu&ga&5yu& /g.¯ju~. ga~.ˇ˙ju~/ <g.¯ju~.ga~.ˇhju~> adj. .a little. gtagm /g.ta.gm/ <g.ta.g.m> fem. . understanding. git /g.ti/ <g.ti> fem. .1. motion 2. speed. gdy /g.dj/ <g.dj> neut. .prose. g0e6u& /g.d˙e.Îu~/ <g.dhe.Îu~> neut. .s donkey.
  • 47. 47 gpgoXo /gp.go. o/ <gp.go.Æo> masc. .a rumor. gpsp /gp.sp/ <g.p.s.p> fem. .gossip. gPpIdas /gp.pi.das/ <g.ppii.da.s> masc. a rumor-monger. gflt /gp˙.lt/ <g.ph.l.t> fem. .1. a mistake 2. carelessness. gb6vu& /g.bÎ.vu~/ <g.b.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to roll down. gbI /g.bi/ <g.bii> fem. .a foolish girl or woman. gbo /g.bo/ <g.bo> masc. .a foolish boy or man. g-ra4 /gb˙.raˇ/ <g.bh.ra.ˇ> masc. .frightful confusion. g-ravu& /gb˙.ra.vu~/ <g.bh.ra.vu~> v.intr. .to get frightened. g-ru& /gb˙.ru~/ <g.bh.ru~> adj. .simple- hearted. gm /gm/ <g.m> masc. .sadness. gmgIn /gm.gin/ <g.m.gii.n> adj. .sad. gMmt /gm.mt/ <g.mm.t> fem. .merriment. gmvu& /gm.vu~/ <g.m.vu~> v.exp.. to like. gmar /g.mar/ <g.ma.r> adj. .manner less. gr /gr/ <g.r> masc. .pulp. grj /g.rÔ/ <g.r.Ô> fem. .need. grju /gr.Ôu/ <g.r.Ôu> adj. .needy. grjvu& /g.rÔ.vu~/ <g.r.Ô.vu~> v.intr. .to thunder. grdn /gr.dn/ <g.r.d.n> fem. .the neck. grnaXu& /gr.na.Æu~/ <g.r.na.Æu~> neut. .a culvert. grbI /gr.bi/ <g.r.bii> fem. .a kind of poem. grbo /gr.bo/ <g.r.bo> masc. .1. a kind of poem 2. a pot with holes that used during Navaratri festival. grm /g.rm/ <g.r.m> adj. .hot. grmI /gr.mi/ <g.r.mii> fem. .heat. grmagrm /gr.ma.g.rm/ <g.r.ma.g.r.m> adj. .fresh and hot. grvu& /gr.vu~/ <g.r.vu~> v.intr. .to fall slowly (of leaves, flowers, dew etc.) grIb /g.rib/ <g.rii.b> adj. .poor. grIba; /g.ri.bai/ <g.rii.ba.i> fem. .poverty. gru6 /g.ruÎ/ <g.ru.Î> neut. .an eagle.
  • 48. 48 groXI /g.ro.Æi/ <g.ro.Æii> fem. .a lizard. g-aR0an /gr.b˙a.d˙an/ <g.rbha.dha.n> neut. .impregnation. g-aR=y /gr.b˙a.ßj/ <g.rbha.ß.j> neut. .the uterus. gvR /gr.v/ <g.rv> masc. .proud. glkI /gl.ki/ <g.l.kii> fem. .a kind of creeper (vegetable). glgo4o /gl.go.ˇo/ <g.l.go.ˇo> masc. .a kind of flower plant. glI /g.li/ <g.lii> fem. .a street. glU6I/yu& /g.lu.Îi.ju~/ <g.luu.Îii.ju~> neut. .a pup. glofu& /g.lo.p˙u~/ <g.lo.phu~> neut. .the inside of the cheek. gLla&tLla& /gl.la~.tl.ta~/ <g.lla~.t.lla~> masc. pl. .pretexts. gLlo /gl.lo/ <g.llo> masc. .a cash-box. gvn /g.vn/ <g.v.n> neut. .a kind of sari. gvEyo /g.vi.jo/ <g.vi.jo> masc. .a songster. gXc4u& /gÆ.c.ˇu~/ <g.Æ.c.ˇu~> adj. .sweetish. gXcvu& /g.Æc.vu~/ <g.Æ.c.vu~> v.tr. .to over eat. gXcI /gÆ.ci/ <g.Æ.cii> fem. .1. the neck 2. the throat. gX8I /g.Æ.¯i/ <g.Æ.¯ii> fem. .a funnel. gXp8 /gÆ.p¯/ <g.Æ.p.¯> neut. .sweetness. gXvu& /gÆ.vu~/ <g.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .to ooze. gXa4U&po /g.Æa.ˇu~.po/ <g.Æa.ˇu~.po> masc. .a strangling. gXafa&so /g.Æa.p˙a~.so/ <g.Æa.pha~.so> masc. .a strangulation. gXu& /g.Æu~/ <g.Æu~> neut. .the throat. gâyu& /g.Æju~/ <g.Æju~> adj. .sweet. g&@ /gµ.Ôi/ <g~.Ôii> fem. .a stack of hay. g&dkI /gnd.ki/ <g~.d.kii> fem .filth. g&du /gn.du~/ <g~.du> adj. .dirty. g&0 /gn.d˙/ <g~.dh> fem. .smell. g&0avu& /gn.d˙a.vu~/ <g~.dha.vu~> v.intr. .to stink. g&-Ir /gm.b˙ir/ <g~.bhii.r> adj. .1. deep 2. cool-minded 3. serious. gaj /gaÔ/ <ga.Ô> neut. .a button-hole. gajr /ga.Ôr/ <ga.Ô.r> neut. .a carrot. gajvIj /gaÔ.viÔ/ <ga.Ô.vii.Ô> fem. .lightening and thunder together.
  • 49. 49 gajvu& /gaÔ.vu~/ <ga.Ô.vu~> v.intr. .to thunder. ga6I /ga.Îi/ <ga.Îii> fem. .a vehicle. ga6u& /ga.Îu~/ neut. .a cart. ga7 /gaÎ˙/ <ga.Îh> adj. .thick. ga8u& /ga.¯u~/ <ga.¯u~> neut. .a song. ga9a /ga.t˙a/ <ga.tha> fem. .a moral or religous story. gadlu& /gad.lu~/ <ga.d.lu~> neut. .a mattress. gadI /ga.di/ <ga.dii> fem. .1. a throne, 2. a cushion. gab6u& /gab.Îu~/ <ga.b.Îu~> neut. .1. a hole 2. a pit. gam /gam/ <ga.m> neut. .a village. gayk /ga.jk/ <ga.j.k> masc. .a male singer. gaiyka /ga.ji.ka/ <ga.ji.ka> fem. .a female singer. galIco /ga.li.co/ <ga.lii.co> masc. .a carpet. gavu& /ga.vu~/ <ga.vu~> v.tr. .to sing. gaX /gaÆ/ <ga.Æ> fem. .a curse word. gaXvu& /gaÆ.vu~/ <ga.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .1. to filter 2. melt 3. to pass time. ga&g6o /ga~g.Îo/ <ga~.g.Îo> masc. .a solid lump. ga&5 /ga~ˇ˙/ <ga~.ˇh> fem. .a knot. ga&6u& /ga~.Îu~/ <ga~.Îu~> adj. .1. mad 2. lunatic. gIc /gic/ <gii.c> adj. .overcroweded. gIt /git/ <gii.t> neut. .a song. gI0 /gid˙/ <gii.dh> neut. .a vulture. gIrvI /gir.vi/ <gii.r.vii> adj. .on mortgage. gIro /gi.ro/ <gii.ro> adj. .on mortgage. gujrvu& /gu.Ôr.vu~/ <gu.Ô.r.vu~> v.intr. .1. to pass by 2. to die. gujran /guÔ.ran/ <gu.Ô.ra.n> neut. .livelihood. gujarvu& /gu.Ôar.vu~/ <gu.Ôa.r.vu~> v.tr. .to pass time. gu4ko /guˇ.ko/ <gu.ˇ.ko> masc. .a small booklet. gu8 /gu¯/ <gu.¯> masc. .quality. gu8gan /gu¯.gan/ neut. .an eulogy. gu8doq /gu¯.doß/ <gu.¯.do.s°> masc. .merits and demerits. gu8vu& /gu¯.bv~/ <gu.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to multiply. gu8akar /gu.¯a.kar/ <gu.¯a.ka.r> masc. .multiplication.
  • 50. 50 gu8o]ar /gu.¯o.ttr/ <gu.¯o.tt.r> masc. .a ratio. gunegar /gu.ne.gar/ <gu.ne.ga.r> adj. .criminal. guno /gu.no/ <gu.no> masc. .a crime. gupcUp /gup.cup/ <gu.p.cu.p> advb. .quietly. guPt /gu.pt/ <gu.pt> adj. .secret. gufa /gu.p˙a/ <gu.pha> fem. .a cave. gumavvu& /gu.mav.vu~/ <gu.ma.v.vu~> v.tr. .to lose. guru /gu.ru/ <gu.ru> masc. . a teacher. guru /gu.ru/ <gu.ru> adj. .1. big 2. large. gulmor /gul.mør/ <gu.la.mo.r> neut. .a tree. gulab /gu.lab/ <gu.la.b> neut. .1. the rose plant. 2. a rose flower gulam /gu.lam/ <gu.la.m> masc. .a slave. guSso /gu.sso/ <gu.sso> masc. .anger. gu&jvu& /guµÔ.vu~/ <gu~.Ô.vu~> v.intr. .1. to hum 2. to buzz. gu&6o /gu¯.Îo/ <gu~.Îo> masc. .a bully. gu&dr /gun.dr/ <gu~.d.r> masc. .1. glue 2. gum. gu&bj /gum.bÔ/ <gu~.b.Ô> masc. .a dome. gU7 /guÎ˙/ <guu.Îh> adj. .secret. gU8 /gu¯/ <guu.¯> fem. .a sack. gUm6u& /gum.Îu~/ <guu.m.Îu~> neut. .a skin-boil. gU&gXavu& /gu˜.g.Æa.vu~/ <guu~.g.Æa.vu~> v.intr. .to be suffocated. gU&c /gu~c/ <guu~.c> fem. .1.a twisting of threads 2. intricacy. gU&9vu& /gu~t˙.vu~/ <guu~.th.vu~> v.tr. .to knit. gU&dvu& /gu~d.vu~/ <guu~.d.vu~> v.tr. .to trample. gerkayde /ger.kaj.de/ <ge.r.ka.j.de> adj. and advb. .illegal. gerkaydesr /ger.kaj.de.sr/ <ge.r.ka.j.de.s.r> advb. .illegally. gerrSte /ger.rs.te/ <ge.r.r.ste> advb. .wrongly. gerla- /ger.lab˙/ <ge.r.la.bh> masc. .loss. gervLle /ger.v.lle/ <g.r.v.lle> advb. .at a wrong place. gervvu& /ge.rv.vu~/ <ge.r.v.vu~> v.tr. .to make things (fruits, leaves) fall. gervhIv4 /ger.v.hi.vˇ/ <ge.r.v.hii.v.ˇ> masc. mismanagement.
  • 51. 51 gersmj /ger.s.mÔ/ <ge.r.s.m.Ô> fem. . misunderstanding. gokXgay /go.kÆ.gaj/ <go.k.Æ.ga.j> fem. .a snail. go`lo /gok˙.lo/ <go.kh.lo> masc. .a small recess in a wall. go`vu& /gok˙.vu~/ <go.kh.vu~> v.tr. .1. to cram 2. to memorize. gozaru& /go.Ô˙a.ru~/ <go.Ôha.ru~> adj. .sinful. go4lI /goˇ.li/ <go.ˇ.lii> masc. .a mango seed (usually soft) go4lo /goˇ.lo/ <go.ˇ.lo> masc. .a mango seed (usually hard) go4lo /goˇ.lo/ <go.ˇ.lo> masc. .a hard muscle. go58 /go.t˙¯/ <go.ˇh.¯> masc. .one of the knees. go5vvu& /go.ˇ˙v.vu~/ <go.ˇh.v.vu~> v.tr. .to arrange. goi5y8 /go.ˇ˙i.j¯/ <go.ˇhi.j.¯> fem. .a female friend. god /god/ <go.d> fem. .the lap. god6I /god.Îi/ <go.d.Îii> fem. .a kind of mattress. godam /go.dam/ <go.da.m> neut. .a store house. gobo /go.bo/ <go.bo> masc. .a hollow on a metallic surface. goma&s /go.ma~s/ <go.ma~.s> neut. .beef. gor /gør/ <go.r> masc. .a priest (normally a Brahmin) gora8I /gø.ra.¯i/ <go.ra.¯ii> fem. .a priest’s wife. gorI /go.ri/ <go.rii> adj. .a white- skinned woman. golmal /gol.mal/ <go.l.ma.l> fem. . misappropriation. govaX /go.vaÆ/ <go.va.Æ> masc. .a cow- herd. govaX8I /go.va.Æ.¯i/ <go.va.Æ.¯ii> fem. .a cow-herd’s wife. goX /goÆ/ <go.Æ> adj. .round. goX /goÆ/ <go.Æ> masc. .a sub-group of a caste. goX /gøÆ/ <go.Æ> masc. .jiggery. goXgoX /goÆ.goÆ/ <go.Æ.go.Æ> adj. .evasive. goXpap6I /goÆ.pap.Îi/ <go.Æ.pa.p.Îii> fem. .a sweet food itm. goXm4oX /goÆ.m.ˇoÆ/ <go.Æ.m.ˇo.Æ> adj. .pulpy. goXI /go.Æi/ <go.Æii> fem. .1. a pill 2. a bullet. goXo /go.Æo/ <go.Æo> masc. .1.a globe 2. a round lamp 3. a bulb. gO8 /gu¯/ <gu.¯> adj. .secondary.
  • 52. 52 gOrv /gu.rv/ <gu.r.v> neut. .pride. g/h /grh/ <gr.h> masc. .a planet. g/h8 /gr.h¯/ <g.h.¯> neut. .an eclipse. g/&9 /grnt˙/ <g~.th> masc. .a book. g/ahk /gra.hk/ <gra.h.k> masc. .a customer. 3 3w& /g˙.u~/ <gh.u~> masc. .wheat. 3w&v8uR& /g˙.u~.v.r¯u~/ <gh.u.v.r¯u~> adj. .of whitish color. 34 /g˙ˇ/ <gh.ˇ> fem. .a shortage. 34k /g˙.ˇk/ <gh.ˇ.k> adj. component. 34tu& /g˙ˇ.tu~/ <gh.ˇ.tu~> advb. .properly. 34na /g˙ˇ.na/ <gh.ˇ.na> fem. .event. 34maX /g˙ˇ.ma / <gh.ˇ.ma.Æ> fem. a series of events. 34vu& /g˙ˇ.vu~/ <gh.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. .to dcrease. 34Sfo4 /g˙ˇ.sp˙oˇ/ <gh.ˇ.spho.ˇ> masc. .a revealing of secret. 34a /g˙.ˇa/ <gh.ˇa> fem. .a dense formation of trees, clouds etc. 34a4op /g˙.ˇa.ˇop/ <gh.ˇa.ˇo.p> masc. .1. thick clods 2. false show. 34a6vu& /g˙.ˇaÎ.vu~/ <gh.ˇa.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to lessen 2. to reduce. 34a6o /g˙.ˇa.Îo/ <gh.ˇa.Îo> masc. decrease. 34avvu& /g˙.ˇav.vu~/ <gh.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. to interpret. 36tr /g˙Î.tr/ <gh.Î.t.r> neut. .1. a thing made 2. training. 36p8 /g˙Î.p¯/ <gh.Î.p.¯> neut. .old age. 36vu& /g˙Î.vu~/ <gh.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to shape 2. to mould 3. to manufacture. 36a; /g˙.Îa.i/ <gh.Îa.ii> fem. .wages for shaping, molding or manufacturing. 3i6yaX /g˙.Îi.jaÆ/ <gh.Îi.ja.Æ> fem. .1. a watch 2. a clock. 3i6yaXI /g˙.Îi.ja.Æi/ <gh.Îi.ja.Æi> masc. .a match maker. 36o /g.Îo/ <gh.Îo> masc. .a pot. 38 /g˙¯/ <gh.¯> masc. .a large heavy hammer. 38u& /g˙.¯u~/ <gh.¯u~> adj. .1. much 2. very. 3n /g˙n/ <gh.n> adj. .solid. 3m&6 /g˙.m¯Î/ <gh.m~.Î> masc. .a false pride.
  • 53. 53 3m&6I /g˙.m¯.Îi/ <gh.m~.Îii> adj. arrogant. 3r /g˙r/ <gh.r> neut. .a home. 3rkam /g˙r.kam/ <gh.r.ka.m> neut. 1. a household work 2. a homework. 3r`cR /g˙r.k˙r.c/ <gh.r.kh.rc> neut. household expenses. 3rg(9u /g˙r.gt˙t˙u/ <gh.r.g.ththu> adj. produced at home. 3rcoXu& /g˙r.co.Æu~/ <gh.r.co.Æu~> neut. 1.a silk bodies for women. 3rjma; /g˙r.Ô.mai/ <gh.r.Ô.ma.ii> masc. .a married man living with his father-in-law’s family. 3r6u& /g˙r.Îu~/ <gh.r.Îu~> adj. .old. 3rbar /g˙r.bar/ <gh.r.ba.r> neut. members of the family. 3rv`rI /g˙r.v.k˙.ri/ <gh.r.v.kh.rii> fem. . household things such as furniture, utensils etc. 3rs&sar /g˙r.sam.sar/ <gh.r.s~.sa.r> masc. . worldly life. 3rs&sarI /g˙r.sam.sa.ri/ <gh.r.s~.sa.rii> adj. .a person leading a worldly life. 3rak /g˙.rak/ <gh.ra.k> masc. .1. a customer 2. a client. 3re8u& /g˙.re.¯~/ <gh.re.¯u~> neut. .an ornament. 3vavu& /g˙.va.vu~/ <gh.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be wounded. 3s3sa4 /g˙s.g˙.saˇ/ <gh.s.g.sa.ˇ> advb. .to sleep soundly. 3s6vu& /g˙.sÎ.vu~/ <gh.s.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to drag. 3s6avu& /g˙s.Îa.vu~/ <gh.s.Îa.vu~> v.tr. to be dragged. 3srko /g˙.sr.ko/ <gh.s.r.ko> masc. 1. a cut 2. a scratch. 3savu& /g˙.sa.vu~/ <gh.sa.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be rubbed 2. to be worn out 3. to sacrifice for others. 3&4 /g˙¯ˇ/ <gh~.ˇ> masc. .a bell. 3&46I /g˙¯ˇ.Îi/ <gh~.ˇ.Îi> fem. ..a small bell. 3&4I /g˙.¯ˇi/ <gh~.ˇii> fem. .a grinding hand-mill or machine. 3a /g˙a/ <gha> adj. .two dozen papers. 3a /g˙a/ <gha> masc. .a wound. 3a3ro /g˙g˙.ro/ <gha.gh.ro> masc. .a petticoat. 3a3rI /g˙ag˙.ri/ <gha.gh.rii> fem. .a small petticoat. 3a4 /g˙aˇ/ <gha.ˇ> masc. . a shape. 3a4Ilu& /g˙a.ˇi.lu~/ <gha.ˇi.lu~> adj. .well built.
  • 54. 54 3a8 /g˙a¯/ <gha.¯> masc. .a unit of production. 3ayl /g˙a.jl/ <gha.j.l> adj. .wounded. 3arI /g˙a.ri/ <gha.rii> fem. .a kind of sweet. 3alvu& /g˙al.vu~/ <gha.l.vu~> v.tr. .1. to thrust into 2. to penetrate. 3as /g˙as/ <gha.s> neut. .grass. 3I /g˙i/ <ghii> neut. .ghee (refined butter). 3uv6 /g˙u.vÎ/ <ghu.v.Î> masc. .an owl. 3U3rI /g˙ug˙.ri/ <ghuu.gh.rii> fem. .a small mealic balls (usually of ornaments). 3U3vvu& /g˙u.g˙v.vu~/ <ghuu.gh.v.vu~> v.intr. .to roar (of sea) 3Umravu& /g˙um.ra.vu~/ <ghuu.m.ra.vu~> v.intr. .to turn or move around. 3UmrI /g˙um.ri/ <ghuu.m.rii> fem. .a whirlpool. 3Umvu& /g˙um.vu~/ <ghuu.m.vu~> v.intr. .to move around. 3Urkvu& /g˙u.rk.vu~/ <ghuu.r.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to roar angrily 2. to snarl. 3Usi8yu& /g˙u.s.¯i.ju~/ <ghu.s.¯i.ju~> adj. .a person with intruding nature. 3Usvu& /g˙us.vu~/ <ghuu.s.vu~> v.intr. .1. to thrust into 2. to enter forcefully or withour prior permission. 3U&48 /g˙u~.ˇ¯/ <ghuu~.ˇ.¯> masc. .the knee. 3U&4I /g˙u~.ˇi/ <ghuu~.ˇii> fem. .the shin- bone. 3U&4I /g˙u~.ˇi/ <ghuu~.ˇii> fem. .a puzzle. 3e4u& /g˙e.ˇu~/ <ghe.ˇu~> neut. .a sheep. 3en /g˙en/ <ghe.n> neut. .intoxication. 3ebr /g˙e.br/ <ghe.b.r> neut. .a kind of sweet. 3er /g˙er/ <ghe.r> masc. .circumference. 3ervu& /g˙er.vu~/ <ghe.r.vu~> v.tr. .to surround. 3eru& /g˙e.ru~/ <ghe.ru~> adj. .deep or dark (usually a color). 3el2a /g˙el.c˙a/ <ghe.la.cha> fem. .a craze. 3elu& /g˙e.lu~/ <ghe.lu~> adj. .craziness. 3o /g˙o/ <gho> fem. .a kind of lizard. 3o6aga6I /g˙o.Îa.g˙a.Îi/ <gho.Îa.gha.Îii> fem. .a horse- carriage. 3o6apUr /g˙o.Îa.pur/ <gho.Îa.puu.r> neut. .a sudden flood. 3o6Iyu& /g˙o.Îi.ju~/ <gho.Îii.ju~> neut. .a cradle. 3o6I /g˙o.Îi/ <gho.Îii> fem. .a mare.
  • 55. 55 3o6o /g˙o.Îo/ <gho.Îo> masc. .a horse. 3or /g˙or/ <gho.r> adj. .terrible. 3orvu& /g˙or.vu~/ <gho.r.vu~> v.intr. .to snore. 3oXvu& /g˙oÆ.vu~/ <gho.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to soften by pressing on all sides. c ckckvu& /ck.ck.vu~/ <c.k.c.k.vu~> v.intr. .1.to shine 2. to glitter. ckckIt /ck.c.kit/ <c.k.c.kii.t> adj. .shining. ck6oX /ck.ÎoÆ/ <c.k.Îo.Æ> masc. .marry-go-round. cktI /ck.ti/ <c.k.tii> fem. .a name plate. cklo /ck.lo/ <c.k.lo> masc. .a male sparrow. cklI /ck.li/ <c.k.lii> fem. .a female sparrow. ckXivkX /c.kÆ.vi.kÆ/ <c.k.Æ.vi.k.Æ> adj. . frightened and puzzled. ckamu& /c.ka.mu~/ <c.ka.mu~> neut. .1. sun-burn 2. sore. ckasvu& /c.kas.vu~/ <c.ka.s.vu~> v.tr. .to examine. ckor /c.kor/ <c.ko.r> adj. .alert. ckkr /ck.kr/ <c.kk.r> neut. .a circle. ck/m /ck.rm/ <c.kr.m> masc. .a senseless person. ck/v<i)0 /ck.r.vrud˙.d˙i/ <c.kr.vr≤.dhdhi> adj. . compound interest. ck/akar /ck.ra.kar/ <c.kra.ka.r> adj. .circular. cgdvu& /c.gd.vu~/ <c.g.d.vu~> v.tr. .1. to trample 2. to crush. cgXvu& /c.gÆ.vu~/ <c.g.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .1. to chew slowly 2. to munch. cc8vu& /c.c¯.vu~/ <c.c.¯.vu~> v.exp. .to feel a burning pain. c4kvu& /c.ˇk.vu~/ <c.ˇ.k.vu~> v.tr. .to string. c48I /cˇ.¯i/ <c.ˇ.¯ii> fem. .ketchup. c4p4 /cˇ.pˇ/ <c.ˇ.p.ˇ> advb. .instantly. c4p4I /cˇ.p.ˇi/ <c.ˇ.p.ˇii> fem. .uneasiness. c4a; /c.ˇai/ <c.ˇa.i> fem. .a mat. c6wtr /cÎ.u.tr/ <c.Î.u.t.r> fem. .1. rise and fall 2. ascent and descent. c6c6vu& /cÎ.cÎ.vu~/ <c.Î.c.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to burn with a creaking sound. c6tI /cÎ.ti/ <c.Î.tii> fem. .1. rise 2. increase.
  • 56. 56 c6tI p6tI /cÎ.ti pÎ.ti/ <c.Î.tii.p.Î.tii> fem. . rise and fall. c6tu& /cÎ.tu~/ <c.Î.tu~> adj. .rising. c6vu& /cÎ.vu~/ <c.Î.vu~> v.intr. .1. to climb 2. to rise. c6sac6sI /cÎ.sa. cÎ.si/ <c.Î.sa.c.Î.sii> fem. . intense rivalry. c6a; /c.Îai/ <c.Îa.i> fem. .an invasion. c66I /cÎ.Îi/ <c.ÎÎii> fem. .shorts. c8 /c¯/ <c.¯> masc. .grains for birds. c8vu& /c¯.vu~/ <c.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to construct. c8vu& /c¯.vu~/ <c.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to eat (by birds). ci8yo /c.¯i.jo/ <c.¯i.jo> masc. .petticoat. c8o /c.¯o/ masc. <c.¯o> a grain of gram. ctur /c.tur/ <c.tu.r> adj. .clever. ctura /c.tu.ra/ <c.tu.ra> fem. .a clever woman (used mainly in literary language) ctura; /c.tu.rai/ <c.tu.ra> fem. .cleverness. cp4I /cp.ˇi/ <c.p.ˇii> fem. .a snap of fingers. cpX /c.pÆ/ <c.p.Æ> adj. .skilful. cpa4I /c.pa.ˇi/ <c.pa.ˇii> fem. .a bread. cpocp /c.po.cp/ <c.po.c.p> advb. .quickly. cPpu /cp.pu/ <cp.pu> neut. .a knife. cbr`I /c.br.k˙i/ <c.b.r.khii> fem. .a small piece of paper (mainly hand written) cbrak /cb.rak/ <c.b.ra.k> adj. .1.clever 2. talkative. cbUtro /c.but.ro/ <c.buu.t.ro> masc. .a public bird feeder. cmk /c.mk/ <c.m.k> fem. .brightness. cmco /cm.co/ <c.m.co> masc. .a spoon. cmTkar /c.mt.kar/ <c.m.tka.r> masc. .a miracle. cmelI /c.me.li/ <c.me.lii> fem. .a kind of flower plant. crk /c.rk/ <c.r.k> fem. .a bird’s excrement. cr`o /cr.k˙o/ <c.r.kho> masc. .a spinning wheel. cr8 /c.r¯/ <c.r.¯> masc. .legs (formal).
  • 57. 57 crbI /cr.bi/ <c.r.bii> fem. .fat. crvu& /cr.vu~/ <c.r.vu~> v.tr. .to graze. cir{a /c.rit.r/ <c.ri.tr> neut. .character. cru /c.ru/ <c.ru> masc. .a pot with broad mouth. ccRvu& /crc.vu~/ <c.rc.vu~> v.tr. .to discuss. ccaR /cr.ca/ <c.rca> fem. .discussion. cl8 /c.l¯/ <c.l.¯> neut. .currency. cva8u& /c.va.¯u~/ <c.va.¯u~> neut. .a type of food. cskvu& /c.sk.vu~/ <c.s.k.vu~> v.intr. .1.to slip 2. to escape 3. to be lost- minded. csko /cs.ko/ <c.s.ko> masc. .1.mascular pain 2. addiction. chero /c.he.ro/ <c.he.ro> masc. .a face. cX /cÆ/ <c.Æ> fem. .itching sensation. cXvX /c.vÆ/ <c.Æ.v.Æ> fem. .a movement. cXvu& /cÆ.vu~/ <c.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .1. to move 2. to break a promise. cXam8 /c.Æa.m¯/ <c.Æa.m.¯> neut. .leftover after sifting. c&cX /cµ.cÆ/ <c~.c.Æ> adj. .unsteady. c&dn /cn.dn/ <c~.d.n> neut. .a sandal-tree. c&± /cn.dr/ <c~.dr> masc. .the moon. c&pl /cm.pl/ <c~.p.l> masc. .sleeper. c&po /cm.po/ <c~.po> masc. .a flower plant. ca /ca/ <ca> fem. .tea. cakI /ca.ki/ <ca.kii> fem. .a small metal bolt. caku /ca.ku/ <ca.ku> neut. .a knife. ca`vu& /cak˙.vu~/ <ca.kh.vu~> v.tr. .to taste. ca4vu& /caˇ.vu~/ <ca.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to lick. ca5u& /ca.ˇ˙u~/ <ca.ˇhu~> neut. .1. a scar 2. a skin-burn. caplUsI /cap.lu.si/ <ca.p.lu.sii> fem. .flattery. cab`o /cab.k˙o/ <ca.b.kho> masc. .1. a whip 2. a kind of poem that criticizes social evils. cabUk /ca.buk/ <ca.buu.k> masc. .a whip. cam6I /cam.Îi/ <ca.m.Îii> fem. .skin. cam6u& /cam.Îu~/ <ca.m.Îu~> neut. .leather. camacI6Iyu& /ca.ma.ci.Îi.ju~/ <ca.ma.cii.Îii.ju~> neut. .a bat.
  • 58. 58 car /car/ <ca.r> fem. .1. fresh grass 2. fodder. car8 /ca.r¯/ <ca.r.¯> masc. .1. a bard 2. a name of a caste/ community. carpa; /car.pai/ <ca.r.pa.i> fem. .a cot. cair{a /ca.rit.r/ <c.ri.tr> neut. .character. caro /ca.ro/ <ca.ro> masc. .fodder. cal /cal/ <ca.l> fem. .style of walking. cal /cal/ <ca.l> fem. .a strategy. cal /cal/ <ca.l> masc. .1. a tradition 2. a custom. calclgt /cal.cl.gt/ <ca.l.c.l.g.t> fem. . behavior. calba@ /cal.ba.Ôi/ <ca.l.ba.Ôii> fem. cleverness. calvu& /cal.vu~/ <ca.l.vu~> v.intr. .to walk. calak /ca.lak/ <ca.la.k> adj. .1.clever 2. skilful. calakI /ca.la.ki/ <ca.la.kii> fem. .1. a trick 2. cleverness. calu /ca.lu/ <ca.lu> adj. .1.moving 2. a person with loose character. cavvu& /cav.vu~/ <ca.v.vu~> v.tr. .to chew. cavI /ca.vi/ <ca.vii> fem. .a key. cas /cas/ <ca.s> masc. .a furrow. caX8I /ca.Æ.¯i/ <ca.Æ.¯ii> fem. .a sieve. caXvu& /caÆ.vu~/ <ca.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to sift. calIs /ca.lis/ <ca.li.s> adj. .forty. co&c /cø~c/ <co~.c> fem. .a beak. ca&c6 /ca~.cÎ/ <co~.c.Î> masc. .a flea. ca&d /ca~d/ <co~.d> masc. .the moon. ca&dnI /ca~d.ni/ <co~.d.nii> fem. .moonlight. ca&dlo /ca~d.lo/ <ca~.d.lo> masc. .an auspicious mark done on the forehead. ca&dI /ca~.di/ <ca~.dii> fem. .silver. ca&dI /ca~.di/ <ca~.dii> fem. .syphilis. ca&du& /ca~.du~/ <ca~.du~> neut. .an ulcer. ca&do /ca~.do/ <ca~.do> masc. .the moon. ca&p /ca~p/ <ca~.p> fem. .a switch. ca&plu& /ca~p.lu~/ <ca~.p.lu~> adj. .over wise. ickar /ci.kar/ <ci.ka.r> adj. .full. iccyarI /cic.ja.ri/ <ci.c.ja.rii> fem. .a shrilling cry. ic55I /ciˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <ci.ˇhˇhii> fem. .1. a note 2. a small informal letter. ic6avu& /ci.Îa.vu~/ <ci.Îa.vu~> v.intr. .to be vexed. icta /ci.ta/ <ci~.ta> fem. .a funeral-pyre.
  • 59. 59 ictar /ci.tar/ <ci.ta.r> masc. .1.a picture 2. a detail narration. ic]a /cit.t/ <ci.tt> neut. .the mind. ic]ao /cit.to/ <ci.tto> masc. .1.a panther 2. a leopard. ic{a /cit.r/ <ci.tr> neut. .1. a picture 2. a drawing. icbavlu& /ci.bav.lu~/ <ci.ba.v.lu~> adj. 1.overwise 2. childish. icbuk /ci.buk/ <ci.buu.k> fem. .the chin. icr&@vI /ci.rn..Ôi.vi/ <ci.r~.Ôii.vii> adj. 1. having longevity 2. also used to address a son, a daughter or any person who is younger to the addresser. icrag /ci.rag/ <ci.ra.g> masc. .a lamp. ich.n /cih..n/ <ci.hn> neut. .1. a mark 2. a trait. ic&tk /cin.tk/ <ci~.t.k> masc. .thinker. ic&tn /cin.tn/ <ci~.t.n> neut. .1. deep thinking 2. meditation. ic&ta /cin.ta/ <ci~.ta> fem. .worry. cIk8u& /cik.¯u~/ <ci.k.¯u~> adj. .1. sticky 2. greasy. cIkI /ci.ki/ <cii.kii> fem. .a kind of sweet. cIku /ci.ku/ <cii.ku> neut. .1. a tree 2. a fruit of the cIku tree. cIj /ciÔ/ <ci.Ô> fem. .a thing. cI6 /ciÎ/ <cii.Î> fem. .disgust. cItrvu& /ci.tr.vu~/ <cii.t.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to sketch 2. to draw. cItXo /cit.Æo/ <cii.t.Æo> masc. .a kind of serpent. cInI /ci.ni/ <cii.nii> adj. .Chinese. cIp /cip/ <cii.p> fem. .1. a strip 2. a deal in the card game. cIipyo /ci.pi.jo/ <cii.pi.jo> masc. .pincers. cIbu& /ci.bu~/ <cii.bu~> adj. .flat-nosed. cImXvu& /ci.mÆ.vu~/ <ci.m.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .1. to pinch 2. to twist. cIrvu& /cir.vu~/ <cii.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to tear 2. to split. cIrI /ci.ri/ <cii.rii> fem. .a slice of fruit or pickle. cIro /ci.ro/ <cii.ro> masc. .1. a cut 2. a long piece of cloth. cIv4 /ci.vˇ/ <cii.v.ˇ> fem. .care. cIs /cis/ <cii.s> fem. .a scream. cI&9ru& /ci~t˙.ru~/ <cii.th.ru~> neut. .a arg. cI&9rehal /cith˙.re.hal/ <cii.th.re.ha.l> adj. 1. dressed in rags 2. extremely poor. cI&0vu& /ci~d˙.vu~/ <ci~.dh.vu~> v.tr. .to point with a finger.
  • 60. 60 cUkado /cu.ka.do/ <cuu.ka.do> masc. .a judgment. cu6el /cu.Îel/ <cu.Îe.l> fem. .a kind of female ghost. cup /cup/ <cuu.p> adj. .quite. cUpkIdI /cup.ki.di/ <cu.p.kii.dii> fem. .silence. cUpcap /cup.cap/ <cuu.p.ca.p> advb. .stealthily. cUSt /cus.t/ <cu.st> adj. .1. tight 2. staunch. cu&gal /cu˜.gal/ <cu~.ga.l> fem. .1. a claw 2. a trap. cu&gI /cu˜.gi/ <cu~.gii> fem. .a smoking- pipe. cu&bn /cum.bn/ <cu~.b.n> neut. .a kiss. cu&maXIs /cu~.ma.Æis/ <cu~.ma.Æii.s> adj. .forty four. cu&moter /cu~.mo.ter/ <cu~.mo.te.r> adj. .seventy four. cUkvvu& /cu.kv.vu~/ <cuu.k.v.vu~> v.tr. .to make the payment. cUkvu& /cuk.vu~/ <cuu.k.vu~> v.intr. .to miss. cUgvu& /cug.vu~/ <cuu.g.vu~> v.tr. .to eat (by birds). cU6I /cu.Îi/ <cuu.Îii> fem. .a bangle. cUnI /cu.ni/ <cuu.nii> fem. .a nose ring. cUmvu& /cum.vu~/ <cuu.m.vu~> v.tr. .to kiss. cUlo /cu.lo/ <cuu.lo> masc. .a fire-place for cooking. cUvu& /cu.vu~/ <cuu.vu~> v.intr. .to ooze. cUsvu& /cus.vu~/ <cuu.s.vu~> v.tr. .to suck. cU&k /cu~k/ <cu~.k> fem. .stomach pain. cU&k /cu~k/ <cuu~.k> fem. .a nail. cU&9vu& /cu~t˙.vu~/ <cuu~.th.vu~> v.tr. .to ransack. cU&d6I /cu~nd.Îi/ <cu~.d.Îii> fem. .a kind of sari. cekvu& /cek.vu~/ <ce.k.vu~> v.tr. .to erase. cetn /ce.tn/ <ce.t.n> adj. .animate. cetna /cet.na/ <ce.t.na> fem. .consciousness. cetv8I /ce.tv.¯i/ <ce.t.v.¯ii> fem. .1.a warning 2. caution. cetvvu& /ce.tv.vu~/ <ce.t.v.vu~> v.tr. .to warn. cetvu& /cet.vu~/ <ce.t.vu~> v.intr. .to be alert. cen /cen/ <ce.n> neut. .peace. cep /cep/ <ce.p> masc. .infection.
  • 61. 61 celo /ce.lo/ <ce.lo> masc. .a male disciple. celI /ce.li/ <ce.lo> fem. .a female disciple. cev6o /cev.Îo/ <ce.v.Îo> masc. .a food item. ceh /ceh/ <ce.h> fem. .a funeral pyre. cEtNy /ci.tn.j/ <c.t.nj> neut. .1. life-spirit 2. the supreme being. cE{a /cit.r/ <c.tr> masc. .the sixth month of the Vikram year. cok /cøk/ <co.k> masc. .a square. cok6I /cøk.Îi/ <co.k.Îii> fem. .1. a washing place in house 2. a place where four roads cross. cokks /cok.ks/ <co.kk.s> advb. .surely. coksI /cøk.si/ <co.k.sii> masc. .1. a surname 2. a dealer in gold and silver. cokI /cø.ki/ <co.kii> fem. .1. a police station 2. a watch-gate. co`a /co.k˙a/ <co.kha> masc. .rice. co~`a.; /cok˙.k˙a.i/ <co.khkha.ii> adj. .cleanliness. co~`u& /cok˙.k˙u~/ <co.khkhu~> adj. .clean. cogan /co.gan/ <co.ga.n> neut. .a plain. co36Iyu& /co.g˙.Îi.ju~/ <co.gh.Îio.ju~> neut. .a unit of time divided to determine auspicious and inauspicious period. co4 /coˇ/ <co.ˇ> fem. .a blow. co4vu& /cøˇ.vu~/ <co.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. .to stick. co6vu& /cøÎ.vu~/ <co.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to strike. cotrf /co.t.rp˙/ <co.t.r.ph> advb. .on all sides. co{aIs /cøt.ris/ <co.trii.s> adj. .thirty four. co9 /cot˙/ <co.th> fem. .fouth day of both of the fortnights of a lunar month. co0ar /co.d˙ar/ <co.dha.r> adj. .immense (tears and rain) copgu& /co.p.gu~/ <co.p.gu~> adj. quadruped. cop6vu& /co.pÎ.vu~/ <co.p.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to lubricate 1. to grease. cop6I /cop.Îi/ <co.p.Îii> fem. .a book. cop6o /cop.Îo/ <co.p.Îo> masc. .an account book. copn /co.pn/ <co.p.n> adj. .fifty four. copanIyu& /co.pa.ni.ju~/ <co.pa.nii.ju~> neut. .a pamphlet. comasu& /co.ma.su~/ <co.ma.su~> neut. monsoon.
  • 62. 62 cor /cor/ <co.r> masc. .a thief. corvu& /cor.vu~/ <co.r.vu~> v.tr. .to steal. cors /co.rs/ <co.r.s> masc. .1. a square figure 2. a square. cora=I /co.ra.ßi/ <co.ra.ßii> adj. .eighty four. corI /co.ri/ <co.rii> fem. .a theft. corI /cø.ri/ <co.rii> fem. .a square structure where marriage ritaul is performed. coro /cø.ro/ <co.ro> masc. .a public meeting place in villages. covIs /co.vis/ <co.vii.s> adj. .twenty four. cos5 /co.sˇ˙/ <co.s.ˇh> adj. .sixty four. coslu& /cos.lu~/ <co.s.lu~> neut. .a thick block or slice. coXvu& /coÆ.vu~/ <co.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to rub. coXa /co.Æa/ <co.Æa> masc. .a kind of pulse. coXI /co.Æi/ <co.Æii> fem. a woman’s bodies. co&kvu& /co~k.vu~/ <co.k.vu~> v.intr. .to be startled. cOd /cud/ <cu.d> adj. .fourteen. 2 2 /c˙/ <ch> adj. .six. 2kvu& /c˙k.vu~/ <ch.k.vu~> v.intr. .to go astray. 2kko /ck.ko/ <ch.kko> masc. .the six in a suit of playing cards. 22u&dr /c˙.c˙un.dr/ <ch.chu~.d.r> neut. .a mole. 24kvu& /c˙.ˇk.vu~/ <ch.ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to slip away 2. to escape. 24ku& /c˙ˇ.ku~/ <ch.ˇ.k.vu~> neut. .a trap. 25 /c˙ˇ˙/ <ch.ˇh> fem. .sixth day of the fortnight of the Hindu month. 26vu& /c˙Î.vu~/ <ch.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to thrash. 26a /c˙.Îa/ <ch.Îa> masc. .anklets. 28kvu& /c˙.¯k.vu~/ <ch.¯.k.vu~> v.intr. .to speak angrily. 28ko /c˙¯.ko/ <ch.¯.ko> masc. .a rude angry uterance. 2t /c˙t/ <ch.t> fem. .availability. 2t /c˙t/ <ch.t> fem. .a ceiling. 2ta& /c˙.ta~/<ch.ta~> advb. .however. 2{aI /c˙t.ri/ <ch.trii> fem. .an umbrella. 2{aIs /c˙t.ris/ <ch.trii.s> adj. .thirty six.
  • 63. 63 2br6o /c˙.br.Îo/ <ch.b.r.Îo> masc. .a fiasco. 2bI /c˙.bi/ <ch.bii> fem. .1. a picture 2. a portrait. 2m2m /c˙m.c˙m/ <ch.m.ch.m> advb. .with a jingling sound. 2l&g /c˙.l˜.g/ <ch.l~.g> fem. .a long leap. 2la2l /c˙.la.c˙l/ <ch.la.ch.l> advb. .over flowing. 2VvIs /c˙v.vis/ <ch.vvii.s> adj. .twenty six. 2X /c˙Æ/ <ch.Æ> neut. .a fraud. 2&2e6vu& /c˙.nc˙eÎ.vu~/ <ch~.che.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to enrage. 2&d /c˙n.d/ <ch~.d> masc. .an addiction. 2&d /c˙n.d/ <ch~.d> masc. .a poetic meter. 2a8 /c˙a¯/ <cha.¯> neut. .a dung of buffalo, cow, bullock and oxen. 2a8u& /c˙a.¯u~/ <cha.¯u~> neut. .a dung- cake used as fuel. 2atI /c˙a.ti/ <cha.tii> fem. .the chest. 2anu& /c˙a.nu~/ <cha.nu~> adj. . secret. 2ap /c˙ap/ <cha.p> fem. .1. an impression 2. a print. 2apru& /c˙ap.ru~/ <cha.p.ru~> neut. .a hut. 2apvu& /c˙ap.vu~/ <cha.p.vu~> v.tr. .to print. 2apu& /c˙a.pu~/ <cha.pu~> neut. .a newspaper. 2ab /c˙ab/ <cha.b> fem. a bamboo basket. 2ab6I /c˙ab.Îi/ <cha.b.Îii> fem. a bamboo basket. 2aya /c˙a.ja/ <cha.ja> fem. .a shadow. 2al /c˙al/ <cha.l> fem. .a bark. 2alk /c˙a.lk/ <cha.l> fem. .a splash. 2ala& /c˙a.la~/ <cha.la~> neut. pl..1. husks 2. peels. 2av8I /c˙av.¯i/ <cha.v.¯ii> fem. .a camp. 2avrvu& /c˙a.vr.vu~/ <cha.v.r.vu~> v.tr. .to conceal. 2a= /c˙aß/ <cha.ß> fem. .butter milk. 2as5 /c˙a.sˇ˙/ <cha.s.ˇ> adj. .sixty six. 2a&4o /c˙a~.ˇo/ <cha~.ˇo> masc. .a drop. 2a&6vu& /c˙a~Î.vu~/ <cha~.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to leave surplus food in the dining plate. 2I /c˙i/ <chii> fem. .excretion. 2I /c˙i/ <chii> advb. .an expression showing hatred.
  • 64. 64 2Invvu& /c˙i.nv.vu~/ <chii.n.v.vu~> v.tr. .to snatch. 2Ip /c˙ip/ <chii.p> fem. .a shell. 2U4 /c˙uˇ/ <chuu.ˇ> fem. .1. leave 2. speciousness. 2U4k /c˙u.tk/ <chuu.ˇ.k> adj. .retail. 2U4k /c˙u.tk/ <chuu.ˇ.k> advb. .by retail. 2U42a4 /c˙uˇ.c˙aˇ/ <chuu.ˇ.cha.ˇ> fem. a concession. 2U4vu& /c˙uˇ.vu~/ <chuu.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be free 2. to be relieved. 2U4a2e6a /c˙u.ˇa.c˙e.Îa/ <chuu.ˇa.che.Îa> masc. .a divorce. 2U4u& /c˙u.tu~/ <chuu.ˇu~> adj. .free. 2Upu& /c˙u.pu~/ <chuu.pu~> adj. .1. concealed 2. secret. 2U&d8u& /c˙u~n.d.¯u~/ <chuu~.d.¯u~> neut. .tattoo. 2U&do /c˙u~.do/ <chu~.do> masc. .minced pickle. 2ek /c˙ek/ <che.k> advb. .entirely. 2ekvu& /c˙ek.vu~/ <che.k.vu~> v.tr. .to strike. 2e6tI /c˙eÎ.ti/ <che.Î.tii> fem. .a prank. 2e6vu& /c˙eÎ.vu~/ <che.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to tease. 2e6o /c˙e.Îo/ <che.Îo> masc. .the end. 2etrpI&6I /c˙e.tr.pi¯.Îi/ <che.t.r.pi~.Îii> fem. .a cheating. 2etrvu& /c˙e.tr.vu~/ <che.t.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to cheat 2. to deceive. 2etram8 /c˙et.ra.m¯/ <che.t.ra.m.¯> fem. .cheating. 2etram8u& /c˙et.ram.¯u~/ <che.t.ra.m.¯u~> adj. .deceitful. 2etaXIs /c˙e.ta.Æi.s/ <che.ta.Æii.s> adj. . forty six. 2ed /c˙ed/ <che.d> masc. .a cut. 2edvu& /c˙ed.vu~/ <che.d.vu~> v.tr. .to cut. 2eLlu& /c˙el.lu~/ <che.llu~> adj. .last. 2ev4e /c˙e.v.ˇe/ <che.v.ˇe> advb. .at last. 2okrmt /c˙o.kr.mt/ <cho.k.r.m.t> adj. . childish. 2okrI /c˙ok.ri/ <cho.k.rii> fem. .a girl. 2okru& /c˙ok.ru~/ <cho.k.ru~> neut. .a child. 2okro /c˙ok.ro/ <cho.k.ro> masc. .a boy. 2o6vu& /c˙oÎ.vu~/ <cho.Î.vu~> v.tr..1. to release 2. to free 3. to untie. 2otru& /c˙ot.ru~/ <cho.t.ru~> neut. .a peel.
  • 65. 65 2ol /c˙ol/ <cho.t.ru~> masc. .wood- scraping 2olvu& /c˙ol.vu~/ <cho.l.vu~> v.tr. .1. to scrape 2. peel. 2oter /c˙o.ter/ <cho.te.r> adj. .seventy- six. 2yasI /c˙ja.si/ <chja.sii> adj. .eighty-six. j j /Ô/ <Ô> part.. emphasis marker. jkat /Ô.kat/ <Ô.ka.t> fem. .custom duty. jkkI /Ôk.ki/ <Ô.kkii> adj. .stubborn. j`m /Ô.k˙m/ <Ô.kh.m> masc. .a wound. jgt /Ô.gt/ <Ô.g.t> neut. .the world. jGya /Ô.gja/ <Ô.gja> fem. .a place. j6 /ÔÎ/ <Ô.Î> adj. .inanimate. j6bato6 /ÔÎ.ba.toÎ/ <Ô.Î.ba.to.Î> adj. . irrefutable. j6bu& /ÔÎ.bu~/ <Ô.Î.bu~> neut. .the jaw. j6-rt /ÔÎ.b˙.rt/ <Ô.Î.bh.r.t> adj. stupid. j6vu& /ÔÎ.vu~/ <Ô.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to fix things with nails etc. j6vu& /ÔÎ.vu~/ <Ô.Î.vu~> v.dat.. to regain a lost thing. j8 /Ô¯/ <Ô¯> neut. .1. an individual 2. a person. j8vu& /Ô¯.vu~/ <Ô.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to give a birth. j8avvu& /Ô.¯av.vu~/ <Ô.¯a.v.vu~> v.tr. .to inform. jtn /Ô.tn/ <Ô.ka.t> neut. .care. jNm /Ôn.m/ <Ô.nm> masc. .birth. jnm /Ô.nm/ <Ô.n.m> masc. .birth. jNmku&6XI /Ô.nm.ku¯.Î.Æi/ <Ô.nm.ku~.Î.Æii> fem. .a horoscope. jNm4Ip /Ôn.m.ˇip/ <Ô.nm.ˇii.p> fem. .a life time imprisonment. jNmaQ4mI /Ôn.maß.ˇ.mi/ <Ô.nma.s°ˇ.mii> fem. .Lord Krishna’s birth day. jnmojnm /Ôn.mo.Ô.nm/ <Ô.n.mo.Ô.n.m> advb. .in each birth. jp /Ôp/ <Ô.p> masc. .1. a muttering of a deity’s name, 2. recition. jpvu& /Ôp.vu~/ <Ô.p.vu~> v.tr. .to mutter s deity’s name as a part of some ritual. jm8 /Ô.m¯/ <Ô.m.¯> neut. .a formal dinner. jm8var /Ô.m¯.var/ <Ô.m.¯.va.r> masc. .a formal community dinner. jm8u& /Ôm.¯u~/ <Ô.m.¯u~> adj. .right.
  • 66. 66 jmvu& /Ôm.vu~/ <Ô.m.vu~> v.tr. .1. to eat, 2. dine (formal). jma /Ô.ma/ adj. .<Ô.ma> 1. of the credit side 2. accumulated. jma; /Ô.ma.i/ <Ô.ma.ii> masc. .a son- in-law. jmat /Ô.mat/ <Ô.ma.t> fem. .a body of monks. jmadar /Ô.ma.dar/ <Ô.ma.da.r> masc. .a head of a small police unit. jmano /Ô.ma.no/ <Ô.ma.no> masc. .an age or era. jmIn /Ô.min/ <Ô.mii.n> fem. .land. jr /Ôr/ <Ô.r> neut. .wealth. jr` /Ô.rk˙/ <Ô.r.kh> neut. .a wild animal. jra /Ô.ra/ <Ô.ra> advb. .a little. jldI ~ jLdI /Ôl.di/ <Ô.l.dii> ~ <Ô.ldii> advb. .quickly. jlso /Ôl.so/ <Ô.l.so> masc. .a meeting for entertainment. jlebI /Ô.le.bi/ <Ô.le.bii> fem. .a kind of sweet. jLlad /Ôl.lad/ <Ô.lla.d> masc. .an executioner. jv /Ôv/ <Ô.v> masc. .barley. jvLle /Ô.vl.le/ <Ô.v.lle> advb. .rarely. jvab /Ô.vab/ <Ô.va.b> masc. .answer. jvu& /Ô.vu~/ <Ô.vu~> v.intr. .to go. j= /Ôß/ <Ô.ß> masc. .reputation. jhaj /Ô.haÔ/ <Ô.ha.Ô> neut. .a large ship. j&gl /Ô˜.gl/ <Ô~.g.l> neut. .a forest. j&tu /Ôn.tu/ <Ô~.tu~> neut. .an insect. j&p /Ôm.p/ <Ô~.p> masc. ..ease 2. peace. jagr8 /Ôag.r¯/ <Ôa.g.r.¯> neut. .1. sleeplessness 2. a religious vow of the women. jagvu& /Ôag.vu~/ <Ôa.g.vu~> v.intr. .to wake from sleep. jajm /Ôa.Ôm/ <Ôa.Ô.m> fem. .a carpet. jajru& /ÔaÔ.ru~/ <Ôa.Ô.ru~> neut. .a latrine. jajrman /Ôa.Ôr.man/ <Ôa.Ô.r.ma.n> adj. .glorious. ja6a; /Ôa.Îai/ <Ôa.Îa.ii> fem. .thickness. ja6u& /Ôa.Îu~/ <Ôa.Îu~> adj. .1. fat 2. thick. ja8 /Ôa¯/ <Ôa.¯> fem. .information. ja8vu& /Ôa¯.vu~/ <Ôa.¯.vu~> v.tr. .to know. ja8Itu& /Ôa.¯i.tu~/ <Ôa.¯ii.tu~> adj. .famous. ja8e /Ôa.¯e/ <Ôa.¯e> advb. .as if.
  • 67. 67 jat /Ôat/ <Ôa.t> fem. .1.a tribe 2. a caste 3. a community. jatkma; /Ôat.k.ma.i/ <Ôa.t.k.ma.ii> fem. self-earned income. jait /Ôa.ti/ <Ôa.ti> fem. .1. a caste 2. a group 3. a community. jatIy /Ôa.ti.j/ <Ôa.tii.j> adj. .sexual. jate /Ôa.te/ <Ôa.te> advb. .personally. ja{aa /Ôat.ra/ <Ôa.tra> fem. .a pilgrim. jadu /Ôa.du/ <Ôa.du> masc. .a magic. jan /Ôan/ <Ôa.n> fem. .a marriage party of the bridegroom. jan /Ôan/ <Ôa.n> masc. .the jiva (life). janmal /Ôan.mal/ <Ôa.n.ma.l> masc. .life and property. janvr /Ôan.vr/ <Ôa.n.v.r> neut. .an animal. janEyo /Ôa.ni.jo/ <Ôa.ni.jo> masc. .a member of the bride groom’s marriage party. jap /Ôap/ <Ôa.p> masc. .recitation. jam /Ôam/ <Ôa.m> masc. .a glass. jamfX /Ôam.pÆ/ <Ôa.m.ph.Æ> neut. .a guava. jamvu& /Ôam.vu~/ <Ôa.m.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be solidify 2. to congeal 3. to get assembled. jamIn /Ôa.min/ <Ôa.mii.n> masc. .a surety. javk /Ôa.vk/ <Ôa.v.k> fem. .being dispatched. jasUs /Ôa.sus/ <Ôa.suu.s> masc. .1. a spy 2. a detective 3. a secret agent. jaso /Ôa.so/ <Ôa.so> masc. .a threatening letter written anonymously. jaher /Ôa.her/ <Ôa.he.r> adj. .1. open 2. public. jaherat /Ôa.he.rat/ <Ôa.he.ra.t> fem. .1.an advertisement 2. a notification 3. an announcement. jaX /ÔaÆ/ <Ôa.Æ> fem. .a net of a hunter or a fisherman. jaXv8I /Ôa.Æv.¯i/ <Ôa.Æ.v.¯ii> fem. .preservation. jaiXyu& /Ôa.Æi.ju~/ <Ôa.Æi.ju~> neut. .a kind of ventilator. ja&3 /Ôa~˜.g/ <Ôa~.gh> fem. .the thigh. ja&bu /Ôa~m.bu/ <Ôa~.bu> neut. .a kind of berry. ij@ivqa /Ôi.Ôi.vi.ßa/ <Ôi.Ôii.vi.s°a> fem. .a desire for life. ij}aasa /Ôi.gna.sa/ <Ôi.gna.sa> fem. .curiosity. ijd /Ôid/ <Ôi.d> fem. .obstinacy. ij¥I /Ôid.di/ <Ôi.ddii> adj. obstinate.
  • 68. 68 ijLlo /Ôil.lo/ <Ôi.llo> masc. .a district. ij&dgI /Ôind.gi/ <Ôii~.d.gii> fem. .life. @t /Ôit/ <Ôii.t> fem. .victory. @tvu& /Ôit.vu~/ <Ôii.t.vu~> v.intr. .to win. @n /Ôin/ <Ôii.n> neut. .a kind of ghost. @n /Ôin/ <Ôii.n> neut. .a saddle. @- /Ôi.b˙/ <Ôii.bh> fem. .the tongue. @-ajo6I /Ôi.b˙a.Ôo.Îi/ <Ôii.bha.Ôo.Îii> fem. .a quarrel. @rvvu& /Ôi.rv.vu~/ <Ôii.r.v.vu~> v.tr. .to digest. @ru& /Ôi.ru~/ <Ôii.ru~> neut. .cumin seed. @v /Ôiv/ <Ôii.v> masc. .embodied soul. @vj&tu& /Ôiv.Ôn.tu~/ <Ôii.v.Ô~.tu~> neut. .insects. @v6u& /Ôiv.Îu~/ <Ôii.v.Îu~> neut. .a small insect. @vtr /Ôiv.tr/ <Ôii.v.t.r> neut. .life. @vtu& /Ôiv.tu~/ <Ôii.v.tu~> adj. .living. @vdya /Ôiv.d.ja/ <Ôii.va.d.ja> fem. .kindness to all living beings. @vn /Ôi.vn/ <Ôii.v.n> neut. .life. @vncir{a /Ôi.vn.c.rit.r/ <Ôii.v.n.c.ri.tr> neut. .biography. @v-xI /Ôiv.b˙k.ßi/ <Ôii.v.bh.kshii> adj. . carnivorous. @vle8 /Ôiv.le¯/ <Ôii.v.le.¯> adj. .fatal. @vvu& /Ôiv.vu~/ <Ôii.v.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be alive 2. to exist. @vs4os4 /Ôiv.s.ˇo.sˇ/ <Ôii.v.s.ˇo.s.ˇ> advb. .at the risk of the life. @va8u& /Ôi.va.¯u~/ <Ôii.va.¯u~> masc. .a bacterium. @vat /Ôi.vat/ <Ôii.va.t> fem. .insects. @vaTma /Ôi.vat.ma/ <Ôii.va.tma> masc. .embodied soul. jugl /Ôu.gl/ <Ôu.g.l> neut. .1. a pair 2. a couplet. jugar /Ôu.gar/ <Ôu.ga.r> masc. .gambling. jugarI /Ôu.ga.ri/ <Ôu.ga.rii> masc. .a gambler. juguPsa /Ôu.gup.sa/ <Ôu.gu.psa> fem. .nausea. ju55u /Ôuˇ˙.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôu.ˇhˇhu~> adj. .lie. juda; /Ôu.da.i/ <Ôu.da.ii> fem. .separation. judu& /Ôu.du~/ <Ôu.du~> adj. .separate. junva8I /Ôun.va.ni/ <Ôu.n.va.¯ii> adj. .orthodox.
  • 69. 69 jubanI /Ôu.ba.ni/ <Ôu.ba.nii> fem. .oral testimony. jumlo /Ôum.lo/ <Ôu.m.lo> masc. .total Ex. total runs in criket. julab /Ôu.lab/ <Ôu.la.b> masc.. laxative. juvar /Ôu.var/ <Ôu.va.r> fem. .a kind of corn. juSso /Ôus.so/ <Ôu.sso> masc. .energy. jU /Ôu/ <Ôuu> fem. .a louse. jU; /Ôu.i/ <Ôu.ii> fem. .a kind of flower plant. jUj /ÔuÔ/ <Ôuu.Ô> adj. .little. jU5 /Ôuˇ˙/ <Ôu.ˇh> neut. .a lie. jU5u& /Ôu.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôu.ˇhu~> adj. .untrue. jU5u& /Ôu.ˇ˙u~/ <Ôhu.ˇhu~> adj. .the left out food. jU9 /Ôut˙/ <Ôuu.th> neut. .a group. jUnu& /Ôu.nu~/ <Ôuu.nu~> adj. .old. je5 /Ôeˇ˙/ <Ôe.ˇh> masc. .the eight month of Vikram samvat. je5 /Ôeˇ˙/ <Ôe.ˇh> masc. .the husband’s elder brother. je5a8I /Ôe.ˇ˙a.¯i/ <Ôe.ˇha.¯ii> fem. .the husband’s elder brother’s wife. jel /Ôel/ <Ôe.l> fem. .jail. jev6u& /Ôev.Îu~/ <Ôe.v.Îu~> adj. .as large as. jevu& /Ôe.vu~/ <Ôe.vu~> adj. .similar. jehad /Ôe.had/ <Ôe.ha.d> fem. .a crusade. jEn /Ôain/ <Ôi.n> masc. .a Jain. jEn /Ôin/ <Ôi.n> masc. .Jain religion. jEn /Ôin/ <Ôi.n> adj. .pertaining to Jain religion. jo /Ôo/ <Ôo> advb. .1. if 2. provided that. jo;Ý /Ôoi-/ <Ôo.ii> v.dat.. to need. (the only verb in Gujarati which does not have infinitive -vu&). jo`m /Ôo.k˙m/ <Ôo.kh.m> neut. .risk. jo`mavu& /Ôo.k˙.ma.vu~/ <Ôo.kh.ma.vu~> v.intr. .to be at risk. jo`vu& /Ôok˙.vu~/ <Ôo.kh.vu~> v.tr. .to weigh. jogva; /Ôog.va.i/ <Ôo.g.va.ii> fem. .provision. joganu&jog /Ôo.ga.nu~.Ôog/ <Ôo.ga.nu.Ôo.g> advb. . incidentally. jogI /Ôo.gi/ <Ôo.gii> masc. .a sadhu. jo6 /ÔoÎ/ <Ôo.Î> fem. .a pair. jo68I /ÔoÎ.¯i/ <Ôo.Î.¯ii> fem. .spelling.
  • 70. 70 jo68Iko= /ÔoÎ.¯i.koß/ <Ôo.Î.¯ii.ko.ß> masc. . spelling dictionary. jo6vu& /ÔoÎ.vu~/ <Ôo.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to connect 2. to join. jo6axr /Ôo.Îa.kßr/ <Ôo.Îa.kß.r> masc. .a conjunct consonant. jo6ajo6 /Ôo.Îa.ÔoÎ/ <Ôo.Îa.Ôo.Î> advb. .side by side. jo6a8 /Ôo.Îa¯/ <Ôo.Îa.¯> neut. .1. a connection 2. a joint. jo6Iyu& /Ôo.Îi.ju~/ <Ôo.Îii.ju~> adj. .twin. jo6I /Ôo.Îi/ <Ôo.Îii> fem. .a pair. jo6o /Ôo.Îo/ <Ôo.Îo> masc. .a shoe. jor /Ôor/ <Ôo.r> neut. .strength. jovu& /Ôo.vu~/ <Ôo.vu~> v.tr. .to look. jyar9I /Ôjar.t˙i/ <Ôja.r.thii> advb. .since. jyare /Ôja.re/ <Ôja.re> advb. .when. jya& /Ôja~/ <Ôja~> advb. .where. jyot /Ôjot/ <Ôjo.t> fem. .a flame. jyoitqI /Ôjo.ti.ßi/ <Ôjo.ti.s°ii> masc. .an astrologer. jvaXamu`I /Ôva.Æa.mu.k˙i/ <Ôva.Æa.mu.khii> masc. .a volcano. z zgmgvu& /Ô˙g.mg.vu~/ <Ôh.g.m.g.vu~> v.intr. to glitter. zgmga4 /Ô˙g.m.gaˇ/ <Ôh.g.m.ga.ˇ> masc. . glaring light. z36a`or /Ô˙g.Îa.k˙or/ <Ôh.g.Îa.kho.r> adj. . quarrelsome. z36az36I /Ô˙g.Îa.Ô˙g.Îi/ <Ôh.g.Îa.Ôh.g.Îii> fem. quarreling. z36o /Ô˙g.Îo/ <Ôh.gh.Îo> masc. .a quarrel. zzUmvu& /Ô˙.Ô˙um.vu~/ <Ôh.Ôhuu.m.vu~> v.intr. .1. to hand over 2. to struggle on. z4 /Ô˙ˇ/ <Ôh.ˇ> advb. .quickly. z4kvu& /Ô˙.ˇk.vu~/ <Ôh.ˇ.k.vu~> v.tr. .to jerk. z4ko /Ô˙ˇ.ko/ <Ô.ˇ.ko> masc. .a sharp blow. z4p4 /Ô˙ˇ.pˇ/ <Ôh.ˇ.p.ˇ> advb. .hurriedly. z6tI /Ô˙Î.ti/ <Ôh.Î.tii> fem. .a confiscation. z6p /Ô˙.Îp/ <Ôh.Î.p> fem. .speed. z6pvu& /Ô˙.Îp.vu~/ <Ôh.Î.p.vu~> v.tr. .to seize. z6pI /Ô˙Î.pi/ <Ôh.Î.pii> adj. .speedy. z8z8 /Ô˙¯.Ô˙¯/ <Ôh.¯.Ôh.¯> masc. .a tinkling sound.
  • 71. 71 zpazpI /Ô˙.pa.Ô˙.pi/ <Ôh.pa.Ôh.pii> fem. .a scuffle. zbkvu& /Ô˙.bk.vu~/ <Ôh.b.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to flash 2.to twinkle. zbkaro /Ô˙b.ka.ro/ <Ôh.b.ka.ro> masc. .a flash of light. zbkoXvu& /Ô˙b.koÆ.vu~/ <Ôh.b.ko.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to soak in a liquid. zbUkvu& /Ô˙.buk.vu~/ <Ôh.buu.k.vu~> v.intr. 1. to flash 2. to twinkle. z-lu& /Ô˙.b˙lu~/ <Ôh.bh.lu~> neut. .a child’s frock. z_-o /Ô˙.b˙b˙o/ <Ôh.bhbho> masc. .a long loose gown. zmvu& /Ô˙m.vu~/ <Ôh.m.vu~> v.intr. .to ooze. zr8u& /Ô˙r.¯u~/ neut. .1. a stream 2. a rivulet. zrmr /Ô˙r.mr/ <Ô.r.m.r> advb. .a type of slow rain. zrvu& /Ô˙r.vu~/ <Ôh.r.vu~> v.intr. .to dribble. zru`o /Ô˙.ru.k˙o/ <Ôh.ru.kho> masc. .a balcony. zro /Ô˙.ro/ <Ôh.ro> masc. .a stream. zverat /Ô˙.ve.rat/ neut. .jewelry. zXkvu& /Ô˙.Æk.vu~/ <Ôh.Æ.k.vu~> v.intr. .to shine. zXzXIya& /Ô˙Æ.Ô˙Æ.i.ja~/ <Ôh.Æ.Ôh.Æii.ja~> neut. pl.. tears welled up in the eyes. zXu&zXu& /Ô˙.Æu~.Ô˙.Æu~/ <Ôh.Æu~.Ôh.Æu~> neut. .twilight. zXhXvu& /Ô˙Æ.hÆ.vu~/ <Ôh.Æ.h.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .to shine brightly. z&`na /Ô˙˜.k˙.na/ <Ôh~.kh.na> fem. .an intense desire. z&`vavu& /Ô˙˜k˙.va.vu~/ <Ôh~.kh.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be crestfallen. z&`vu& /Ô˙˜k˙.vu~/ <Ôh~.kh.vu~> v.tr. .to desire something eagerly. z&z4 /Ô˙µ.Ô˙ˇ/ <Ôh~.Ôh.ˇ> fem. .useless discussion. z&zavat /Ô˙µ.Ô˙a.vat/ <Ôh~.Ôha.va.t> masc. .a cyclone. z&6o /Ô.¯Îo/ <Ôh~.Îo> masc. .a flag. z&plavvu& /Ô˙mp.lav.vu~/ <Ôh~.p.la.v.vu~> v.intr. .to start some work without considering risk factors. zakX /Ô˙a.k / <Ôha.k.Æ> fem. .dew. zazu& /Ô˙a.Ô˙u~/ <Ôha.Ôhu~> adj. .plentiful. za4kvu& /Ô˙a.ˇk.vu~/ <Ôha.ˇ.k.vu~> v.tr. .1. to winnow 2. to scold. za6 /Ô˙aÎ/ <Ôha.Î> neut. .a tree. za6vu& /Ô˙aÎ.vu~/ <Ôha.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to clean by sweeping.
  • 72. 72 za6I /Ô˙a.Îi/ <Ôha.Îii> fem. .a dense bush. za6u& /Ô˙a.Îu~/ <Ôha.Îu~> neut. .a broom. za6o /Ô˙a.Îo/ <Ôha.Îo> masc. .excretion. zap4vu& /Ô˙a.pˇ.vu~/ <Ôha.p.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to clean by striking a piece of cloth. zap4vu& /Ô˙a.pˇ.vu~/ <Ôha.p.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. .to eat speedily. zap4u& /Ô˙ap.ˇu~/ <Ôha.p.ˇu~> neut. .a sudden rain that comes for a short time. zar8 /Ô˙a.r¯/ <Ôha.r.¯> neut. .solder. zarvu& /Ô˙ar.vu~/ <Ôha.r.vu~> v.tr. .to solder. zalr /Ô˙a.lr/ <Ôha.l.r> masc. .a kind of pulse. zalvu& /Ô˙al.vu~/ <Ôha.l.vu~> v.tr. .to hold with hands. zaX /Ô˙aÆ/ <Ôha.Æ> fem. .a flame (of fire). za&`ru& /Ô˙a~k˙.ru~/ <Ôa~.kh.ru~> neut. .a thorny shrub. za&zr /Ô˙a~.Ôr/ <Ôha~.Ôh.r> neut. .a jingling anklet. za&zrI /Ô˙a~Ô˙.ri/ <Ôha~.Ôh.rii> fem. .a jingling anklet for children. za&po /Ô˙a~.po/ <Ôha~.po> masc. .a gate. zI8u& /Ô˙i.¯u~/ <Ôhii.¯u~> adj. .small (in size). zIlvu& /Ô˙il.vu~/ <Ôii.l.vu~> v.tr. .to catch. zUkvu& /Ô˙uk.vu~/ <Ôhuu.k.vu~> v.intr. .to bow. zUzvu& /Ô˙uÔ˙.vu~/ <Ôhuu.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. .to fight desperately. zU&4vvu& /Ô˙u~.ˇv.vu~/ <Ôhu~.ˇ.v.vu~> v.tr. .to snatch. zU6vu& /Ô˙uÎ.vu~/ <Ôhuu.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to thrash. zU6I /Ô˙u.Îi/ <Ôhuu.Îii> fem. .a small bunch or bundle. zU6o /Ô˙u.Îo/ <Ôuu.Îo> masc. .a big bunch or bundle. zu&be= /Ô˙um.beß/ <Ôhu~.be.ß> fem. .a movement. zUmvu& /Ô˙um.vu~/ <Ôuu.m].vu~> v.intr. .to hand over. zUrvu& /Ô˙ur.vu~/ <Ôhuu.r.vu~> v.intr. .to grieve for some thing or some person. zUlvu& /Ô˙ul.vu~/ <Ôuu.l.vu~> v.intr. .to swing. zulavvu& /Ô˙u.lav.vu~/ <Ôhu.la.v.vu~> v.tr. .1. to swing 2. to rock. zU&p6u& /Ô˙u~p.Îu~/ <Ôhu~.p.Îu~> neut. .a hut. zer /Ô˙er/ <Ôhe.r> neut. .poison. zerI /Ô˙e.ri/ <Ôhe.rii> adj. .poisonous. zerIlu& /Ô˙e.ri.lu~/ <Ôhe.rii.lu~> adj. .1.jealous 2. envious.
  • 73. 73 zokvu& /Ô˙ok.vu~/ <Ôho.k.vu~> v.intr. .to doze. zoku& /Ô˙o.ku~/ <Ôho.ku~> neut. .a dozing. 4 4kvu& /ˇk.vu~/ <ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to survive 2. to last. 4kaw /ˇ.ka.u/ <ˇ.ka.u> adj. ..durable 2. lasting. 4kavarI /ˇ.ka.va.ri/ <ˇ.ka.va.rii> fem. .percentage. 4ko /ˇ.ko/ <ˇ.ko> masc. .percentage. 4kor /ˇ.kor/ <ˇ.ko.r> fem. .1. a suggestion, 2. a mild scolding. 4korvu& /ˇ.kor.vu~/ <ˇ.ko.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to suggest 2. to scold mildly. 4kkr /ˇk.kr/ <ˇ.kk.r> fem. .1. a collision 2. a resistance. 4ko /t.ko/ <ˇ.ko> masc. .a shaved off head. 4gr 4gr /ˇ.gr ˇ.gr/ <ˇ.g.r.ˇ.g.r> advb. . with a fixed gaze. 4gumgu /ˇ.gu.m.gu/ <ˇ.gu.m.gu> advb. .1. shaking 2. shaking. 4ckavvu& /ˇc.kav.vu~/ <ˇ.c.ka.v.vu~> v.tr. .to cut with a stroke. 4cko /ˇc.ko/ <ˇ.c.ko> masc. .a mild stroke to cut a piece of wood. 4clI /ˇc.li/ <ˇ.c.lii> fem. .the last finger. 4cUk6u& /ˇ.cuk.Îu~/ <ˇ.cuu.k.Îu~> adj. .very small. 44ar /ˇ.ˇar/ <ˇ.ˇa.r> adj. .stiff. 444u /ˇˇ.ˇu/ <ˇ.ˇˇu> neut. .1. a pony 2. a lean horse. 4pkvu& /ˇ.pk.vu~/ <ˇ.p.k.vu~> v.intr. .to drip. 4pkavvu& /tp.kav.vu~/ <ˇ.p.ka.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to write down briefly 2. to copy out. 4pku& /ˇp.ku~/ <ˇ.p.ku~> neut. .1. a drop 2. a dot. 4p4p /ˇp.ˇp/ <ˇ.p.ˇ.p> advb. .to prattle. 4p/lI /ˇp.li/ <ˇ.p.lii> fem. .1. a light stroke with a finger 2. a light slap. 4po4p /ˇ.po.ˇp/ <ˇ.po.ˇ.p> advb. .one by one. 4pa4pI /ˇ.pa.ˇ.pi/ <ˇ.pa.ˇ.pii> fem. .a hot exchange of words. 4parvu& /ˇ.par.vu~/ <ˇ.pa.r.vu~> v.tr. .to warn in a mild language. 4pal /ˇ.pal/ <ˇ.pa.l> fem. .1. post 2. mail. 4palI /ˇ.pa.li/ <ˇ.pa.lii> masc. .a postman.
  • 74. 74 4bUk6u& /ˇ.buk.Îu~/ <ˇ.bu.k.Îu~> adj. .a very small. 4mkvu& /ˇ.mk.vu~/ <ˇ.m.k.vu~> v.intr. .to twinkle slowly. 4hU&ko /ˇ.hu~.ko/ <ˇ.huu~.ko> masc. .a bird’s cooing. 4XvXvu& /ˇÆ.vÆ.vu~/ <ˇ.Æ.v.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .to wail. 4Xvu& /ˇÆ.vu~/ <ˇ.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .to be removed. 4&k=aX /t˜.k.ßaÆ/ <ˇ~.k.ßa.Æ> fem. .a mint. 4&4o /ˇ¯.ˇo/ <ˇ~.ˇo> masc. .a quarrel. 4a7 /ˇaÎ˙/ <ˇa.Îh> fem. .cold. 4a7u& /ˇa.Î˙u~/ <ˇa.Îhu~> adj. .1. cold 2. stale. 4a8u& /ˇa.¯u~/ <ˇa.¯u~> neut. .occasion. 4ap4Ip /ˇap.ˇip/ <ˇa.p.ˇii.p> fem. .an external pomp. 4apu /ˇa.pu/ <ˇa.pu> masc. .an island. 4al /ˇal/ <ˇa.l> fem. .baldness. 4aXvu& /ˇaÆ.vu~/ <ˇa.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .1. to avoid 2. to avert. 4a&k8I /ˇa~k.¯i/ <ˇa~.k.¯ii> fem. .a pin. 4a&kvu& /ˇa~k.vu~/ <ˇa~.k.vu~> v.tr. .to chisel. 4a&kI /ˇa~.ki/ <ˇa~.kii> fem. .a tank (of some liquid). 4a&ko /ˇa~.ko/ <ˇa~.ko> masc. .a stitch. 4a&g /ˇa~˜g/ <ˇa~.g> fem. .a leg (derogatory use). 4a&gvu& /ˇa~˜g.vu~/ <ˇa~.g.vu> v.tr. .to hang. 4a&c8 /ˇa~.c¯/ <ˇa~.c.¯> neut. .a short note. 4a&i4yo /ˇa~.ˇi.jo/ <ˇa~.ˇi.jo> masc. .a leg (derogatory). i4cavu& /ˇi.ca.vu~/ <ˇi.ca.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be collided 2. to run errands vainly. i44o6I /ˇi.ˇo.Îi/ <ˇi.ˇo.Îii> fem. .a kind of bird. i4Pp8I /ˇip.p.¯i/ <ˇi.pp.¯ii> fem. .a commentary. 4Ik6I /ˇik.Îi/ <ˇi.k.Îii> fem. .a pill. 4Ika /ˇi.ka/ <ˇii.ka> fem. .criticism. 4I`X /ˇi.k˙ / <ˇii.kh.Æ> neut. .a quip. 4Icvu& /ˇic.vu~/ <ˇii.c.vu~> v.tr. .to forge. 4Ipvu& /ˇip.vu~/ <ˇii.p.vu~> v.tr. .to strike. 4Ipu& /ˇi.pu~/ <ˇii.pu~> neut. .a drop. 4Il6I /ˇil.Îi/ <ˇii.l.Îii> fem. .a small mark on the forehead. 4IlI /ˇi.li/ <ˇi.li> fem. .a blot of disgrace.
  • 75. 75 4I&6oru& /ˇi¯.Îo.ru~/ <ˇi.Îo.ru~> neut. .a kind of vegetable. 4uk6I /ˇuk.Îi/ <ˇuu.k.Îii> fem. .a team. 4uk6o /ˇuk.Îo/ <ˇu.k.Îo> masc. .a piece. 4Ucko /ˇuc.ko/ <ˇu.c.ko> masc. .1. a black art 2. a joke. 4uval /ˇu.val/ <ˇu.vo> masc. .a towel. 4U&kavvu& /ˇu~.kav.vu~/ <ˇu~.ka.v.vu~> v.tr. .1. to shorten 2. to abridge. 4U&pvu& /ˇu~p.vu~/ <ˇu~.p.vu~> v.tr. .to remove grass. 4U&po /ˇu~.po/ <ˇu~.po.> masc. .a strangling. 4ekrI /ˇek.ri/ <ˇe.k.rii> fem. .a hill. 4ekvvu& /ˇe.kv.vu~/ <ˇe.kv.vu~> v.tr. .to prop. 4ekvu& /ˇek.vu~/ <ˇe.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to lean on 2. to be propped. 4eko /ˇe.ko/ <ˇe.ko> masc. .1. a support 2. a prop. 4ervu& /ˇer.vu~/ <ˇe.r.vu~> neut. .a tip (of finger). 4ev /ˇev/ <ˇe.v]> fem. .a habit. 4evavu& /ˇe.va.vu~/ <ˇe.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be acquainted with. 4okvu& /ˇok.vu~/ <ˇ.ko.vu~> v.tr. .to blame a person for his or her fault. 4oc /ˇoc/ <ˇo.c> fem. .1. a peak 2. a top part. 4ocvu& /ˇoc.vu~/ <ˇo.c.vu~> v.tr. .to prick. 4oplI /ˇop.li/ <ˇo.p.lii> fem. .a small basket. 4oplo /ˇop.lo/ <ˇo.p.lo> masc. .a big basket. 4opI /ˇo.pi/ <ˇo.pii> fem. .a cap. 4opo /ˇo.po/ <ˇo.po> masc. .a hat. 4oXkI /ˇoÆ.ki/ <ˇo.Æ.kii> fem. .a gang. 4oXI /ˇo.Æi/ <ˇo.Æii> fem. .a small group. 4oXu& /ˇo.Æu~/ <ˇo.Æu~> neut. .a crowd. 5 5g /ˇ˙g/ <ˇh.g> masc. . a cheat. 5gvu& /ˇ˙g.vu~/ <ˇh.g.vu~> v.tr. .to cheat. 5ga; /ˇ˙.ga.i/ <ˇh.ga.ii> fem. .cheating. 5garu& /ˇ˙.ga.ru~/ <ˇh.ga.ru~> adj. deceitful. 5p/ko /ˇ˙p.ko/ <ˇh.p.ko> masc. .a scolding. 5rvu& /ˇ˙r.vu~/ <ˇh.r.vu~> v.intr. .to become cold. 5rvu& /ˇ˙r.vu~/ <ˇh.r.vu~> v.intr. .to be stabilized.
  • 76. 76 5rav /ˇ˙.rav/ <ˇh.r.vu~> masc. .1.a proposal 2. a resolution. 5ravvu& /ˇ˙.rav.vu~/ <ˇh.ra.v.vu~> v.tr..1. to fix 2. to decide. 5rel /ˇ˙.rel/ <ˇh.re.l> adj. .1.cool- minded 2. wise. 5lvavu& /ˇ˙l.va.vu~/ <ˇh.l.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be emptied. 5svu& /ˇ˙s.vu~/ <ˇh.s.vu~> v.intr. .to be convinced. 5so5s /ˇ˙.so.ˇ˙s/ <ˇh.so.th.s> advb. full to the mouth. 5iXyo /ˇ˙.Æi.jo/ <ˇh.Æi.jo> masc. .the stone of a fruit. 5&6k /ˇ˙¯.Îk/ <ˇh~.Î.k> fem. .coldness. 5&6I /ˇ˙¯.Îi/ <ˇh~.Îii> fem. .cold. 5&6u& /t˙¯.Îu~/ <ˇh~.Îu~> adj. .cold. 5akor /ˇ˙a.kor/ <ˇha.ko.r> masc. .a community. 5akor@ /ˇ˙a.kor.Ôi/ <ˇha.ko.r.Ôii> masc. .a name of Lord Vishnu. 5a5 /ˇ˙aˇ˙/ <ˇha.ˇh> masc. .pomp. 5a56I /ˇ˙aˇ˙.Îi/ <ˇha.ˇh.Îii> fem. .a funeral bier. 5arvu& /ˇ˙ar.vu~/ <ˇha.r.vu~> v.tr. .1. to cool 2. to freeze 3. to pacify. 5alvvu& /ˇ˙a.lv.vu~/ <ˇha.l.v.vu~> v.tr. .to empty. 5alu& /ˇ˙a.lu~/ <ˇha.lu~> adj. empty. 5avku& /ˇ˙av.ku~/ <ˇha.v.ku~> adj. .1. serious 2. cool-minded. 5a&svu& /ˇ˙a~s.vu~/ <ˇha~.s.vu~> v.tr. .to fill closely. 5Ik /ˇ˙ik/ <ˇhii.k> advb. .1. o.k. 2. suitable. 5I&gravu& /ˇ˙i˜g.ra.vu~/ <ˇhi~.g.ra.vu~> v.intr. .to suffer heavy cold. 5U&5vavu& /ˇ˙u~ˇ˙.va.vu~/ <ˇhu~.ˇh.va.vu~> v.intr. .to be troubled by heavy cold. 5U&5u& /ˇ˙u~.ˇ˙u~/ <ˇhu~.ˇhu~> neut. .1. the stump of a tree 2. a stump of cigarette etc. 5ek6I /ˇ˙ek.Îi/ <ˇhe.k.Îii> fem. .mockery. 5ek5eka8e /ˇ˙ek.ˇ˙e.ka.¯e/ <ˇhe.k.ˇhe.ka.¯e> advb. . everywhere. 5ek6o /ˇ˙ek.Îo/ <ˇhe.k.Îo> masc. .a jump. 5ekvu& /ˇ˙ek.vu~/ <ˇhe.k.vu~> v.intr. .to jump or peap over. 5eka8u& /t˙e.ka.¯u~/ <ˇhe.ka.¯u~> neut. .1.an address 2. a place 3. a location. 5er 5er /ˇ˙er.ˇ˙er/ <ˇhe.r.ˇhe.r> advb. everywhere.
  • 77. 77 5ervvu& /ˇ˙e.rv.vu~/ <ˇhe.r.v.vu~> v.intr. .to fix the price. 5elvu& /ˇ˙el.vu~/ <ˇhe.l.vu~> v.tr. .to puch forward. 5elo /ˇ˙e.lo/ <ˇhe.lo> masc. .a puch. 5e= /ˇ˙eß/ <ˇhe.ß> fem. .a light kick. 5okr /ˇ˙o.kr/ <ˇho.k.r> fem. .a stumbling. 5okvu& /ˇ˙ok.vu~/ <ˇho.k.vu~> v.tr. .1. to strike against 2. to hammer. 5ok&5ok /ˇ˙o.km.ˇ˙ok/ <ˇho.k~.ˇho.k> advb. an act of striking repeatedly. 5o5 /ˇ˙oˇ˙/ <ˇho.ˇh> adj. stupid. 5o&so /ˇ˙o~.so/ <ˇha~.so> masc. .a fist blow. 6 6`o /Î.k˙o/ <Î.kho> masc. .1. confusion 2. a dispute 3. a quauurel. 6gmg /Îg.mg/ <Î.g.m.g> adj. unstable. 6gmgvu& /Îg.mg.vu~/ <Î.g.m.g.vu~> v.intr. .to become unstable. 6glu& /Îg.lu~/ <Î.g.lu~> neut. .a jacket. 6glu& /Îg.lu~/ <Î.g.lu~> neut. .a footstep. 6glo /Îg.lo/ <Î.g.lo> masc. .a coat. 6gvu& /Îg.vu~/ <Î.g.vu~> v.intr. .to become unstable. 6gXu& /Îg.Æu~/ <Î.g.Æu~> neut. .1. a big slice of fruit 2. a piece of wood. 63avu& /Î.g˙a.vu~/ <Î.gha.vu~> v.intr. .to be stunned. 644o /Ρ.ˇo/ <Î.ˇˇo> masc. .a cork. 68kvu& /Î.¯k.vu~/ <Î.¯.k.vu~> v.intr. .to roar. 6f8u& /Îp˙.¯u~/ <Î.ph.¯u~> neut. .a short thick staff. 6blu& /Îb.lu~/ <Î.b.lu~> neut. .a tin box. 6bI /Î.bi/ <Î.bii> fem. .a small metalic, wooden or ivory box. 6bo /Î.bo/ <Î.bo> masc. .a large tin- box. 6mro /Îm.ro/ <Î.m.ro> masc. .a kind of fragrant plant. 6r /Îr/ <Î.r> masc. .fear. 6rpok /Îr.pok/ adj. . craven. 6rvu& /Îr.vu~/ <Î.r.vu~> v.intr. .to fear. 6ram8u& /Î.ra.m.¯u~/ <Î.ra.m.¯u~> adj. . frightening. 6svu& /Îs.vu~/ <Î.s.vu~> v.tr. .to bite (of serpent etc). 6hap8 /Î.ha.p¯/ <Î.ha.p.¯> neut. wisdom.
  • 78. 78 6hoXvu& /Î.hoÆ.vu~/ <Î.ho.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to dirty liquid by shaking. 6hoXu& /Î.ho.Æu~/ <Î.ho.Æu~> adj. .dirty (water). 6&` /ί.k˙/ <Î~.kh> masc. .a sting. 6&`vu& /Θk˙.vu~/ <Î~.kh.vu~> v.intr. .to sting. 6&`Ilu& /ί.k˙i.lu~/ <Î~.khii.lu~> adj. vindictive. 6&fa= /Îm.p˙aß/ <Î~.pha.ß> fem. boastfulness. 6ak8 /Îa.k¯/ <Îa.k.¯> fem. .a witch. 6aku /Îa.ku/ <Îa.ku> masc. .robber. 6a3 /Îag˙/ <Îa.gh> masc. .1. a blot 2. a stain 3. a spot. 6ai3yu& /Îa.g˙i.ju~/ <Îa.ghi.ju~> adj. .wild (usually used to modify a dog.). 6a3u& /Îa.g˙u/ <Îa.ghu~> masc. pl..a member of a funeral procession. 6a3o /Îa.g˙o/ <Îa.gho> masc. .a spot. 6acu& /Îa.cu~/ <Îa.cu~> neut. .the mouth (derogatory). 6abu& /Îa.bu~/ <Îa.bu~> adj. .left. 6aberI /Îa.be.ri/ <Îa.be.rii> adj. .leftist. 6abo6I /Îa.bo.Îi/ <Îa.bo.Îii> adj. .left- handed. 6am /Îam/ <Îa.m> masc. .a burn given as a part of a ritual or a custom. 6amvu& /Îam.vu~/ <Îa.m.vu~> v.tr. .to give a burn as a part of a ritual or a custom. 6ama6oX /Îa.ma.ÎoÆ/ <Îa.ma.Îo.Æ> adj. .1. unsteady 2. chaotic. 6aX /ÎaÆ/ <Îa.Æ> fem. .a branch of a tree. 6a&`XI /Îø~k˙.Æi/ <Îa~.kh.Æii> fem. .1. a tender offshoot 2. a thin branch. 6a&gr /Îa~.gr/ <Îa~.g.r> fem. .peddy. 6a&6 /Îa~Î/ <Îa~.Î> adj. .1. shameless 2. bullying. 6a&i6yo /Îa~.Îi.jo/ <Îa~..jo> masc. .1. a drumstick 2. a small stick used to play a Raas - a kind of collective dance. 6a&6I /Îa~¯.Îi/ <Îa~.Îii> fem. .a small thin stick. 6ukkr /Îuk.kr/ <Îu.kk.r> neut. .a pig. 6U&gr /Îu˜.gr/ <Îuu~.g.r> masc. .a small mountain. 6&ugraX /Îu˜g.raÆ/ <Îuu~.g.ra.Æ> adj. mountainous. 6u&grI /Îu˜g.ri/ <Îu~.g.rii> fem. .a hill. 6u&gXI /Îu˜g.Æi/ <Îu~.g.Æii> fem. .an onion. 6Uco /Îu.co/ <Îuu.co> masc. .a roll of rags or papers.
  • 79. 79 6UbkI /Îub.ki/ <Îuu.b.kii> fem. .a dive. 6Ubvu& /Îub.vu~/ <Îu.b.vu~> v.intr. .1. to sink 2. to drown. 6Umo /Îu.mo/ <Îu.mo> masc. .suffocation caused by sobbing. 6Usku& /Îus.ku~/ <Îu.s.ku~> neut. .a sob. 6U&4I /Îu~.ˇi/ <Îuu~.ˇii> fem. .the navel. 6U&6U& /Îu¯.Îu~/ <Îuu~.Îuu~> neut. .an ear of corn. 6ok /Îok/ <Îo.k> fem. .the neck. 6oikyu& /Îo.ki.ju~/ <Îo.ki.ju~> neut. .a glance. 6oku& /Îo.ku~/ <Îo.ku~> neut. .the head. 6o6o /Îo.Îo/ <Îo.Îo> masc. .a spike of maize. 6obu& /Îo.bu~/ <Îo.bu~> neut. .a buffalo. 6obu& /Îo.bu~/ <Îo.bu~> adj. 1.dull 2. stupid. 6ol /Îol/ <Îo.l> fem. .a bucket. 6olvu& /Îol.vu~/ <Îo.l.vu~> v.intr. .1. to swing 2. to oscillate. 6o=I /Îo.ßi/ <Îo.ßii> fem. .an old woman. 6oXo /Îo.Æo/ <Îo.Æo> masc. .the eyeball. 7 7glo /Î˙g.lo/ <Îh.g.lo> masc. .1. a pile 2. a heap. 7glab&0 /Î˙g.la.bnd˙/ <Îh.g.la.b~.dh> adj. . abundant. 7cupcu /Î˙.cu.p.cu/ <Îh.cu.p.chu> advb. .1. wavering 2. hesitating. 7b /Î˙b/ <Îh.b> fem. .1.a style 2. a method. 7s6vu& /Î˙.sÎ.vu~/ <Îh.s.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to drag. 7Xvu& /Î˙ .vu~/ <Îh.Æ.vu~> v.intr. .1. to come out (of liquid) 2. to incline. 7&kavu& /Î˙˜.ka.vu~/ <Îh~.ka.vu~> v.intr. .to be covered. 7&g /Î˙˜g/ <Îh~.g> masc. .manners. 7&7ero /Î˙¯.Î˙e.ro/ <Îh~.Îhe.ro> masc. proclamation. 7&7oXvu& /Î˙¯.Î˙oÆ.vu~/ <Îh~.Îho.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to shake soneone to awake him or her. 7ak7oX /Î˙ak.Î˙oÆ/ <Îha.k.Îho.Æ> masc. outward appearance. 7al /Î˙al/ <Îha.l> fem. .a shield. 7aX /Î˙aÆ/ <Îha.l> masc. .a slpoe. 7aXvu& /Î˙aÆ.vu~/ <Îha.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .1.to lower 2. to let incline downwards 3. to mould with a die. 7a&k8 /Î˙a~.k¯/ <Îha~.k.¯> neut. .a cover.
  • 80. 80 7a&k8u& /Î˙a~k.¯u~/ <Îha~.k.¯u~> neut. .a cover. 7a&kvu& /Î˙a~k.vu~/ <Îha.k.vu~> v.tr. .1. to cover 2. to shut with a lid. 7Il /Î˙il/ <Îhii.l> fem. .a delay. 7Ilu& /Î˙i.lu~/ <Îhii.lu~> adj. .loose. 7I&glI /Î˙i˜g.li/ <Îhii~.g.lii> fem. .a doll. 7I&c8 /Î˙i~.c¯/ <Îhii~.c.¯> masc. .knee. 7I&cvu& /Î˙i~c.vu~/ <Îhii~.c.vu~> v.tr. .to drink excessively. 7ebru& /Î˙eb.ru~/ <Îhe.b.ru~> neut. .a food item. 7okXI /Î˙ok.Æi/ <Îho.k.Æii> fem. .a food item. 7okXu& /Î˙ok.Æu~/ <Îho.k.Æu~> neut. .a food item. 7or /Î˙or/ <Îho.r> neut. .cattle. 7ol /Î˙ol/ <Îho.Æ> masc. .a kind of drum. 7olI /Î˙o.li/ <Îho.lii> masc. .a drummer. 7oX /Î˙oÆ/ <Îho.Æ> masc. .metal- plating. 7oXvu& /Î˙oÆ.vu~/ <Îho.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to spill. 7o&g /Î˙ø~˜.g/ <Îho~.g> masc. .1.false show 2. disguise. t tk /tk/ <t.k> fem. .opportunity. tktkvu& /tk.tk.vu~/ <t.k.t.k.vu~> v.intr. to glitter. tkrar /tk.rar/ <t.k.ra.r> fem. .a quarrel. tkladI /tk.la.di/ <t.k.la.dii> adj. .fragile. tklIf /tk.lip˙/ <t.k.lii.ph> fem. trouble. tkIyo /t.ki.jo/ <t.kii.jo> masc. .a pillow. tkedarI /t.ke.da.ri/ <t.ke.da.rii> fem. .a watch. t`to /tk˙.to/ <t.kh.to> masc. .the stage. tg6o /tg.Îo/ <t.g.Îo> masc. .the figure 3. tgtgvu& /tg.tg.vu~/ <t.g.t.g.vu~> v.intr. to glitter. tgaru& /t.ga.ru~/ <t.ga.ru~> neut. .a broad mouthed bucket. tge6vu& /t.geÎ.vu~/ <t.ge.Î.vu~> v.tr. .to cause to run away. tj /tÔ/ <t.Ô> masc. .cinnamon. tjvIj /tÔ.viÔ/ <t.Ô.vii.Ô> fem. .planning. tjvu& /tÔ.vu~/ <t.Ô.vu~> v.tr. .to renounce.
  • 81. 81 tj}a /t.Ô.gn/ <t.Ô.gn> adj. .expert. t4 /tˇ/ <t.ˇ> masc. .a shore. t4S9 /t.ˇs.t˙/ <t.ˇ.sth> adj. .neutral. t6 /tÎ/ <t.Î> fem. .a crack. t6 /tÎ/ <t.Î> neut. .a subdivision of a caste. t6ko /tÎ.ko/ <t.Î.ko> masc. .sunshine. t6ko2a&y6o /ˇÎ.ko.c˙a~j.Îo/ <t.Î.ko.cha~.j.Îo> masc. .a cycle of happiness and unhappiness. t6kI.2a&y6I /ˇÎ.ki.c˙a~j.Îi/ <t.Î.kii.cha~.j.Îii> fem. ..a cycle of happiness and unhappiness. t6f6 /tÎ.p˙Î/ <t.Î.ph.Î> advb. instantly. t6f6vu& /tÎ.p˙Î.vu~/ <t.Î.ph.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to struggle hard hopelessly. t6amar /t.Îa.mar/ <t.Îa.ma.r> advb. nonstop. t8`lu& /t.¯.k˙.lu~/ <t.¯.kh.lu~> neut. .a straw. t8`o /t¯.k˙o/ <t.¯.kho> masc. .a spark. t8avu& /t.¯a.vu~/ <t.¯a.vu~> v.intr. .to be dragged. ttkal /tt.kal/ <t.t.ka.l> advb. .at once. tt6avvu& /tt.Îav.vu~/ <t.t.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. to rebuke. t]v /tt.v/ <t.tv> neut. .an element. t]v}aan /tt.v.gna.n/ <t.tv.gna.n> neut. .philosphy. t]v}aanI /tt.v.gna.ni/ <t.tv.gna.nii> masc. .a philosopher. t9a /t.t˙a/ <t.tha> conj.. and. t9aip /t.t˙a.pi/ <t.tha.pi> advb. .even then. tdupra&t /t.dup.ra~t/ <t.d.u.p.ra~.t> advb. .1. in addition 2. moreover. tn /tn/ <t.n> neut. .the body (human). tp`Ir /tp.k˙ir/ <t.p.khii.r> fem. .snuff. tpvu& /tp.vu~/ <t.p.vu~> v.intr. .1. to be heated 2. to become angry. tpas /t.pas/ <t.pa.s> fem. .1.an examination 2. a check up 3. an investigation. tpasvu& /t.pas.vu~/ <t.pa.s.vu~> v.tr. .1. to examine 2. to investigate. tpelI /t.pe.li/ <t.pe.lii> fem. .a cooking vessel. tf6&cI /tp˙.ε.ci/ <t.ph.Î~.cii> fem. 1. misappropriation 2. theft 3. plagiarism.
  • 82. 82 tf6avvu& /tp˙.Îav.vu~/ <t.ph.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. .1. to misappropriate 2. to steal 3. to plagiarize. tfavt /t.p˙a.vt/ <t.pha.v.t> masc. .difference. tbkko /t.bk.ko/ <t.b.kko> masc. .a stage (in development). tibyt /t.bi.jt/ <t.bi.j.t> fem. .health. tbIb /t.bib/ <t.bii.b> masc. .a doctor. tbelo /t.be.lo/ <t.be.lo> masc. .a stable. tmru& /tm.ru~/ <t.m.ru~> neut. .cricket (insect). tm&co /t.mµ.co/ <t.m~.co> masc. .a country made pistol. tmaku& /t.ma.ku~/ <t.ma.ku~> fem. .tobacco. tmaco /t.ma.co/ <t.ma.co> masc. .a slap. tmam /t.mam/ <t.ma.m> adj. .all. tmaru& /t.ma.ru~/ <t.ma.ru~> adj. .yours. tma=o /t.ma.ßo/ <t.ma.ßo> masc. .a public show. tme /t.me/ <t.me> pron.. you. tr2o6vu& /tr.c˙oÎ.vu~/ <t.r.cho.Î.vu~> v.tr. to renounce. trt /t.rt/ <t.r.t> advb. .. 1. at once 2. promptly. trfe8 /tr.p˙e¯/ <t.r.phe.¯> fem. .partiality. trvra4 /tr.v.raˇ/ <t.r.v.ra.ˇ> masc. .intense zeal. trvu& /tr.vu~/ <t.r.vu~> v.intr. .to swim. trvu& /tr.vu~/ <t.r.vu~> v.intr. .to float. tr&g /t.r˜.g/ masc. . <t.r~.g> 1. a ripple 2. imagination. tr&gI /t.r˜.gi/ <t.r~.gi> adj. .whimsical. trap /t.rap/ <t.ra.p> fem. .a sudden attack. trIke /t.ri.ke/ <t.rii.ke> advb. .in the manner of. tru8 /t.ru¯/ <t.ru.¯> masc. .young. tkR /tr.k/ <t.rk> masc. .1. an inference 2. a hypothesis. tkR=aS{a /tr.k.ßas.tr/ <t.rk.ßa.str> neut. .logic. tl /tl/ <t.l> masc. .sesame. tlp /t.lp/ <t.l.p> fem. .a frenzied desire. tlpvu& /t.lp.vu~/ <t.l.p.vu~> v.intr. .to desire something or someone intensely.
  • 83. 83 tlvar /tl.var/ <t.l.va.r> fem. .a sward. tlsa&kXI /tl.sa~k.Æi/ <t.l.sa~.k.Æii> fem. .a kind of sweet made of sesame. tvarI` /t.va.rik˙/ <t.va.rii.kh> fem. .a chronicle. tsvIr /ts.vir/ <t.s.vii.r> fem. .a photograph. tXpdu& /tÆ.p.du~/ <t.Æ.p.du~> adj. .1. regional 2. local. tXvu& /tÆ.vu~/ <t.Æ.vu~> v.tr. .to fry. tXa; /t.Æa.i/ <t.Æa.ii> fem. .a mattress. t&tu /tn.tu/ <t~.tu> masc. .a fiber. t&{a /tn.tr/ <t~.tr> neut. .1. management 2. administration. t&{aI /tn.tri/ <t~.trii> masc. .editor. t&durSt /tn.du.rst/ <t~.du.r.st> adj. healthy. t&durStI /t.ndu.rs.ti/ <t.du.r.stii> fem. health. t&bU /tm.bu/ <t~.bu> masc. .a tent. t&bUro /tm.bu.ro/ <t~.buu.ro> masc. .a kind of musical instrument. takvu& /tak.vu~/ <ta.k.vu~> v.tr. .1. to aim at 2. to take a target. takat /ta.kat/ <ta.ka.t> fem. .strength. tag6i0NNaa /ta.gÎ.d˙in.na/ <ta.g.Î.dhi.nna> masc. .to spend money carelessly. tagvu& /tag.vu~/ <ta.g.vu~> v.intr. .to estimate. taj /taÔ/ <ta.Ô> masc. .a crown. tajaklm /ta.Ôa.k.lm/ <ta.Ôa.k.l.m> fem. a postscript. taju /ta.Ôu/ <ta.Ôu> adj. .fresh. tajetrma& /ta.Ôe.tr.ma~/ <ta.Ôe.t.r.ma~> advb. .recently. ta8 /ta¯/ <ta.¯> fem. .1. scarcity 2. shortage. ta8 /ta´/ <ta.¯> fem. .a muscle strain. ta8vu& /ta¯.vu~/ <ta.¯.vu~> v.tr. .1. to stretch 2. to drag. taTkailk /tat.ka.lik/ <ta.tka.li.k> advb. immediately. tai]vk /tat.tvik/ <ta.tvi.k> adj. philosophical. tap /tap/ <ta.p> masc. .sunshine (refers to the heat and not the light). tap8u& /tap.¯u~/ <ta.p.¯u~> neut. .a bonfire. tapvu& /tap.vu~/ <ta.p.vu~> v.intr. .to warm up by sitting beside a fire place. tab6tob /ta.bÎ.tob/ <ta.b.Î.to.b> advb. at once.
  • 84. 84 tar /tar/ masc. . <ta.r> 1. a fiber 2. a string 3. a thread. tar /tar/ <ta.r> masc. .a telegram. tarvvu& /ta.rv.vu~/ <ta.r.v.vu~> v.tr. .1. to summarize 2. to prepare a balance- sheet. taraj /ta.raÔ/ <ta.ra.Ô> adj. .ruined. tarI` /ta.rik˙/ <ta.rii.kh> fem. .a date. taru& /ta.ru~/ <ta.ru~> adj. .your (sing). taro /ta.ro/ <ta.ro> masc. .a star. taikRk /tar.kik/ <ta.rki.k> adj. .logical. talavelI /ta.la.ve.li/ <ta.la.ve.lii> fem. .a strong facination. talIm /ta.lim/ <ta.lii.m> fem. .training. taluko /ta.lu.ko/ <ta.lu.ko> masc. .a sub- district. tav /tav/ <ta.v> masc. .fever. tavvu& /tav.vu~/ <ta.v.vu~> v.tr. .to purify a thing by heating. tavIj /ta.viÔ/ <ta.vii.Ô> neut. .1. talisman 2. an amulet. taXvu& /taÆ.vu~/ <ta.Æ.vu~> neut. .the palate. taXI /ta.Æi/ <ta.Æii> fem. .a clapping. ta&t8o /ta~t.¯o/ <ta~.t.¯o> masc. .1.a sting 2. a fiber 3. a thread. ta&i{ak /ta~.trik/ <ta~.tri.k> adj. .pertaining to occultism. ta&i{ak /ta~.trik/ <ta~.tri.k> masc. .an occultist. ta&bu& /ta~.bu~/ <ta~.bu~> neut. .copper. itjorI /ti.Ôo.ri/ <ti.Ôo.rii> fem. .1. a safe 2. a wardrobe. iti9 /ti.t˙i/ <ti.thi> fem. .a date according to Hindu calander. itrSkar /ti.rs.kar/ <ti.r.ska.r> masc. .hatred. itlk /ti.lk/ <ti.l.k> neut. .an auspicious mark on the forehead. tI`u& /ti.k˙u~/ <tii.khu~> adj. .1. hot 2. acrid 3. bitter. tI6 /tiÎ/ <tii.Î> neut. .a locust. tI8u& /ti.¯u~/ <tii.¯u~> adj. .sharp. tItI3o6o /ti.ti.g˙o.Îo/ <tii.tii.gho.Îo> masc. a grasshopper. tIr /tir/ <tii.r> neut. .an arrow. tI9Rya{aa /tirt˙.ja.tra/ <tii.rth.ja.tra> fem. .a pilgrimage. tI9RS9an /tirt˙.st˙an/ <ti.rth.stha.n> neut. a pilgrimage place. tIv/ /ti.vr/ <tii.vr> adj. .1. intense 2. actuate. tuC2 /tuc.c˙/ <tu.cch> adj. .insignificant.
  • 85. 85 tuma`I /tu.ma.k˙i/ <tu.ma.khii> fem. .hot-tempered. turt /tu.rt/ <tu.r.t> advb. .at once. tulna /tul.na/ <tu.l.na> fem. .a comparison. tula /tu.la/ <tu.la> fem. .Libra. tuver /tu.ver/ <tu.ve.r> fem. .a kind of pulse. tu& /tu~/ <tu~> pron.. you (singular). tU4vu& /tuˇ.vu~/ <tu.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. .to be destroyed. tUt /tut/ <tu.t> neut. .1. a lie 2. a hoax. tUtk /tu.tk/ <tuu.t.k> neut. .a deck. tUru& /tu.ru~/ <tu.ru~> adj. .astringent. te /te/ <te> pron.. Third person singular pronoun (He, She, It). tej /teÔ/ <te.Ô> adj. .1. speedy 2. intense 3. sharp-edued 4. active. tej /teÔ/ <te.Ô> neut. .light. tejSvI /te.Ô.svi/ <te.Ô.svii> adj. 1.brilliant 2. shining. tejab /te.Ôab/ <te.Ôa.bii> masc. .acid. te@ /te.Ôi/ <te.Ôii> fem. .good business. te4lu& /teˇ.lu~/ <te.ˇ.lu~> adj. .of a certain proportion. te6vu& /teÎ.vu~/ <te.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1.to invite 2. to carry a child. te6u& /te.Îu~/ <te.Îu~> neut. .an invitation. te8I /te.¯i/ <te.¯ii> pron.. she. (mainly in legal language) tetalIs /te.ta.lis/ <te.ta.lii.s> adj. .forty three. te{aIs /te.tris/ <te.trii.s> adj. .33 (thirty three). te9I /te.ˇ˙i/ <t.thii> advb. .1. therefore 2. so 3. hense. tem /tem/ <te.m> advb. .in that manner. ter /ter/ <te.r> adj. .thirteen, termu& /ter.mu~/ <te.r.mu~> adj. .thirteenth. termu& /ter.mu~/ <te.r.mu~> neut. .the religious ritual performed on the 13th day after a person’s death. ter= /te.rß/ <te.r.ß> fem. .thirteenth day of a bright or dark fortnight of the Hindu calendar. tel /tel/ <te.l> neut. .oil. te&talIs /t´~.ta.lis/ <te.ta.lii.s> adj. .forty three. te&s5 /t´~.sˇ˙/ <te~.s.ˇh> adj. .sixty three. tEyar /ti.jar/ <ti.ja.r> adj. .ready to use.
  • 86. 86 tEyarI /ti.ja.ri/ <ti.ja.rii> fem. .readiness. to /to/ <to> advb. .1.then 2. in that case. to26a; /toc˙.Îai/ <to.ch.Îa.ii> fem. rudeness. to26u& /toc˙.Îu~/ <to.ch.Îu~> adj. .blunt. to4o /to.ˇo/ <to.ˇo> masc. .shortage. to6 /toÎ/ <to.Î> masc. .1. a settlement 2. a compromise. to6vu& /toÎ.vu~/ <to.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to break 2. to pluck. tot6u& /tot.Îu~/ <to.t.Îu~> neut. .stammering. toit&g /to.ti˜.g/ <to.ti~.g> adj. .huge. toter /to.ter/ <to.te.r> adj. .seventy three. top /top/ <to.p> fem. .a cannon. to p8 /to p¯/ <to p.¯> advb. .even then. tofan /to.p˙an/ <to.pha.n> neut. .1.riot 2. disturbance. tofanI /to.p˙a.ni/ <to.pha.nii> adj. mischievous. tor8 /to.r¯/ <to.r.¯> neut. .an arch of a gate. tol /tol/ <to.l> masc. .1.weight 2. value. tolo /to.lo/ <to.lo> masc. .an unit of weight. toXvu& /toÆ.vu~/ <to.l.vu~> v.tr. .to weigh. Tyjvu& /tjÔ.vu~/ <tj.Ô.vu~> v.tr. .to abandon. Tyag /tja.g/ <tja.g> masc. .renunciation. Tyagvu& /tjag.vu~/ <tja.g.vu~> v.tr. .to renounce. TyagI /tja.gi/ <tja.gii> adj. .one who has renounced material comforts. TyagI /tja.gi/ <tja.gii> masc. .an ascetic. Tyare /tja.re/ <tja.re> advb. .1. at taht time 2. then. Tya=I /tja.ßi/ <tja.ßii> adj. .eighty three. Tya& /tja~/ <tja~> advb. .there. {a8 /tr¯/ <tr.¯> adj. .three. {aa4kvu& /tra.ˇk.vu~/ <tra.ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. .to raid or attack suddenly. {aa6 /traÎ/ <tra.Î> fem. .a roar. {aa8u& /tra.¯u~/ <tra.¯u~> adj. .ninety three. {aas /tras/ <tra.s> masc. .1. terror 2. nuisance. {aasvad /tras.vad/ <tra.s.va.d> masc. terrorism. {aaiht /tra.hit/ <tra.hi.t> adj. .third party.
  • 87. 87 i{ako8 /tri.kø¯/ <tri.ko.Î> masc. .a triangle. i{a-e4o /tri.b˙e.ˇo/ <tri.bhe.ˇo> masc. .a meeting place of three roads. i{ar&gI /tri.r˜.gi/ <tri.r~.gii> adj. .tricolor. {aIj /tri:Ô/ <trii.Ô> fem. .the third day... {aIju /tri:.Ôu/ <trii.Ôu> adj. .third. {aIs /tris/ <trii.s> adj. .thirty. {aepn /tre.pn/ <tre.p.n> adj. .53 (fifty three). {aevIs /tre.vis/ <tre.vii.s> adj. .twenty three. {aes5 /tre.sˇ˙/ <tre.s.ˇh> adj. .sixty three. {aEmaisk /tri.ma.sik/ <tri.ma.si.k> adj. quarterly. {aofvu& /trop˙.vu~/ <tro.ph.vu~> v.tr. .to tattoo. ]vca /tv.ca/ <tv.ca> fem. .skin. 9 96 /t˙Î/ <th.Î> neut. .the trunk of a tree. 96kvu& /t˙Îk.vu~/ <th.Î.k.vu~> v.intr. .1. to stammer 2. to tremble with fear. 99rvu& /t˙.tr.vu~/ <th.th.r.vu~> v.intr. .to shiver. 9ngnvu& /t˙n.gn.vu~/ <th.n.g.n.vu~> v.intr. .to be very excited for soemthing. 9PpI /t˙p.pi/ <th.ppi> fem. .an orderly pile or stack. 9r /t˙r/ <th.r> masc. .1. a layer 2. a crust. 9r9r /t˙r.t˙r/ <th.r.th.r> advb. shivering manner. 9vu& /t˙.vu~/ <th.vu~> v.intr. .1.to be 2. to happen 3. to occur. 9ak /t˙ak/ <tha.k> masc. fatigue. 9ag69Ig6 /t˙a.gÎ.t˙i.gÎ/ <tha.g.Î.thi.g.Î> neut. .1. a repairing 2. a patching. 9a8u& /t˙a.¯u~/ <tha.¯u~> neut. .1. a center 2. a post. 9ank /t˙a.nk/ <tha.n.k> neut. .a place of worship. 9ap4 /t˙a.pˇ/ <tha.p.ˇ> fem. .a light blow. 9ap8 /t˙a.p¯/ <tha.p.¯> fem. .capital. 9apo /t˙ap/ <tha.po> masc. .the hip. 9ab6vu& /t˙a.bÎ.vu~/ <tha.b.Î.vu~> v.tr. .1. to pat 2. to encourage. 9aX /t˙aÆ/ <tha.Æ> masc. .a large plate.
  • 88. 88 9aXI /t˙a.Æi/ <tha.Æii> fem. .a dinner plate. 9a&-lo /t˙a~b˙.lo/ <tha~.bh.lo> masc. .a small pillar. 9Ig6u& /t˙ig.Îu~/ <thii.g.Îu~> neut. .a patch. 9Ijvu& /t˙iÔ.vu~/ <thii.Ô.vu~> v.intr. .to be froze. 9UlI /t˙u.li/ <thuu.lii> fem. .half grounded wheat. 9Ulu& /t˙u.lu~/ <thuu.lu~> neut. .husks separated from flour. 9U&k /t˙u~k/ <thu~.k> neut. .1. saliva 2. spittle. 9eplu& /t˙ep.lu~/ <the.p.lu~> neut. .a kind of bread. 9elI /t˙e.li/ <the.lii> fem. .a small bag. 9elo /t˙e.lo/ <the.lo> masc. .a big bag. 9ok6I /t˙ok.Îi/ <tho.k.Îii> fem. .a small bundle. 9ok6o /t˙ok.Îo/ <tho.k.Îo> masc. .a big bundle. 9okb&0 /t˙ok.bnd˙/ <tho.k.b~.dh> adj. wholesale. 9o6u& /t˙o.Îu~/ <tho.Îu~> adj. .little. 9o9vavu& /t˙ot˙.va.vu~/ <tho.th.va.vu~> v.intr. to stammer. 9o9u& /t˙o.t˙u~/ <tho.thu~> neut. .a book (derogatory). 9o-vu& /t˙ob˙.vu~/ <tho.bh.vu~> v.intr. .to stop. 9or /t˙or/ <tho.r> masc. .a throny plant. d dix8 /dk.ßi¯/ <d.kßi.¯> fem. .the south. dix8a /dk.ßi.¯a/ <d.kßi.¯a> fem. .alms (given to the Brahmins). dga`or /d.ga.k˙or/ <d.ga.kho.r> adj. treacherous. dgabaj /d.ga.baÔ/ <d.ga.ba.Ô> adj. treacherous. dga`orI /d.ga.k˙o.ri/ <d.ga.kho.rii> fem. . treachery. dgaba@ /d.ga.ba.Ôi/ <d.ga.ba.Ôii> fem. treachery. dgo /d.go/ <d.go> masc. .treachery. d6 d6 /dÎ dÎ/ <d.Î.d.Î> advb. .a sound like that of water falling incessantly. d6 b6 /dÎ bÎ/ <d.Î.b.Î> advb.. a sound like that of running of a human being. d6bu& /dÎ.bu~/ <d.Î.vu~> neut. .a slice of solid food (not of a fruit). d6o /d.Îo/ <d.Îo> masc. .a ball.
  • 89. 89 ddU6I /d.du.Îi/ <d.duu.Îii> fem. .a thin current of water falling down. dbdbo /db.d.bo/ <d.b.d.bo> masc. pomp. dba8 /d.ba¯/ <d.ba.¯> neut. .1. pressure 2. force. dbavu& /d.ba.vu~/ <d.ba.vu~> v.intr. .to be pressed. dm /dm/ <d.m> masc. .asthma. dm /dm/ <d.m> masc. .stamina. dmkvu& /d.mk.vu~/ <d.m.k.vu~> v.intr. to glow. dmda4I /dm.da.ˇi/ <d.m.da.ˇii> fem. .a threatening. dmn /d.man/ <d.m.n> neut. .tyranny. dmam /d.mam/ <d.ma.m> masc. grandeur. dya /d.ja/ <d.ja> fem. .compassion. dr /dr/ <d.r> masc. .rate. dr /dr/ <d.r> masc. .1. a burrow 2. a hole. drkar /dr.kar/ <d.r.ka.r> fem. .care. dr`aSt /dr.k˙as.t/ <d.r.kha.st> fem. proposal. drgah /dr.gah/ <d.r.ga.h> fem. .the tomb of a Muslim saint. dr@ /dr.Ôi/ <d.r.Ôii> masc. .a tailor. drj8 /dr.Ô¯/ <d.r.Ô.¯> fem. .1. a tailor’s wife, 2. a woman tailor. drjjo /d.rÔ.Ôo/ <d.r.ÔÔo> masc. .a rank. drd /d.r.d/ <d.r.d> neut. .1. disease 2. pain. drdI /dr.di/ <d.r.dii> masc. .patient drdagIno /dr.da.gi.no/ <d.r.da.gii.no> masc. . money, ornaments, valuables etc. together. dpR8 /dr.p¯/ <d.rp.¯> neut. .a mirror. drbar /dr.bar/ <d.r.ba.r> masc. .a royal court. drbar /dr.bar/ <d.r.ba.r> masc. Rajput- a community. drimyan /dr.mi.jan/ <d.r.mi.ja.n> advb. meanwhile. drroj /dr.roÔ/ <d.r.ro.Ô> advb. everyday. drvajo /dr.va.Ôo/ <d.r.va.Ôo> masc. .1. a gate 2. an entrance. drvan /dr.van/ <d.r.va.n> masc. .a gate-keeper. drve= /dr.veß/ <d.r.ve.ß> masc. .a Muslim saint. d=Rn /d.rßn/ <d.rß.n> neut. .1. seeing 2. viewing, 3. a form of worshiping
  • 90. 90 d=Rn /d.rßn/ <d.rß.n> neut. philosophy. d=aRvvu& /dr.ßav.vu~/ <d.rßa.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to show 2. to suggest. draj /d.raÔ/ <d.ra.Ô> fem. .ringworm (a skin disease). dirya; /d.ri.ja.i/ <d.ri.ja.ii> adj. .marine. diryo /d.ri.jo/ <d.ri.jo> masc. .the sea. drek /d.rek/ <d.re.k> adj. .1.each 2. every. dro6o /d.ro.Îo/ <d.ro.Îo> masc. .a raid. dlal /d.lal/ <d.la.l> masc. .a broker. dlalI /d.la.li/ <d.la.lii> fem. .brokerage. dilt /d.lit/ <d.li.t> adj. .1. oppressed 2. down-trodden. dlIl /d.lil/ <d.lii.l> fem. .an argument. dv /dv/ <d.v> masc. .a wild-fire. dva /d.va/ <d.va> fem. .a medicine. dva`anu& /d.va.k˙a.nu~/ <d.va.kha.nu~> neut. .1. a hospital 2. a clinic. dvada£ /d.va.da.ru~/ <d.va.da.ru~> neut. pl.. medicines in general. dvapa8I /d.va.pa.ni/ <d.va.pa.¯i> neut. medicines in general. d= /dß/ <d.ß> adj. .ten. d=k /d.ßk/ <d.ß.k> masc. .the tenth part. d=m /d.ßm/ <d.ß.m> fem. .tenth day of the Hindu fortnight. d=/mu& /dß.mu~/ <d.ß.mu~> neut. .tenth day after a person’s death. d=a /d.ßa/ <d.ßa> fem. .condition. d=a&= /d.ßa~ß/ <d.ßa~.ß> adj. decimal. d=I /d.ßi/ <d.ßi> fem. .1. hem of a garment 2. wick. d=era /d.ße.ra/ <d.ße.ra> masc. .the tenth day of the bright half of the Aso month. ds /ds/ <d.s> adj. .10 (ten). d=ko /dß.ko/ <d.s.ko> masc. a decade. dStavej /d.sta.veÔ/ <d.sta.ve.Ô> masc. a document. dha6o /d.ha.Îo/ <d.ha.Îo> masc. a day. dhI& /d.hi~/ <d.hii~> neut. 1. yogurt 2. curd. dhI&tru& /d.hi~.t.ru~/ <d.hii.t.ru~> neut. a food item. dhI&v6u& /d.hi~.v.Îu~/ <d.hi.v.Îu~> neut. a food item.
  • 91. 91 dhej /d.heÔ/ <d.he.Ô> neut. dowry. dhe=t /d.he.ßt/ <d.he.ß.t> fem. apprehension. dXdar /d .dar/ <d.Æ.da.r> adj. 1. thick 2. heavy. dXvu& /dÆ.vu~/ <d.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to grind. d&gl /d˜.gl/ <d~.g.l> neut. a quarrel. d&6 /d¯.Î/ <d~.Î> masc. punishment. d&6vu& /d¯Î.vu~/ <d~.Î.vu~> v.tr. to punish. d&tk9a /dnt.k.t˙a/ <d.t.k.tha> fem. 1. a legend 2. a fable. d&tm&jn /dnt.mµ.Ôn/ <d.nt.m~.Ô.n> neut. 1. tooth- powder 2. tooth-paste. d&t=UX /dnt.ßuÆ/ <d~.t.ßu.Æ> masc. an elephant’s tusk. d&ptI /dm.p.ti/ <d~.p.tii> neut. a couple (husband and wife). d&- /dmb˙/ <d~.bh> masc. hypocrisy. d&-I /dm.b˙i/ <d~.bhii> adj. hypocritical. d&= /dmß/ <d~.ß> masc. 1. a biting (of a serpent or scorpian) 2. a sting. da`lo /da.k˙.lo/ <da.kh.lo> masc. 1. an example 2. an illustration 3. a mathematical problem. dagIno /da.gi.no/ <da.gii.no> masc. an ornament. da3 /dag˙/ <da.gh> masc. 1. a spot 2. burning. daz /daÔ˙/ <da.Ôh> fem. feeling. dazvu& /daÔ˙.vu~/ <da.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. to get burn. da4vu& /daˇ.vu~/ <da.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to bury. da6m /da.Îm/ <da.Î.m> neut. a pomegranate. da7 /daÎ˙/ <da.Îh> fem. a molar tooth. da7I /da.Î˙i/ <da.Îhii> fem. 1. the chin 2. the beard. da8o /da.¯o/ <da.¯o> masc. a grain. dat8 /da.t¯/ <da.t.¯> neut. a small piece of a branch of a tree or a plant used to clean teeth. dadr /da.dr./ <da.d.r> masc. a staircase. dadro/dad.ro./ <da.d.ro> masc. a staircase. dadagIrI /da.da.gi.ri/ <da.da.gii.rii> fem. bullying. dadI /da.di/ <da.dii> fem. grandmother.
  • 92. 92 dado /da.do/ <da.do> masc. grandfather. dan /dan/ <da.n> neut. 1. a gift 2. a donation. dant /da.nt/ <da.n.t> fem. intention. danv /da.nv/ <da.n.v> masc. a monster. dane=rI /da.ne.ß.ri/ <da.ne.ß.rii> masc. a liberal donor. dab6I /dab.Îi/ <da.b.Îii> fem. a very small box. dabvu& /dab.vu~/ <da.b.vu~> v.tr. to press. dayko /daj.ko/ <da.j.ko> masc. a decade. day8 /da.j¯/ <da.j.¯> fem. a mid- wife. da£ /da.ru/ <da.ruu> masc. 1. wine 2. liquor. da£`anu& /da.ru.k˙a.nu~/ <da.ruu.kha.nu~> masc. fire-works. da£i6yo /da.ru.Îi.jo/ <da.ru.Îii.jo> masc. a drunkard. da=Rink /da.rß.nik/ <da.rß.ni.k> adj. philosophical. dav /dav/ <da.v> masc. a person’s turn in a game. davo /da.vo/ <da.vo> masc. 11. a right 2. a claim 3. a law-suit 4. a demand. das /das/ <da.s> masc. a male servant. dasI /da.si/ <da.sii> fem. a male servant. daX /daÆ/ <da.Æ> fem. 1. pulses grounded into two parts 2. a food item prepared from such pulses. da&t /da~t/ <da~.t> masc. tooth. da&ityo /da~.ti.jo/ <da~.ti.jo> masc. a comb. idGd=Rk /dig.dr.ßk/ <di.gd.rß.k> masc. a director (of a film or a drama). idGmU7 /dig.muÎ˙/ <di.gmu.Îh> adj. 1. stunned 2. wonderstruck. idncyaR /din.c.rja/ <di.n.c.rja> fem. a daily routine activities. idnrat /din.rat/ <di.n.ra.t> advb. day and night. idmag /di.mag/ <di.ma.g> neut. the brain. idyr /di.jr/ <di.j.r> masc. a husband’s younger brother. idl /dil/ <di.l> neut. the heart. idlgIr /dil.gir/ <di.l.gi.r> adj. dejected. idlgI.rI /dil.gi.ri/ <di.l.gii.rii> fem. dejection.
  • 93. 93 idlcSp /dil.cß.p/ <di.l.c.ßp> adj. fascinating. idlcSpI /dil.cß.pi/ <di.l.c.ßpii> fem. fascination. idldar /dil.dar/ <di.l.da.r> adj. 1. beloved 2. liberal. idlaso /di.la.so/ <di.la.so> masc. consolation. idvs /di.vs/ <di.v.s> masc. a day. idvaso /di.va.so/ <di.va.so> masc. a festival. idvaXI /di.va.Æi/ <di.va.Æii> fem. the Hindu festival on the last day of the Hindu year. idve4 /di.veˇ/ <di.ve.Î> fem. a wick. idvel /di.vel/ <di.ve.l> neut. castor-oil. idVy /div.j/ <di.vj> adj. divine. dIkrI /dik.ri/ <dii.k.rii> fem. a daughter. dIkro /dik.ro/ <dii.k.ro> masc. a son. dIdI /di.di/ <dii.dii> fem. elder sister. dIn /din/ <din> adj. poor (literary). dIp /dip/ <dii.p> masc. a lamp. dIpk /di.pk/ <dii.p.k> masc. lamp. dIp6o /dip.Îo/ <dii.p.Îo> masc. a lamp. dIpavlI /di.pav.li/ <dii.pa.v.lii> fem. the Diwali festival. dI3R /dir.g/ <dii.rgh> adj. long. dIvada&6I /di.va.da~.Îi/ <dii.va.da~.Îii> fem. a light-house. dIval /di.val/ <dii.va.l> fem. a wall. dIvasXI /di.va.s.Æi/ <dii.va.s.Æii> fem. a matchstick. dIvI /di.vi/ <dii.vii> fem. a lamp-stand. dIvo /di.vo/ <dii.vo> masc. a lamp. dukan /du.kan/ <du.ka.n> fem. a shop. dukaX /du.kaÆ/ <du.ka.Æ> masc. a famine. du`vu& /duk˙.vu~/ <du.kh.vu~> v.intr. 1. to pain 2. to ache. du`avo /du.k˙a.vo/ <du.kha.vo> masc. 1. pain 2. ache. dui`yaru& /du.k˙i.ja.ru~/ <du.khi.ja.ru~> adj. unhappy. du8avu& /du.¯a.vu~/ <du.¯a.vu~> v.intr. to be burnt (of food). duinya /du.ni.ja/ <du.ni.ja> fem. 1. the world 2. the universe. dup44o /du.p.ˇˇo/ <du.p.ˇˇo> masc. a scarf. du-agvu& /du.b˙ag.vu~/ <du.bha.g.vu~> v.tr. to divide by two.
  • 94. 94 du-avvu& /du.b˙av.vu~/ <du.bha.v.vu~> v.tr. to displease. du-avu& /du.b˙a.vu~/ <du.bha.vu~> v.intr. to be displeased. du-aiqyo /du.b˙a.ßi.jo/ <du.bha.s°i.jo> masc. an interpreter. durag/h /du.ra.grh/ <du.ra.gr.h> masc. excessive and undue insistence. duracr8 /du.ra.c.r¯/ <du.ra.c.r.¯> neut. immoral behavior. duracr8I /du.ra.c.r.¯i/ <du.ra.c.r.¯ii> adj. a person who behaves immorally. duracar /du.ra.car/ <du.ra.ca.r> neut. immoral behavior. duracarI /du.ra.ca.ri/ <du.ra.ca.rii> adj. a person who behaves immorally. dugRit /dur.g.ti/ <du.rg.tii> fem. spiritual degeneration. dugR&0 /dur.gnd˙/ <du.rg~.dh> fem. unpleasant smell. dubRX /dur.bÆ/ <du.rb.Æ> adj. weak. dulR- /dur.lb˙/ <du.rl.bh> adj. rare. duva /du.va/ <du.va> fem. blessing. du+mn /duß.man/ <du.ßm.n> masc. an enemy. duŠ` /duk˙/ <duŠ.kh> neut. 1. unhappiness 2. pain. dusa)y /du.sad˙.j/ <du.sa.dhj> adj. difficult to achieve. duzvu& /duÔ˙.vu~/ <du.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. to ooze. dU0 /dud˙/ <du.dh> neut. milk. dUi0ya /du.d˙i.ja/ <du.dhi.ja> adj. milk- white. dU0I /du.d˙i/ <du.dhii> fem. a kind of gourd. dUbXu& /dub.Æu~/ <du.b.Æu~> adj. weak. dU-vvu& /du.b˙v.vu~/ <du.bh.v.vu~> v.tr. to afflict. dU-avu& /du.b˙a.vu~/ <du.bha.vu~> v.intr. to be afflicted. dUr /dur/ <du.r> adj. far away. dUr/bIn /dur.bin/ <du.r.bii.n> neut. 1. a telescope 2. a binocular. ±7 /drÎ˙/ <dr.Îh> adj. 1. firm 2. strong. ±iQ4 /dr.ߡi/ <dr.s°ˇi> fem. sight. de`re` /dek˙.rek˙/ <de.kh.re.kh> fem. 1. watch 2. guardianship. de`vu& /dek˙.vu~/ <de.kh.vu~> v.tr. to see. de`ade`I /de.k˙a.de.k˙i/ <de.kha.de.khii> fem. senseless imitation. de`av /de.k˙av/ <de.kha.v> masc. appearance.
  • 95. 95 de`av6u& /de.k˙av.Îu~/ <de.kha.v.Îu~> adj. 1. attractive 2. handsome 3.beautiful. de`avu& /de.k˙a.vu~/ <de.kha.vu~> v.tr. to appear. de`Itu& /de.k˙i.tu~/ <de.khii.tu~> adj. obvious. de6kI /deÎ.ki/ <de.Î.kii> fem. a (female/ small) frog. de6ku& /deÎ.ku~/ <de.Î.ku~> neut. a frog. de6ko /deÎ.ko/ <de.Î.ko> masc. a (male) frog. dera8I /de.ra.¯i/ <de.ra.¯ii> fem. husband’s younger brother’s wife. derasr /de.ra.sr/ <de.ra.s.r> neut. a Jain temple. derI /de.ri/ <de.rii> fem. a small temple. dev /dev/ <de.v> masc. a deity (male). devta /dev.ta/ <de.v.ta> masc. a fire. devnagrI /dev.nag.ri/ <de.v.na.g.rii> adj. the Sanskrit script. devX /de.vÆ/ <de.v.Æ> neut. a church. devadar /de.va.dar/ <de.va.da.r> adj. indebted. devaXIyu& /de.va.Æi.ju~/ <de.va.Æii.ju~> adj. bankrupt. devI /de.vi/ <de.vii> fem. 1. a deity (female) 2. goddess. devu& /de.vu~/ <de.vu~> v.tr. to give. de= /deß/ <de.ß> masc. 1. a country 2. a region. de=kaX /deß.kaÆ/ <de.ß.ka.Æ> masc. time and space. de=daz /deß.daÔ˙/ <de.ß.da.Ôh> fem. patriotism. de=a4n /de.ßa.ˇn/ <de.ß.ˇ.n> neut. traveling in foreign country. de=ai-man /de.ßa.b˙i.man/ <de.ßa.bhi.ma.n> neut. patriotism. de=I /de.ßi/ <de.ßii> masc. 1. native 2. indigenous. de=I /de.ßi/ <de.ßii> adj. a villager. deh /deh/ <de.h> masc. body. dehTyag /deh.tjag/ <de.h.tja.g> masc. death. dEink /di.nik/ <di.ni.k> adj. daily. dEvI /di.vi/ <di.vii> adj. devine. do4 /doˇ/ <do.ˇ> fem. an act of running. do6 /doÎ/ <do.Î> fem. an act of running. do60am /doÎ.d˙am/ <do.Î.dha.m> fem. turmoil do6vu& /doÎ.vu~/ <do.Î.vu~> v.intr. to run.
  • 96. 96 do6ado6 /do.Îa.doÎ/ <do.Îa.do.Î> fem. 1. hurry 2. haste. do7 /ÎoÎ˙/ <do.Îh> adj. one and half. do76a¬u& /doÎ˙.Îahju~/ <do.Îh.Îa.hju~> adj. over wise. do7u& /do.Î˙u~/ <do.Îhu~> adj. one and half time. dodXu& /dod.Æu~/ <do.d.Æu~> adj. weak. dor6I /dor.Îi/ <do.r.Îii> fem. a string. dor6u& /dor.Îu~/ <do.r.Îu~> neut. a rope. dorv8I /do.rv.¯i/ <do.r.v.Îii> fem. guidance. dorvu& /dor.vu~/ <do.r.vu~> v.tr. to draw (picture, figure etc.) dorvu& /dor.vu~/ <do.r.vu~> v.tr. to guide a person or any other animal. dorI /do.ri/ <do.rii> fem. a string. doro /do.ro/ masc. <do.ro> 1. a thread 2. a kind of necklace. doq /doß/ <do.s°> masc. 1. mistake 2. fault. doSt /dost/ <dos.t> masc. a friend. dohvu& /doh.vu~/ <do.h.vu~> v.tr. to milk. doih{a /do.hi.tr/ <do.hi.tr> masc. a daughter’s son. doih{aI /do.hi.tri/ <do.hi.trii> fem. a daughter’s daughter. ±ax /drakß/ <dra.kßha> fem. a grape. ±oh /droh/ <dro.h> masc. a betrayal. µIp /dvip/ <dvi.pa> masc. an island. µEmaisk /dvi.ma.sik/ <dwi.ma.si.k.> adj. bi-monthly. 0 0kelvu& /d˙.kel.vu~/ <d.ke.l.vu~> v.tr. to push. 0kk&0kka /d˙.kkm.d˙k.ka/ <d.kke.dh.kka> masc. intensely crowded state. 0kka0kkI /d˙.kka.d˙k.ki/ <dh.kka.mu.kkii> fem. . intensely crowded state. 0kkamukkI /d˙.kka.muk.ki/ <dh.kka.mu.kkii> fem. a crowd marked with pushes and blows. 0kko /d˙k.ko/ <dh.kko> masc. a push. 0kko /d˙k.ko/ <dh.kko> masc. an errand. 0g0gvu& /d˙g.d˙g.vu~/ <dh.g.dh.g.vu~> v.intr. to burn intensely. 0g= /d˙.gß/ <dh.g.ß> fem. 1. zeal 2. enthusiasm.
  • 97. 97 0ja /d˙.Ôa/ <dh.Ôa> fem. 1. a flag 2. a banner. 06 /d˙Î/ <dh.Î> neut. the human body without head. 06k /d˙.Îk/ <dh.Î.k> fem. throbbing of the heart due to fright, shock etc. 06kvu& /d˙.Îk.vu~/ <dh.Î.k.vu~> v.intr. to throb. 06ako /d˙.Îa.ko/ <dh.Îa.ko> masc. an exploding sound. 06a06 /d˙.Îa.d˙Î/ <dh.Îa.dh.Î> advb. quickly and violently. 06a06I /d˙.Îa.d˙.Îi/ <dh.Îa.dh.Îii> fem. commotion. 08 /d˙¯/ <dh.¯> neut. a herd of cattle. 0808vu& /d˙¯.d˙¯.vu~/ <dh.¯.dh.¯.vu~> v.intr. to quake (of earth etc). 08I /d˙.¯i/ <dh.¯ii> masc. 1. a master 2. an owner 3. the husband. 08Iya8I /d˙.¯i.ja.¯i/ <dh.¯ii.ja.¯ii> fem.1. master’s wife 2. owner’s wife 3. a female owner. 0it&g /d˙.ti˜.g/ <dh.ti~.g> neut. 1. a sham 2. phoniness. 0n /d˙n/ <dh.n> neut. 1. money 2. wealth. 0nter= /d˙n.te.rß/ <dh.n.te.r.ß> fem. a Hindu festival. 0nuQy /d˙.nu.ßj/ <dh.nu.ßj> neut. a bow. 0Ny /d˙.nj/ <dh.nj> adj. 1. fortunate 2. praiseworthy. 0b6ko /d˙.bÎ.ko/ <dh.b.Î.ko> masc. a fiasco. 0mkvu& /d˙.mk.vu~/ <dh.m.k.vu~> v.intr. to tremble. 0mkavvu& /d˙m.kav.vu~/ <dh.m.ka.vu~> v.tr. to scold. 0mkI /d˙m.ki/ <dh.m.kii> fem. a threat. 0m0okar /d˙m.d˙o.kar/ <dh.m.dho.ka.r> advb. at full speed. 0min /d˙m.ni/ <dh.m.ni> fem. an artery. 0mp2a6a /d˙m.p.c˙a.Îa/ <dh.m/p.cha.Îa> masc. vain efforts made impatiently. 0mal /d˙.mal/ <dh.ma.l> fem. commotion. 0rtI /d˙r.ti/ <dh.r.tii> fem. 1. the earth 2. the soil. 0rpk6 /d˙r.p.kÎ/ <dh.r.p.k.Î> fem. an arrest. 0rbvu& /d˙.rb.vu~/ <dh.r.b.vu~> v.tr. to over fill.
  • 98. 98 0rmUX /d˙r.mu / <dh.r.muu.Æ> neut. the very beginning. 0rvu& /d˙r.vu~/ <dh.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to hold by hand 2. to assume 3. to offer. 0ravu& /d˙.ra.vu~/ <dh.ra.vu~> v.intr. to be satisfied. 0rI /d˙.ri/ <dh.rii> fem. an axle. 0ro /d˙.ro/ <dh.ro> masc. a deep pit in a river. 0mR /d˙r.m/ <dh.rm> masc. 1. religion 2. duty. 0mRguru /d˙r.m.gu.ru/ <dh.rm.gu.ru> masc. a spiritual teacher. 0mRg/&9 /d˙r.m.grnt˙/ <dh.rm.gr~.th> masc. a religious book. 0mRs&k4 /d˙r.m.sm.kˇ/ <dh.rm.s~.k.ˇ> neut. a moral dilemma. 0maRTma /d˙r.mat.ma/ <dh.rma.tma> masc. a man with a holy soul. 0maRda /d˙r.ma.da/ <dh.rma.da> adj. pertaining to religious charity. 0maRNtr /d˙r.man.tr/ <dh.rma.nt.r> neut. an act of adopting another’s religion. 0maR&0 /d˙r.man.d˙/ <dh.rma~.dh> adj. fanatic. 0imRQ4 /d˙r.miߡ/ <dh.rmi.s°ˇ> adj. religious minded. 0sms /d˙s.ms/ <dh.s.m.s> fem. excitement. 0svu& /d˙s.vu~/ <dh.s.vu~> v.intr. to rush forcefully. 0saro /d˙.sa.ro/ <dh.sa.ro> masc. rush. 0&0o /d˙n.d˙o/ <dh~.dho> masc. a business. 0ak /d˙ak/ <dha.k> fem. fright. 0a6 /d˙aÎ/ <dha.Î> fem. robbery. 0a6pa6u /d˙aÎ.pa.Îu/ <dha.Î.pa.Îu> masc. a robber. 0a8I /d˙a.¯i/ <dha.¯ii> fem. popcorn. 0atu /d˙a.tu/ <dha.tu> fem. a metal. 0an /d˙an/ <dha.n> neut. grain. 0ap /d˙ap/ fem. a cheating. 0abu& /d˙a.bu~/ <dha.bu~> neut. a terrace. 0abu& /d˙a.bu~/ <dha.bu~> neut. a blot. 0am /d˙am/ <dha.m> neut. a dwelling place. 0am0Um /d˙am.d˙um/ <dha.m.dhu.m> fem. grandeur. 0amo /d˙a.mo/ <dha.mo> masc. unexpected stay. 0ar /d˙ar/ <dha.r> fem. 1. the edge of a weapon 2. a thin current of falling water.
  • 99. 99 0ar8a /d˙ar.¯a/ <dha.r.¯a> fem. inference. 0arvu& /d˙ar.vu~/ <dha.r.vu~> v.tr. to infer. 0ara0or8 /d˙a.ra.d˙o.r¯/ <dha.ra.dho.r.¯> neut. 1. rules and regulations 2. code and conduct. 0ara=aS{aI /d˙a.ra.ßaß.tri/ <dha.ra.ßa.ßtrii> masc. a lawyer. 0aras-a /d˙a.ra.s.b˙a/ <dha.ra.sa.bha> fem. a legislative assembly. 0aro /d˙a.ro/ <dha.ro> masc. 1. a custom 2. a tradition. 0aimRk /d˙ar.mik/ <dha.rmi.k> adj. religious. 0av8 /d˙a.v¯/ <dha.v.¯> neut. mother’s milk. 0avvu& /d˙av.vu~/ <dha.v.vu~> v.intr. to suck milk from mother’s breasts. 0a&0l /d˙a~.d˙l/ <dha~.dh.l> fem. commotion. i0kavvu& /d˙i.kav.vu~/ <dhi.kka.r.vu~> v.tr. to burn intensely. i0kkar /d˙i.kkar/ <dhi.kka.r> masc. hatred. 0Imu& /d˙i.mu~/ <dhii.mu~> adj. slow. 0Ime /d˙i.me/ <dhii.mu~> advb. slowly. 0Ime9I /d˙i.me.t˙i/ <dhii.me.thii> advb. slowly. 0Irj /d˙i.rÔ/ <dhi.r.Ô> fem. patience. 0Ir0ar /d˙ir.d˙ar/ <dhi.r.dha.r> fem. money-landing. 0Irvu& /d˙ir.vu~/ <dhii.r.vu~> v.tr. 1.to give on credit 2. to lend money on interest. 0utarI /d˙u.ta.ri/ <dhu.ta.rii> fem. a deceitful woman. 0utaro /d˙u.ta.ro/ <dhu.ta.ro> masc. a deceitful man. 0upel /d˙u.pel/ <dhu.pe.l> neut. hair- oil. 0umai6yu& /d˙u.ma.Îi.ju~/ <dhu.ma.Îi.ju~> neut. a chimney. 0uma6o /d˙u.ma.Îo/ <du.ma.Îo> masc. smoke. 0U8vu& /d˙u¯.vu~/ <dhuu.¯.vu~> v.intr. to shake or swing head under the influence of black art. 0Utvu& /d˙ut.vu~/ <dhuu.t.vu~> v.intr. to cheat. 0Un /d˙un/ <dhuu.n> fem. a strong addiction. 0Up /d˙up/ <dhuu.p> masc. a kind of fragrant substance. 0UpsXI /d˙up.s.Æi/ <dhu.p.s.Æii> fem. an incense stick. 0UX /d˙uÆ/ <dhuu.Æ> fem. dust.
  • 100. 100 0U&AapU&Aa /d˙u~.a.pu~.a/ <dhuu~.a.puu~.a> adj. burning with anger. 0U&0vavu& /d˙u~nd˙.va.vu~/ <dhu~.dh.va.vu~> v.intr. to grudge silently. 0U&0Xu& /d˙u~d˙.Æu~/ <dhu~.dh.Æu~> adj. 1. misty 2. dim. 0U&srI /d˙u~s.ri/ <dhu~.s.rii> fem. a yoke. 0oka4vu& /d˙o.kaˇ.vu~/ <do.ka.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to beat with a club. 0oko /d˙o.ko/ <dho.ko> masc. a short tick staff. 0oko /d˙o.ko/ <dho.ko> masc. 1. harm 2. betrayal. 0oityu& /d˙o.ti.ju~/ <dho.ti.ju~> neut. a big scarf-like lower garment of Hindu males. 0otI /d˙o.ti/ <dho.tii> fem. a big scarf- like lower garment of Hindu males. 0o0 /d˙od˙/ <dho.dh> masc. a water- fall. 0ob8 /d˙o.b¯/ <dho.b.¯> fem. 1. a washer man’s wife 2. a washer-woman. 0obI /d˙o.bi/ <dho.bii> masc. a washer man. 0or8 /d˙o.r¯/ <dho.r.¯> neut. a grade (first, second etc) of a school. 0ola; /d˙o.la.i/ <dho.la.ii> fem. 1. washing 2. remuneration for washing. 0ova8 /d˙o.va¯/ <dho.va.¯> neut. attrition. 0ovu& /d˙o.vu~/ <dho.vu~> v.tr. 1. to wash 2. to clean. 0oX /d˙oÆ/ <dho.Æ> neut. a kind of devotional song. 0oXu& /d˙o.Æu~/ <dho.Æu~> adj. white. )yan /d˙ja.n/ <dhj.n> neut. attention. )yey /d˙jej/ <dhje.j> masc. goal. 0/ujarI /d˙ru.Ôa.ri/ <dhru.Ôa.rii> fem. trembling. )vj /d´vÔ/ <dhv.Ô> masc. a flag. )vin /d˙va.ni/ <dhv.ni> masc. sound. n nkl /n.kl/ <n.k.l> fem. 1. a copy 2. a transcript. nklI /nk.li/ <n.k.lii> adj. 1. artificial 2. unoriginal. nk=Ikam /nk.ßi.kam/ <n.k.ßii.ka.m> neut. carving. nk=o /nk.ßo/ <n.k.ßo> masc. 1. a map 2. an outline. nkamu& /n.ka.mu~/ <n.ka.mu~> adj. useless. nkar /n.kar/ <n.ka.r> masc. negation.
  • 101. 101 nkUco /n.ku.co/ <n.kuu.co> masc. a hook for locking. nkor6o /n.kor.Îo/ <n.ko.r.Îo> adj. without food and water (fasting). nkkr /nk.kr/ <n.kk.r> adj. 1. solid 2. authentic. nkkI /nk.ki/ <n.kki> adj. 1. sure 2. certain 3. fixed. nx{a /n.kß.tr/ <n.kß.tr> neut. a constellation. n` /nk˙/ <n.kh> masc. a nail. n`raXu& /nk˙.ra.Æu~/ <n.kh.ra.Æu~> adj. 1. prudish 2. coquettish. n`ra`or /nk˙.ra.k˙or/ <n.kh.ra.kho.r> adj. 1. prudish 2. coquettish. n`rabaj /nk˙.ra~.baÔ/ <n.kh.ra.ba.Ô> adj. 1. prudish 2. coquettish. n`ru& /nk˙.ru~/ <n.kh.ru~> neut. 1. prudery 2. coquetry. n`lI /nk˙.li/ <n.kh.lii> fem. a nail- polish. n`i=` /nk˙.ßik˙/ <n.kh.ßi.kh> adj. from the toe to the head. n~`od /nk˙.k˙od/ <n.khokho.d> neut. 1.end of a family generation 2. complete destruction. ng8u& /n.g.¯u~/ <n.g.¯u~> adj. ungrateful. ngd /n.gd/ <n.g.d> adj. in cash. ngr /n.gr/ <n.g.r> neut. a city. ngrI /ng.ri/ <n.g.rii> fem. a small city. ngru& /ng.ru~/ <n.g.ru~> adj. 1. a person who has no guru 2. shameless. nGn /ng.n/ <n.gn> adj. 1. naked 2. nude 3. shameless. nic&t /n.ci~nt/ <n.ci~.t> adj. free from worries. n2U4ke /n.c˙uˇ.ke/ <na.chuu.t.ke> advb. 1. compulsorily 2. helplessly. njdIk /nÔ.dik/ <n.Ô.dii.k> advb. 1. near 2. beside. njr /n.Ôr/ <n.Ô.r> fem. sight. njra8u& /nÔ.ra.¯u~/ <n.Ô.ra.¯u~> neut. a gift. njravu& /nÔ.ra.vu~/ <n.Ô.ra.¯u~> v.intr. to be the victim of evil sight. njronjr /nÔ.ro.n.Ôr/ <n.Ô.ro.n.Ô.r> advb. in front of. n@k /n.Ôik/ <n.Ôii.k> postp. 1. near 2. beside. n@vu& /n.Ôi.vu~/ <n.Ôii.vu~> adj. insignificant (in amount and quantity). n4 /nˇ/ <n.ˇ> masc. a male actor. n4I /n.ˇi/ <n.ˇii> fem. a female actor.
  • 102. 102 n5aru& /n.ˇ˙a.ru~/ <n.ˇha.ru~> adj. 1. wicked 2. harmful. n5or /n.ˇ˙or/ <n.ˇho.r> adj. 1. heartless 2. cruel. n6tr /nÎ.tr/ <n.Î.t.r> neut. 1. an obstruction 2. troubles assumed to be created by ghosts and evil spirits. n8dl /n¯.dl/ <n.¯.d.l> fem. husband’s sister. n8dI /n¯.di/ <n.¯.dii> fem. husband’s sister. n8do; /n¯.do.i/ <n.¯.do.ii> fem. husband’s sister’s husband. ntIjo /n.ti.Ôo/ <n.tii.Ôo> masc. 1. result 2. an outcome. n8&d /n.¯nd/ <n~.¯.d> fem. husband’s sister. n9 /nt˙/ <n.th> fem. a nose-ring. n9I /t.t˙i/ <n.thii> neg. is not. ndI /n.di/ <n.dii> fem. a river. n0i8yatu& /n.d˙.¯i.ja.tu~/ <n.dh.¯i.ja,tu~> adj. 1. unguarded 2. stray. nnamI /n.na.mi/ <n.na.mii> fem. a bier. nnamu& /n.na.mu~/ <n.na.mu~> adj. nameless. nNno /nn.no/ <n.nno> masc. negation. npas /n.pas/ <n.pa.s> adj. fail. npu&sk /n.pu~m.sk/ <n.pu~.s.k> adj. 1. impotent 2. neuter gender. nfkru& /n.p˙k.ru~/ <n.ph.k.ru~> adj. careless. nff4 /np˙.p˙ˇ/ <n.phph.ˇ> adj. 1.shameless 2. rude. nfa`or /n.p˙a.k˙or/ <n.pha.kho.r> adj. inclined to profiteering. nifkru& /n.p˙ik.ru~/ adj. careless. nfo /n.p˙o/ <n.pho> masc. profit. nbXa; /nb.Æa.i/ <n.b.Æa.ii> fem. weakness. nbXu& /nb.Æu~/ <n.b.Æu~> adj. weak. nbapu& /n.ba.pu~/ <n.ba.pu~> adj. fatherless. n- /nb˙/ <n.bh> neut. the sky. n-vu& /nb˙.vu~/ <n.bh.vu~> v.intr. to last. nmk /n.mk/ <n.m.k> neut. salt. nm8u& /nm.¯u~/ <n.m.¯u~> adj. humble. nmn /n.mn/ <n.m.n> neut. a bowing in reverence. nmvu& /nm.vu~/ <n.m.vu~> v.intr. to bend down. nmaj /n.maÔ/ <n.ma.Ô> fem. prayer to god (in Islam).
  • 103. 103 nmayu& /n.ma.ju~/ <n.ma.ju~> adj. orphan. nmUi2yu& /n.mu.c˙i.ju~/ <n.muu.chi.ju~> adj. having no mustache. nmUnedar /n.mu.ne.dar/ <n.mu.ne.da.r> adj. ideal. nmUno /n.mu.no/ <n.muu.no> masc. 1. a sample 2. a model. nm/ /nm.r/ <n.mr> adj. humble. nyn /n.jn/ <n.j.n> fem. am eye. nr /nr/ <n.r> masc. a male. nrk /n.rk/ <n.r.k> neut. hell. nrjait /nr.Ôa.ti/ <n.r.Ôa.ti> fem. the male class. ntRk /nr.tk/ <n.rt.k> masc. a male dancer. ntRkI /nr.t.ki/ <n.rt.kii> fem. a female dancer. nXakar /n.Æa.kar/ <n.Æa.ka.r> adj. cylindrical. nv /nv/ <n.Æa.ka.r> adj. nine. nvjuvan /nv.Ôu.van/ <n.v.Ôu.va.n> masc. a blooming youth. nv@vn /nv.Ôi.vn/ <n.v.Ôii.v.n> neut. new life. nvjot /nv.Ôot/ <n.v.Ôo.t> fem. the sacred-thread ceremony of the Parsi comunity. nvtr /nv.tr/ <n.v.t.r> adj. novel. nv0a /nv.d˙a/ <n.v.dha> fem. nine types of Bhakti. nvra= /nv.raß/ <n.v.ra.ß> fem. leisure. nvru& /nv.ru~/ <n.v.ru~> adj. unemployed. nvlk9a /n.vl.k.t˙a/ <n.v.l.k.tha> fem. novel. nvilka /nv.li.ka/ <n.v.li.ka> fem. short story. nvv0U /nv.v.d˙u/ <n.v.v.dhuu> fem. a bride. nv=eku& /nv.ße.ku/ <n.v.ße.ku~> adj. lukwarm. nvS{au& /n.vs.tru~/ <n.v.stru~> adj. undressed. nva; /n.va.i/ <n.va.ii> fem. a wonder. nvajvu& /n.vaÔ.vu~/ <n.va.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to honor. nvajUnI /n.va.Ôu.ni/ <n.va.Ôuu.nii> fem. a new development. nvIn /n.vin/ <n.vii.n> adj. new. nvu& /n.vu~/ <n.vu~> adj. new.
  • 104. 104 nvesr9I /n.ve.sr.t˙i/ <n.ve.s.r.thii> advb. to start a work again from the beginning. nVva8u& /nv.va.¯u~/ <n.vva.¯u~> adj. ninety nine. n=o /n.ßo/ <n.ßo> masc. intoxication. ns /ns/ <n.s> fem. a vein. nskoru& /ns.ko.ru~/ <ns.ko.ru~> neut. 1. a nostril 2. the nose. nsIb /n.sib/ <n.sii.b> neut. 1. fate 2. fortune. nih /n.hi/ <n.hi> advb. 1. no 2. not. nihvt /n.hi.vt/ <n.hi.v.t> adj. slightly. nher /n.her/ <n.he.r> fem. a canal. nhor /n.hor/ <n.ho.r> masc. a claw. niXyu& /n.Æi.ju~/ <n.Æi.ju~> neut. a roof tile. nXI /n.Æi/ <n.Æii> fem. a tube. n&g /n˜.g/ <n~.g> neut. a unit of a thing. na /na/ <na> advb. 1. no 2. not. na;laj /na.i.laÔ/ <na.i.la.Ô> adj. incurable. nak /nak/ <na.k> neut. the nose. naku& /na.ku~/ <na.ku~> neut. 1. the eye of a needle 2. an entrance or end of a road 3. a hole. na`vu& /nak˙.vu~/ <na.kh.vu~> v.tr. to throw. nag /nag/ <na.g> masc. a male cobra. nag8 /na.g¯/ <na.g.¯> fem. a female cobra. nagr /na.gr/ <na.g.r> masc. a community of that name. nagrvel /na.gr.vel/ <na.g.r.ve.l> fem. the betel plant. nagirk /nag.rik/ <na.g.ri.k> masc. a citizen. nagrI /nag.ri/ <na.g.rii> adj. 1. related to the Nagar community, 2. civilized, 3. urban. nagu& /na.gu~/ <na.gu~> adj. 1. naked 2. nude. nac /nac/ <na.c> masc. a dance. nacvu& /nac.vu~/ <na.c.vu~> v.intr. to dance. na2U4ke /na.c˙uˇ.ke/ <na.chuu.ˇ.ke> advb. helplessly. najuk /na.Ôuk/ <na.Ôu.k> adj. tender. na4k /na.ˇk/ <na.ˇ.k> neut. 1. a drama 2. a play. na4kkar /na.ˇk.kar/ <na.ˇ.k.ka.r> masc. 1. a playwright 2. a dramatist.
  • 105. 105 na4kIyu& /na.ˇ.ki.ju~/ <na.ˇ.kii.ju~> adj. 1. dramatic 2. not real. nai4ka /na.ˇi.ka/ <na.ˇi.ka> fem. a short play. na6a26I /na.Îa.c˙.Îi/ <na.Îa.ch.Îii> fem. a many colored cotton string used in various rituals. na6I /na.Îi/ <na.Îii> fem. 1. a vain 2. an artery. na6u& /na.Îu~/ <na.Îu~> neut. a string of a garment. na8vu& /na¯.vu~/ <na.¯.vu~> v.tr. to examine. na8akIy /na.¯a.kij/ <na.¯a.kii.j> adj. 1. monetary 2. financial. na8abjar /na.¯a.b.Ôar/ <na.¯a.b.Ôha.r> neut. money- market. na8a-I6 /na.¯a.b˙iÎ/ <na.¯a.bhii.Î> fem. financial stringency. na8u& /na.¯u~/ <na.¯u~> neut. money. nat /nat/ <na.t> fem. a caste. natvro /nat.v.ro/ <na.t.v.ro> masc. a caste-dinner. natal /na.tal/ <na.ta.l> fem. the Christmas. nato /na.to/ <na.to> masc. relation. na9 /nat˙/ <na.th> masc. 1. a master 2. the husband. nadan /na.dan/ <na.da.n> adj. childish. nadar /na.dar/ <na.da.r> adj. bankrupt. nan`4a; /nan.k˙.ˇa.i/ <na.n.kh.ˇa.ii> fem. a kind of sweet. nanp /na.np/ <na.n.p> fem. inferiority complex. nanm /na.nm/ <na.n.m> fem. inferiority complex. nanp8 /nan.p¯/ <na.n.p.¯> neut. childhood. nanu& /na.nu~/ <na.nu~> adj. small. napas /na.pas/ <na.pa.s> adj. failed. nai- /na.b˙i/ <na.bhi> fem. the navel. nam /nam/ <na.m> neut. a name. namcIn /nam.cin/ <na.m.cii.n> adj. infamous. nam5am /nam.ˇ˙am/ <na.m.ˇha.m> neut. a person’s name and address. namdar /nam.dar/ <na.m.da.r> adj. honorable. namna /nam.na/ <na.m.na> fem. fame. namu& /na.mu~/ <na.mu~> neut. a credit and debit account. nayk /na.jk/ <na.j.k> masc. a hero of a novel, a play etc.
  • 106. 106 naiyka /na.ji.ka/ <na.ji.ka> fem. a heroine of a novel, a play etc. nar&gI /na.r˜.gi/ <na.r~.gii> fem. an orange. naraj /na.raÔ/ <na.ra.Ô> adj. displeased. nairyeX /na.ri.jeÆ/ <na.ri.je.Æ> neut. 1. a coconut 2. a coconut tree. narI /na.ri/ <na.rii> fem. a woman. nalayk /na.la.jk/ <na.la.j.k> adj. unworthy. nav /nav/ <na.v> fem. a small boat. naivk /na.vik/ <na.vi.k> masc. 1. a sailor 2. a boatman. na= /naß/ <na.ß> masc. destruction. nas /nas/ <na.s> masc. inhalation of vapor for curing a disease. naspit /nas.p.ti/ <na.s.p.ti> neut. a pear fruit or tree. nas-ag /nas.b˙ag/ <na.s.bha.g> fem. a retreat. nasvu& /nas.vu~/ <na.s.vu~> v.intr. to run away. naSto /nas.to/ <na.sto> masc. a breakfast. nahk /na.hk/ <na.h.k> advb. unnecessarily. nahvu& /nah.vu~/ <na.h.vu~> v.intr. to bathe. naX /naÆ/ <na.Æ> fem. a horse shoe. naXcu& /naÆ.cu~/ <na.Æ.cu~> neut. a funnel. naXu& /na.Æu~/ <na.Æu~> neut. a rivulet. inkal /ni.kal/ <ni.ka.l> masc. 1. disposal 2. judgment. inkas /ni.kas/ <ni.ka.s> fem. export. inkah /ni.kah/ <ni.ka.h> masc. Muslim marriage. in`als /ni.k˙a.ls/ <ni.kha.l.s> adj. open-hearted. ingU7 /ni.guÎ˙/ <ni.guu.Îh> adj. mysterious. incovvu& /ni.cov.cu~/ <ni.cho.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to squeeze 2. to extract. injan&d /ni.Ôa.nnd/ <ni.Ôa.n~.d> masc. the joy caused by self-realization. intarvu& /ni.tar.vu~/ <ni.ta.r.vu~> v.tr. to filter. inTy /ni.tj/ <ni.tj> adj. eternal. inTykmR /nit.j.kr.ma/ <ni.tj.k.rm> neut. daily worship. indan /ni.dan/ <ni.da.n> neut. diagnosis. in0n /ni.d˙n/ <ni.dh.n> neut. death. inpu8 /ni.pu¯/ <ni.pu.¯> adj. expert.
  • 107. 107 inb&0 /ni.bnd˙/ <ni.b~.dh> masc. an essay. in-avvu& /ni.b˙av.vu~/ <ni.bha.v.vu~> v.tr. to maintain. inm8U&k /nim.¯u~k/ <ni.m.¯u~.k> fem. an appointment. inm&{a8 /ni.mn.tr¯/ <ni.m~.tr.¯> neut. an invitation. inm&{avu& /ni.mn.tr.vu~/ <ni.m~.tr.vu~> v.tr. to invite. inma6o /ni.ma.Îo/ <ni.ma.Îo> masc. a potter’s kiln. inym /ni.jm/ <ni.j.m> masc. a rule. inymn /ni.j.mn/ <ni.j.m.n> neut. controlling. inyimt /ni.j.mit/ <ni.j.mi.t> adj. regular. inyamk /ni.ja.mk/ <ni.ja.m.k> masc. 1. director 2. controller. inyuikt /ni.juk.ti/ <ni.ju.kti> fem. appointment. inrxr /ni.r.kßr/ <ni.r.kß.r> adj. illiterate. inrpex /nir.pek.ß/ <ni.r.pe.kß> adj. independent. inr9Rk /ni.rr.t˙k/ <ni.rth.k> adj. useless. inr&ku= /ni.r˜.kuß/ <ni.r~.ku.ß> adj. uncontrolled. inr&tr /ni.rn.tr/ <ni.r~.t.r> adj. 1incessant. inrakrr8 /ni.ra.k.r¯/ <ni,ra.k.r.¯> neut. 1. settlement 2. disposal. inrakar /ni.ra.kar/ <ni.ra.ka.r> adj. shapeless. inra0ar /ni.ra.d˙ar/ <ni.ra.dha.r> adj. 1. orphan 2. support less. inra= /ni.raß/ <ni.ra.sh> adj. disappointed. inraXu& /ni.ra.Æu~/ <ni.ra.Æu~> adj. 1. peculiar 2. distinct 3. different. inra&t /ni.ra~t/ <ni.ra~.t> fem. 1. peace 2. repose. inrIxk /ni.ri.kßk/ <ni.ri.kß.k> masc. 1. an observer 2. an inspector. inru]ar /ni.ru.ttr/ <ni.ru.tt.r> neut. 1. un-answering 2. silent, 3. speechless in response. inrupyogI /ni.rup.jo.gi/ <ni.ru.p.jo.gii> adj. useless. in£p8 /ni.ru.p¯/ <ni.ruu.p.¯> neut. narration. in£pvu& /ni.rup.vu~/ <ni.ruu.p.vu~> v.tr. to narrate. injRn /nir.Ôn/ <ni.rÔ.n> adj. uninhabited. injRX /nir.ÔÆ/ <ni.rÔ.Æ> adj. 1. dry 2. waterless.
  • 108. 108 in@Rv /nir.Ôiv/ <ni.rÔii.v> adj. lifeless. in8Ry /nir.¯j/ <ni.r¯.j> masc. decision. in8aRyk /nir.¯a.jk/ <ni.r¯a.j.k> adj. decisive. indRy /nir.dj/ <ni.rd.j> adj. cruel. indeR= /nir.deß/ <ni.rde.ß> masc. an indication. indoRq /nir.doß/ <ni.rdo.s°> adj. innocent. in0Rn /nir.d˙n/ <ni.rdh.n> adj. moneyless. in0aRr /nir.d˙ar/ <ni.rdha.r> masc. determination. inbRX /nir.b / <ni.rb.Æ> adj. powerless. in-Ry /nir.b˙j/ <ni.rbh.j> adj. fearless. in-eRX /nir.b˙e / <ni.rbhe.Æ> adj. unadulterated. inmRX /nir.mÆ/ <ni.rm.Æ> adj. without dirt. inmaR8 /nir.ma¯/ <ni.rma.¯> neut. a creation. inmaRLy /nir.ma.lj/ <ni.rma.lj> adj. powerless. inmURX /nir.muÆ/ <ni.rmuu.Æ> adj. rootless. invaR8 /nir.va¯/ <nir.va.¯> neut. salvation. invaRist /nir.va.sit/ <ni.rva.si.t> adj. refugee. invaRh /nir.vah/ <nir.va.h> masc. maintenance. inivR#n /nir.vign/ <ni.rvi.ghn> adj. free from obstacles. invarvu& /ni.var.vu~/ <ni.va.r.vu~> v.tr. to prevent. invas /ni.vas/ <ni.va.si> masc. residence. invasI /ni.va.si/ <ni.va.sii> masc. a resident. inv<]a /ni.vru.tt/ <ni.vr≤u.tt> adj. retired. inv<i]a /ni.vrut.ti/ <ni.vr≤u.tti> fem. retirement. inve6o /ni.ve.Îo/ <ni.ve.Îo> masc. .settlement 2. verdict. invedn /ni.ve.dn/ <ni.ve.d.n> neut. a statement. in=an /ni.ßan/ <ni.ßa.n> neut. 1. target 2. a mark. in=anI /ni.ßa.ni/ <ni.ßa.nii> fem. a mark. in=aX /ni.ßaÆ/ <ni.ßa.Æ> fem. a school. in=aiXyo /ni.ßa.Æi.jo/ <ni.ßa.Æi.jo> masc. 1. a school boy 2. a student.
  • 109. 109 in¾y /niß.c.j/ <ni.ßc.j> masc. a determination. ini¾t /niß.cit/ <ni.ßci.t> adj. decided. in¼as /niß.vas/ <ni.ßva.s> masc. a sigh. inqe0 /ni.ßed˙/ <ni.s°e.dh> masc. prohibition. inQkl&k /niß.ka.la˜k/ <ni.s°k.l~.k> adj. 1. free from blamsih. inQk/Iy /niß.kri.j/ <ni.s°krii.j> adj. inactive. inQ5a /niß.ˇ˙a/ <ni.s°ˇha> fem. faithfulness. inQ5ur /niß.ˇur/ <ni.s°ˇhu.r> adj. 1. cruel 2. merciless. inQ8at /niß.¯at/ <ni.s°¯a.t> adj. an expert. inQpx /niß.pk.ß/ <ni.s°p.kß> adj. impartial. inQpap /niß.pap/ <ni.s°pa.p> adj. sinless. inQp/a8 /niß.pra¯/ <ni.s°pra.¯> adj. 1. weak 2. spiritless. inQfX /niß.p˙l/ <ni.s°ph.Æ> adj. unsuccessful. insr8I /ni.sr.¯i/ <ni.s.r.¯ii> fem. a ladder. insaso /ni.sa.so/ <ni.sa.so> masc. a sigh. inStej /nis.teÔ/ <ni.ste.Ô> adj. 1. dim 2. dull. inSbt /nis.bt/ <ni.sb.t> fem. 1. relation 2. concern. inhairka /ni.ha.ri.ka/ <ni.ha.ri.ka> fem. a nebula. inhaXvu& /ni.haÆ.vu~/ <ni.ha.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to see with full attention. in&dvu& /nind.vu~/ <ni~.d.vu~> v.tr. . to backbite. in&da /nin.da/ <ni~.da> fem. backbiting. inŠ=Bd /ni.ßb.d/ <ni:.ß.bd> adj. silent. inŠ=S{a /ni.ßs.tr/ <ni:.ß.str> adj. unarmed. inŠ=uLk /ni.ßul.k/ <ni:.ßu.lk> adj. free of charge. inŠs&tan /ni.sn.tan/ <ni:.s~.ta.n> adj. childless. inŠs&deh /ni.sn.deh/ <ni:.s~.de.h> adj. without any doubt. inŠSva9R /ni.svar.th/ <ni:.sva.rth> adj. unselfish. nIk /nik/ <nii.k> fem. a drain. nIkXvu& /ni.kÆ.vu~/ <nii.k.Æ.vu~> v.intr. 1. to come out 2. to go out 3. to appear. nIc /nic/ <nii.c> adj. 1. wicked 2. mean.
  • 110. 110 nIcajo8u& /ni.ca.Ôo.¯u~/ <nii.ca.Ôo.¯u~> neut. shameful condition. nIca8 /ni.ca¯/ <nii.ca.¯> neut. descent. nIcu& /ni.cu~/ <nii.cu~> adj. 1. low 2. vile. nI6r /ni.Îr/ <nii.Î.r> adj. fearless. nItrvu& /ni.tr.vu~/ <nii.t.r.vu~> v.intr. 1. to ooze 2. to be filtered. nItyuR& /nit.rju~/ <nii.t.rju~> adj. filtered. nIit /ni.ti/ <nii.ti> fem. morality. nIit=aS{a /ni.ti.ßas.tr/ <nii.ti.ßa.str> neut. ethics. nIpj /ni.pÔ/ <nii.p.Ô> fem. product. nIpjvu& /ni.pÔ.vu~/ <nii.p.Ô.vu~> v.intr. to be produced. nIm /nim/ <nii.m> masc. a religious vow. nImvu& /nim.vu~/ <nii.m.vu~> v.tr. to appoint. nIr`vu& /ni.rk˙.vu~/ <nii.r.kh.vu~> v.tr. to observe. nIr8 /ni.r¯/ <nii.r.¯> neut. fodder. nIrv /ni.rv/ <nii.r.v> adj. noiseless. nIrvu& /nir.vu~/ <nii.r.vu~> v.tr. to feed cattle fodder. nIrogI /ni.ro.gi/ <nii.ro.gii> adj. healthy. nIl /nil/ <nii.l> adj. dark-blue. nIv6vu& /ni.vÎ.vu~/ <nii.v.Î.vu~> v.intr. to be accomplished. nI&d8 /nin.d¯/ <nii~.d.¯> neut. the act of removing weeds. nI&dvu& /nind.vu~/ <nii~.d.vu~> v.tr. to weed. nuksan /nuk.san/ <nu.k.sa.n> neut. damage. nUtn /nu.tn/ <nuu.t.n> adj. new. nUr /nur/ <nuu.r> neut. fright. n<Ty /nrut.j/ <nr≤u.tj> neut. a dance. nek /nek/ <ne.k> adj. honest. neta /ne.ta/ <ne.ta> masc. a leader. netagIrI /ne.ta.gi.ri/ <ne.ta.gii.rii> fem. leadership. nevu& /ne.vu~/ <ne.vu~> adj. ninety. neVya=I /nev.ja.ßi/ <ne.vja.ßii> adj. eighty nine. nEitk /ni.tik/ <ni.ti.k> adj. 1. ethical 2. moral. nE¢Ty /ni.rut.j/ <ni.ru≤.tj> adj. south-west (direction). nEved /ni.ved/ <ni.ve.d> masc. the food offered to a god or deity.
  • 111. 111 nEsigRk /ni.sr.gik/ <ni.sr.gi.k> adj. natural. nokr /no.kr/ <no.k.r> masc. a male servant. nokr=ahI /no.kr.ßa.hi/ <no.k.r.ßa.hii> fem. a bureaucracy. nokiryat /no.k.ri.jat/ <no.k.ri.ja.t> adj. salaried (person). notrvu& /no.tr.vu~/ <no.t.r.vu~> v.tr. to give a formal invitation on an auspicious occasion. notru& /not.ru~/ <no.t.ru~> neut. a formal invitation. no0aru& /no.d˙a.ru~/ <no.dha.ru~> adj. support less. nobt /nobt/ <no.b.t> fem. a big drum used normally in temples. nom /nom/ <no.m> fem. ninth day of the bright or dark half of a Hindu month. noiXyo /no.Æi.jo/ <no.Æi.jo> masc. a mongoose. no&0 /nø~d˙/ <no~.dh> fem. a noting down. nOka /nu.ka/ <nu.ka> fem. a boat. nOkadX /nu.ka.dÆ/ <nu.ka.d.Æ> neut. navy. Nyat /njat/ <nja.t> fem. a caste. NyatIlu& /nja.ti.lu~/ <nja.tii.lu~> adj. a person from the same caste. Nyay /njaj/ <nja.j> masc. justice. Nyaya0I= /nja.ja.d˙iß/ <nja.ja.dhii.ß> masc. a judge. NyayI /njaji/ <nja.jii> adj. righteous. p pk6 /p.kÎ/ <p.k.Î> fem. an act of holding or gripping. pk6vu& /p.kÎ.vu~/ <p.k.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to hold 2. to catch 3. to grasp. pkvvu& /p.kv.vu~/ <p.k.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to ripen 2. to cook 3. to produce pkvan /pk.van/ <p.k.va.n> neut. sweets. px /pk.ß/ <p.kß> masc. 1. side 2. a party (political). pxa3at /pk.ßa.g˙at/ <p.kßa.gha.t> masc. paralysis. pxpat /pk.ß.pat/ <p.kß.pa.t> masc. partiality. pxapxI /pk.ßa.pk.ßi/ <p.kßa.p.kßii> fem. discord. pxI /pk.ßi/ <p.kßii> neut. a bird. p`vaj /pk˙.vaÔ/ <p.kh.va.Ô> fem. a kind of drum. p`vai6yu& /pk˙.va.Îi.ju~/ <p.kh.va.Îi.ju~> neut. a fortnight. p`vai6k /pk˙.va.Îik/ <p.kh.va.Îi.k> adj. fortnightly.
  • 112. 112 p`aXvu& /p.k˙aÆ.vu~/ <p.kha.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to wash (formal). pg /pg/ <p.g> masc. 1. a leg 2. a foot. pgi9yu& /p.g.t˙i.ju~/ <p.g.thi.ju~> neut. a footstep. pgpaXu& /pg.pa.Æu~/ <p.g.pa.Æu~> adj. pedestrian. pgpesaro /pg.pe.sa.ro/ <p.g.pe.sa.ro> masc. intrusion. pg-r /pg.b˙r/ <p.g.bh.r> adj. self-reliant. pgr`u& /p.gr.k˙u~/ <p.g.r.khu~> neut. a shoe. pgrv /pg.rv/ <p.g.r.v> masc. the sound of foot-steps. pglu& /pg.lu~/ <p.g.lu~> neut. a footprint. pgar /p.gar/ <p.ga.r> masc. 1. pay 2. salary. pgI /p.gi/ <p.gi> masc. 1. a foot-print reader 2. a village watchman. pgeru& /p.ge.ru~/ <p.ge.ru~> neut. a foortprint. pcr&gI /pc.r˜.gi/ <p.c.r~.gii> adj. colorful. pcvu& /pc.vu~/ <p.c.vu~> v.intr. to be digested. pcas /p.cas/ <p.ca.s> adj. fifty. pCcIs /pc.cis/ <p.ccii.s> adj. 25 (twenty five). p26a4 /pch.Îaˇ/ <p.ch.Îa.ˇ> fem. an act of being knocked. p2a6vu& /p.c˙aÎ.vu~/ <p.cha.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to throw 2. to defeat . p2at /p.c˙at/ <p.cha.t> adj. backward. p2I /p.c˙i/ <p.chii> postp. afterwards. p2It /p.c˙it/ <p.chii.t> fem. a rear wall of a building. p2e6I /p.c˙e.Îi/ <p.che.Îii> fem. a kind of shawl. pjv8I /p.Ôv.¯i/ <p.Ô.v.¯ii> fem. harassment. pjvvu& /p.Ôv.vu~/ <p.Ô.v.vu~> v.tr. to harass. p4ko /pˇ.ko/ <p.ˇ.ko> masc. a small piece of cloth used to wra round the waist or the head. p4p4 /pˇ.pˇ/ <p.ˇ.p.ˇ> advb. quickly. p4p4avvu& /pˇ.p.ˇav.vu~/ <p.ˇ.p.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. to wag. p4la; /pˇ.lai/ <p.ˇ.la.ii> fem. a village headman’s duty.
  • 113. 113 p4la8I /pˇ.la.¯i/ <p.ˇ.la.¯ii> fem. 1. the wife of the village headman 2. the wife of a Patel. p4abaj /p.ˇa.baÔ/ <p.ˇa.ba.Ô> adj. skilled in swordsmanship. p4aba@ /p.ˇa.ba.Ôi/ <p.ˇa.ba.Ôii> fem. skill in swordmanship. p4am8I /p.ˇam.¯i/ <p.ˇa.m.¯ii> fem. deceit by flattering. p4avvu& /p.ˇav.vu~/ <p.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. to cheat by flattery. p4avaXo /p.ˇa.va.Æo/ <p.ˇa.va.Æo> masc. a peon. p44I /pˇ.ˇi/ <p.ˇˇii> fem. a strip. p4el /p.ˇel/ <p.ˇe.l> masc. 1. the headman of a caste 2. the headman of a village 3. a surname so named 4. the name of a community. p44o /pˇ.ˇo/ <p.ˇˇo> masc. a belt. p6 /pÎ/ <p.Î> neut. a layer. p6kar /pÎ.kar/ <p.Î.ka.r> masc. a challenge. p6`u& /pÎ.k˙u~/ <p.Î.khu~> neut. a side. p62ayo /pÎ.c˙a.jo/ <pÎ.cha.jo> masc. a shadow. p6tr /pÎ.tr/ <p.Î.t.r> adj. a base price. p6tr /pÎ.tr/ <p.Î.t.r> adj. uncultivated (land). p6tI /pÎ.ti/ <p.Î.tii> fem. a fall. p6tu& /pÎ.tu~/ <p.Î.tu~> adj. 1. decaying 2. falling. p6do /pÎ.do/ <p.Î.do> masc. a curtain. p6pU2 /pÎ.puc˙/ <p.Î.puu.ch> fem. inquiry. p6vu& /pÎ.vu~/ <p.Î.vu~> v.intr. to fall. p6vo /pÎ.vo/ <p.Î.vo> masc. the first day of the first or second fortnight of a Hindu month. p6av /p.Îav/ <p.Îa.v> masc. a camp. pi6yo /p.Îi.jo/ <p.Îi.jo> masc. a bowl made of leaves. p6I /p.Îi/ <p.Îii> fem. a small packet. p6IkI /p.Îi.ki/ <p.Îii.kii> fem. a very small packet. p6Iku& /p.Îi.ku~/ <p.Îii.ku~> neut. a small packet. p8 /p¯/ <p.¯> conj. 1. but 2. stll 3. yet. p82 /p.¯c˙/ <p.¯.ch> fem. the string of a bow. pt /pt/ <p.ˇ> neut. laprosy. ptn /p.tn/ <p.ˇ.n> neut. 1. a fall 2. a defeat.
  • 114. 114 ptrI /pt.ri/ <p.t.rii> fem. a small thin metal piece. ptru& /pt.ru~/ <p.t.ru~> neut. a sheet of metal. ptvu& /pt.vu~/ <p.t.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be settled (account), 2. to end 3. to be concluded. pt&g /p.t˜.g/ <p.t~.g> masc. a kite. pt&igyu& /p.t˜.gi.ju~/ <p.t~.gi.ju~> neut. a butterfly. ptak6u& /p.tak.Îu~/ <p.ta.k.Îu~> neut. a small piece of paper. ptav4 /p.ta.vˇ/ <p.ta.v.ˇ> fem. a settlement. ptavvu& /p.tav.vu~/ <p.ta.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to settle 2. finalise. ptasu& /p.ta.su~/ <p.ta.su~> neut. a kind of cookie. pit /p.ti/ <p.ti> masc. the husband. pityu& /p.ti.ju~/ <p.ti.ju~> adj. suffering from leprosy. p]au /pt.tu~/ <p.ttu~> neut. 1. a leaf 2. a playing card. p]ao /pt.to/ <p.tto> masc. 1. whereabouts 2. address. pTnI /pt.ni/ <p.tnii> fem. the wife. p{a /pt.r/ <p.tr> masc. a letter. p{akar /p.tr.kar/ <p.tr.ka.r> masc. a journalist. p{akar]v /ptr.ka.rt.r/ <p.tr.ka.r.tv> neut. journalism. p{aVyvhar /p.tr.vjv.har/ <p.tr.vj.v.ha.r> masc. correspondance. pi{aka /p.tri.ka/ <p.tri.ka> fem. a pamphlet. p9raX /pt˙.raÆ/ <p.th.ra.Æ> adj. stony. p9rI /pt˙.ri/ <p.th.rii> fem. a small stone. p9ro /pt˙.ro/ <p.th.ro> masc. a stone. p9arI /p.t˙a.ri/ <p.tha.rii> fem. a bed. p(9r /pt˙.t˙r/ <p.thth.r> masc. a stone. pd /pd/ <p.d> masc. a rank. pd /pd/ <p.d> neut. a sentential phrase. pdvI /pd.vi/ <p.d.vii> fem. 1. a title 2. a rank. pda9R /p.dar.t˙/ <p.da.rth> masc. 1. a substance 2. an object. pda9R /p.dar.t˙/ <p.da.rth> masc. a meaning of phrase. pdavil /p.dav.li/ <p.da.v.li> fem. diction.
  • 115. 115 pdavvu& /p.dav.vu~/ <p.da.v.vu~> v.tr. to cause work hard. p(9it /p.d˙d˙.ti/ <p.dhdh.ti> fem. a method. pdy /p.dj/ <p.dj> neut. verse. p0ram8I /pd˙.ram.¯i/ <p.dh.ra.m.¯ii> fem. a formal visit. p0ravvu& /pd˙.rav.vu~/ <p.dh.ra.v.vu~> v.tr. to offer respectfully. p0arvu& /p.0˙ar.vu~/ <p.dha.r.vu~> v.intr. to come or go respectfully. pno /p.no/ <p.no> masc. breadth of cloth. pnotI /p.no.ti/ <p.no.tii> fem. misfortune. pnotu& /p.no.tu~/ <p.no.tu~> adj. auspicious. ppEyu& /p.pi.ju~/ <p.pi.ju~> neut. papaya. pr /pr/ <p.r> postp. 1. on 2. over 3. above. prkIy /pr.kij/ <p.r.kii.j> adj. 1. belonging to others 2. belongingto foreign. pr` /p.rk˙/ <p.r.kh> fem. 1. a test 2. an examination. pr`avvu& /pr.k˙av.vu~/ <p.r.kha.v.vu~> v.tr. to tell unscrupulously. prgju /pr.g.Ôu~/ <p.r.g.Ôu> adj. benevolent. prgam /pr.gam/ <p.r.ga.m> neut. another’s village. prcUr8 /pr.cu.r¯/ <p.r.cu.r.¯> neut. 1. change (coins), 2. miscellaneous. prco /pr.co/ <p.r.co> masc. a miracle. pr@vI /pr.Ôi.vi/ <p.r.Ôii.vii> adj. parasite. pr8vu& /p.r¯.vu~/ <p.r.¯.v~> v.tr. to marry. prt /p.rt/ <p.r.t> advb. in return. prt&{a /pr.tn.tr/ <p.r.t~.tr> adj. dependence. prdado /pr.da.do/ <p.r.da.do> masc. a great grand-father. prduŠ` /pr.duk˙/ <p.r.duŠ.kh> neut. other’s misery. prde= /pre.deß/ <p.r.de.ß> masc. a foreign country. prdo /pr.do/ <p.r.do> masc. a curtain. pr0n /pr.d˙n/ <p.r.dh.n> neut. other’s money or wealth. pr0mR /pr.d˙r.ma/ <p.r.dh.rm> masc. other’s religion. prnatIlu& /pr.na.ti.lu~/ <p.r.na,tii.lu~> adj. belonging to others’ caste.
  • 116. 116 prpuruq /pr.pu.ruß/ <p.r.pu.ru.s°> masc. a man other than one’s husband. prpo4I /pr.po.ˇi/ <p.r.po.ˇii> fem. a small bubble. prpo4o /pr.po.ˇo/ <p.r.po.ˇo> masc. a big bubble. prb /p.rb/ <p.r.b> fem. a public water house. prbI6Iyu& /pr.bi.Îi.ju~/ <p.r.bii.Îii.ju~> neut. an envelope. pr-v /pr.b˙v/ <p.r.bh.v> masc. a previous or the next birth. prm /p.rm/ <p.r.m> adj. highest. prma8u /pr.ma.¯u/ <p.r.ma.¯u~> neut. an atom. prmaTma /pr.mat.ma/ <p.r.ma.tma> masc. 1. the supreme being 2. god. prman&d /pr.ma.nand/ <p.r.ma.n~.d> masc. supreme bliss. prma9R /pr.mar.t˙/ <p.r.ma.rth> masc. 1. the highest aim 2. benevolence. prme¼r /pr.meß.vr/ <p.r.me.ßv.r> masc. god. prlok /pr.lok/ <p.r.lo.k> masc. the other world where the soul is believed o be going after death. prv6vu& /pr.vÎ.vu~/ <p.r.v.Î.vu~> exp. to afford. prv= /pr.vß/ <p.r.v.ß> adj. dependent. prvX /pr.v / <p.r.v.Æ> neut. a kind of vegetable. prva /pr.va/ <p.r.va> fem. care. prvangI /pr.van.gi/ <p.r.va.n.gii> fem. permission. prvano /pr.va.no/ <p.r.va.no> masc. a licence. prsevo /pr.se.vo/ <p.r.se.vo> masc. perspiration. prS{aI /pr.stri/ <p.r.strii> fem. other than one’s wife. prSpr /p.rs.pr/ <p.r.sp.r> advb. 1. mutually 2. reciprocally. pr&t u/p.rn.tu/ <p.r~.tu> advb. but. pr&pra /p.rm.p.ra/ <p.r~.p.ra> fem. a tradition. pr&pragt /p.rm.p.ra.gt/ <p.r~.p.ra.g.t> adj. traditional. prakaQ5a /p.ra.kaß.t˙a/ <p.r.ka.s°ˇa> fem. 1. climax 2. extremity. prak/m /p.ra.krm/ <p.ra.kr.m> neut. 1. an adventure 2. heroism. prak/mI /p.ra.kr.mi/ <p.ra.kr.mii> adj. enterprising. prajy /p.ra.Ôj/ <p.ra.Ô.j> masc. a defeat.
  • 117. 117 pra8e /p.ra.¯e/ <p.ra.¯e> advb. 1. unwillingly 2. forcibly. pra0In /p.ra.d˙in/ <p.ra.dhii.n> adj. dependent. pram=R /p.ra.mr.ß/ <p.ra.m.rß> masc. contact. prayu& /p.ra.ju~/ <p.ra.ju~> adj. other’s pir3 /p.rig˙/ <p.ri.dh> masc. circumference. pircy /p.ri.cj/ <p.ri.c.j> masc. familiarity. pircairka /p.ri.ca.ri.ka/ <p.ri.ca.ri.ka> fem. a maid-servant. pirict /p.ri.cit/ <p.ri.ci.t> adj. knowing. pirC2ed /p.ric.c˙ed/ <p.ri.cche.d> masc. a paragraph. pir8am /p.ri.¯am/ <p.ri.¯a.m> neut. 1. result 2. outcome. pir8It /p.ri.¯it/ <p.ri.¯ii.t> adj. married. pir0an /p.ri.d˙an/ <p.ri.dha.n> neut. clothing. pirpkv /p.ri.pk.v/ <p.ri.p.kva> adj. mature. pirbX /p.ri.b / <p.ri.b.Æ> neut. 1. force 2. a factor. pir-aqa /p.ri.b˙a.ßa/ <p.ri.bha.s°a> fem. terminology. pirml /p.ri.ml/ <p.ri.m.l> fem. fragrance. pirvtRn /p.ri.vr.tn/ <p.ri.v.rt.n> neut. a change. pirvar /p.ri.var/ <p.ri.va.r> neut. a family. piri=Q4 /p.ri.ßiß.ˇ˙/ <p.ri.ßi.s°ˇ> adj. an appendix. pir=Iln /p.ri.ßi.ln/ <p.ri.ßii.l.n> neut. deep study. pir[am /p.ri.ßrm/ <p.ri.ßr.m> masc. hard work. pirqd /p.ri.ßd/ <p.ri.s°.d> fem. an assembly. piriS9it /p.riß.t˙i.ti/ <p.ri.sthi.ti> fem. circumstances. prI /p.ri/ <p.rii> fem. a fairy. prIxk /p.rik.ßk/ <p.rii.kß.k> masc. an examinar. prIx8 /p.rik.߯/ <p.rii.kß.¯> neut. a testing. prIxa /p.rik.ßa/ <p.ri.kßa> fem. examination. pru /p.ru/ <p.ru> neut. pus. pru& /p.ru~/ <p.ru~> neut. a suburban area. pre=an /p.re.ßan/ <p.re.ßa.n> adj. perplexed.
  • 118. 118 prox /p.rok.ß/ <p.ro.kß> adj. indirect. pro7 /p.roÎ˙/ <p.ro.Îh> neut. daybreak. pro8o /p.ro.¯o/ <p.ro.¯o> masc. a guest. propkar /p.rop.kar/ <p.ro.p.ka.r> masc. benevolence. propkarI /p.rop.ka.ri/ <p.ro.p.ka.rii> adj. benevolent. provvu& /p.rov.vu~/ <p].ro.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to thread a needle 2. to string beads. pyaRPt /p.ri.jap.t/ <p.rja.pt> adj. sufficient. pyuRq8 /pr.ju.߯/ <p.rju.s°.¯> neut. a festival of the Jains. plk /p.lk/ <p.l.k> fem. a moment. plk /p.lk/ <p.l.k> fem. a twinkling of the eye. plkaro /pl.ka.ro/ <p.l.ka.ro> masc. a twinkling. pl48 /pl.ˇ¯/ <p.l.ˇ.¯> fem. a battalion. pl4vu& /p.lˇ.vu~/ <p.l.ˇ.vu~> v.tarns. to change. pl4o /pl.ˇo/ <p.l.ˇo> masc. a big change. plXvu& /p.lÆ.vu~/ <p.l.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to be drenched. pl&g /p.l˜g/ <p.l~.g> masc. a big cot. pla&5I /p.la~.ˇ˙i/ <p.la~.ˇhii> fem. a posture of sitting with crossed-legs. plIt /p.lit/ <p.lii.t> neut. an evil spirit. plo4vu& /p.loˇ.vu~/ <p.lo.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to train animals. pvn /p.vn/ <p.v.n> masc. wind. piv{a /p.vit.r/ <p.vi.tr> adj. sacred. p=u /p.ßu/ <p.ßu> neut. a quadruped animal. p¾atap /pß.ca.tap/ <p.ßca.ta.p> masc. repentance. pi¾m /pß.cim/ <p.ßci.m> adj. western. pi¾m /pß.cim/ <p.ßci.m> fem. the west (direction). ps&d /p.snd/ <p.s~.d> fem. choice. pStavu& /ps.ta.vu~/ <p.sta.vu~> v.intr. to repent. pStI /ps.ti/ <p.stii> fem. paper scrap. pha6 /p.haÎ/ <p.ha.Î> masc. a mountain. pha8o /p.ha.¯o/ <p.ha.¯o> masc. a stone. pher8 /p.he.r¯/ <p.he.r.¯> neut. a kind of shirt.
  • 119. 119 phervu& /p.her.vu~/ <p.he.r.vu~> v.tr. to wear. pherve= /p.her.veß/ <p.he.r.ve.ß> masc. dress. phero /p.he.ro/ <p.he.ro> masc. a watch. phel /p.hel/ <p.he.l> fem. an initiation. phelvan /p.hel.van/ <p.he.l.va.n> masc. a wrestler. phelu& /p.he.lu~/ <p.he.lu~> adj. first. pho&c /p.ha~c/ <p.ho~.c> fem. a receipt. pho&c /p.ha~c/ <p.ha~.c> fem. a power affecting a person, thing, or course of events. pho&cvu& /p.ha~c.vu~/ <p.ha~.c.vu~> v.intr. 1. to reach 2. to arrive. phoXu& /p.ho.Æu~/ <p.ho.Æu~> adj. broad. pho&cI /p.ha~.ci/ <p.ha~.cii> fem. wristler. pho&co /p.ha~.co/ <p.ha~.co> masc. the wrist. pX /pÆ/ <p.Æ> fem. 1. aperiod of twenty four second 2. a moment. p&ikt /p˜.ki/ <p~.kti> fem. a line. p&`I /p˜.k˙i/ <p~.khii> neut. a bird. p&`o /p˜.k˙o/ <p~.kho> masc. a fan. p&gt /p˜.gt/ <p~.g.t> fem. a row of diners. p&c /pµ.c/ <p~.c> neut. a arbitrator (traditionally a body of five arbitrators). p&ca8u& /pµ.ca.¯u~/ <p~.ca.¯u~> adj. ninty five. p&cat /pµ.cat/ <p~.ca.t> fem. a body of arbitrators. p&cam<t /pµ.ca.mrut/ <p~.ca.mru≤.t> neut. a mixture of milk, yogurt, ghee, honey and sugar. p&cayt /pµ.ca.jt/ <p~.ca.j.t> fem. an executive body of a caste or village. p&cal /pµ.cal/ <p~.ca.l> masc. a blacksmith. p&cavn /pµ.ca.vn/ <p~.ca.v.n> adj. fifty five. p&ca=I /pµ.ca.ßi/ <p~.ca.ßii> adj. eighty five. p&ca&g /pµ.ca~.˜g/ <p~.ca~.g> neut. an almanac. p&coter /pµ.co.ter/ <p~.co.te.r> adj. seventy five. p&jo /pµ.Ôo/ <p~.Ôo> masc. 1. a paw 2. a claw. p&6 /p¯.Î/ <p~.Î> neut. the human body. p&i6t /p¯.Îit/ <p~.¯i.t> masc. a scholar.
  • 120. 120 p&9 /pn.t˙/ <p~.th> masc. 1. a road, 2. a sect 3. a cult. p&dr /pn.dr/ <p~.d.r> adj. fifteen. p&paXvu& /pm.paÆ.vu~/ <p~.pa.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to pat 2. to fondle. pa /pa/ <pa> adj. one forth. pak /pak/ <pa.k> masc. crop. pak /pak/ <pa.k> masc. pus. pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.k.vu~> v.intr. to be produced. pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.k.vu~> v.intr. to ripen. pakvu& /pak.vu~/ <pa.t.vu~> v.intr. the formation of pus. pak=aS{a /pak.ßaß.tr/ <pa.k.ßa.ßtr> neut. the science of cooking. paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. ripened. paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. properly cooked. paku& /pa.ku~/ <pa.ku~> adj. 1. skillful 2. shrewd. paixk /pak.ßik/ <pa.kßi.k> adj. fortnightly. pa`&6 /pa.k˙¯Î/ <pa.kh~.Î> neut. deceit. pa`&6I /pa.k˙¯.Îi/ <pa.kh~.Îii> adj. deceitful. pagl /pa.gl/ <pa.g.l> adj. 1. mad 2. lunatic. pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh.Îii> fem. turban. pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh.Îii> fem. bribe. pa36I /fem./ <pa.gh.Îii> fem. an illegal payment for having tenancy rights of a house, place etc. pacn /pa.cn/ <pa.c.n> neut. digestion. pacn=ikt /pa.cn.ßk.ti/ <pa.c.n.ß.kti> fem. digestive power. pa2lu& /pac˙.lu~/ <pa.ch.lu~> adj. 1. former 2. later. pa2X /pa.c˙Æ/ <pa.ch.Æ> postp. behind. pa2u& /pa.c˙u~/ <pa.chu~> adj. again. pa@ /pa.Ôi/ <pa.Ôii> adj. mean. pa4 /paˇ/ <pa.ˇ> masc. a plank of wood. pa4ngr /paˇ.n.gr/ <pa.ˇ.n.g.r> neut. the capital of a country, state etc. pa4lUn /paˇ.lun/ <pa.ˇ.luu.n> neut. trousers. pai4yu& /pa.ˇi.ju~/ <pa.ˇi.ju~> neut. 1. a board 2. a black-board. pa4Idar /pa.ˇi.dar/ <pa.ˇi.da.r> masc. a name of a caste.
  • 121. 121 pa4u /pa.ˇu~/ <pa.ˇu> neut. a kick. pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh> masc. a reading. pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh> masc. a punishment. pa5 /paˇ˙/ <pa.ˇh> masc. a school lesson. pa5vvu& /pa.ˇv.vu~/ <pa.ˇh.v.vu~> v.tr. to send. pa6vu& /paÎ.vu~/ <pa.Î.vu~> v.tr. to cause to fall. pa6vu& /paÎ.vu~/ <pa.Î.vu~> v.tr. to draw. pa6I /pa.Îi/ <pa.Îii> fem. a female calf of a buffalo. pa6u& /pa.Îu~/ <pa.Îu~> neut. a calf of a buffalo. pa6o /pa.Îo/ <pa.Îo> masc. a male calf of a buffalo. pa6o= /pa.Îoß/ <pa.Îo.ß> masc. neighborhood. pa6o=I /pa.Îo.ßi/ <pa.Îo.ßii> masc. a neighbor. pa6o=8 /pa.Îo.߯/ <pa.Îo.ß.¯> fem. a female neighbor. pai8yaru& /pa.¯i.ja.ru~/ <pa.¯i.ja.ru~> neut. a water room in a house. pa8I /pa.¯i/ <pa.¯ii> neut. water. pa8Icu& /pa.¯i.cu~/ <pa.¯ii.cu~> neut. discharge from a position of employment: pa8Idar /pa.¯i.dar/ <pa.¯ii.da.r> adj. sharp. patXu& /pat.Æu~/ <pa.t.Æu~> adj. thin. pa9r8u& /pa.t˙r.¯u~/ neut. a carpet. padrI /pad.ri/ <pa.d.rii> masc. a Christian priest. pan /pan/ <pa.n> neut. a leaf. pan`r /pan.k˙r/ <pa.n.kh.r> fem. the fall (season). panI /pa.ni/ <pa.nii> fem. the heel. panu& /pa.nu~/ <pa.nu~> neut. 1. a leaf of a book 2. a playing card. panetr /pa.ne.tr/ <pa.ne.t.r> neut. a wedding sari. pap6 /pa.pÎ/ <pa.p.Î> masc. a food item. pap6I /pap.Îi/ <pa.p.Îii> fem. a pod of a kind of pulse. papI /pa.pi/ <pa.pii> adj. sinful. pamr /pa.mr/ <pa.m.r> adj. miserable. pamvu& /pam.vu~/ <pa.m.vu~> v.dat. to gain. payjamo /paj.Ôa.mo/ <pa.j.Ôa.mo> masc. trousers.
  • 122. 122 paymal /paj.mal/ <pa.j.ma.l> adj. 1. ruined 2. destroyed. payl /pa.jl/ <pa.j.l> neut. a tinkling anklet. payo /pa.jo/ <pa.j.l> masc. a foundation. parku& /par.ku~/ <pa.r.ku~> adj. others’ par`vu& /pa.rk˙.vu~/ <pa.r.kh.vu~> v.tr. to test. par`u& /par.k˙u~/ <pa.r.khu~> neut. a test. par8u& /par.¯u~/ <pa.r.¯u~> neut. a cradle. par8u& /par.¯u~/ <pa.r.¯u~> neut. a dinner after completation of a fast. pard=Rk /par.dr.ßk/ <pa.r.d.rß.k> adj. transparent. par3I /par.g˙i/ <pa.r.ghii> masc. a hunter. parsmi8 /pa.rs.m.¯i/ <pa.r.s.m.¯ii> masc. a mythological stone that turnn iron into gold. parsI /par.si/ <pa.r.sii> masc. a name of a community. par&gt /pa.rm.gt/ <pa.r~.g.t> adj. expert. paray8 /pa.ra.j¯/ <pa.ra.j.¯> neut. a recitation of a religious text. pairjat /pa.ri.Ôat/ <pa.ri.Ôa.t> neut. a kind of flower plant. pairtoiqk /pa.ri.to.ßik/ <pa.ri.to.s°i.k> neut. a prize. parevu& /pa.re.vu~/ <pa.re.vu~> neut. a pegion. palk /pa.lk/ <pa.l.k> adj. a guardian. pal`I /pal.k˙i/ <pa.l.khii> fem. a palanquin. palvvu& /pa.lv.vu~/ <pa.l.v.vu~> v.tr. to rear. palvvu& /pa.lv.vu~/ <pa.l.v.vu~> v.exp. to afford. palo /pa.lo/ <pa.lo> masc. green foliage. pavtI /pav.ti/ <pa.v.tii> fem. a receipt. pavr0u& /pa.vr.d˙u~/ <pa.v.r.dhu~> adj. proficient. pasu& /pa.su~/ <pa.su~> neut. a side. pase /pa.se/ <pa.se> postp. near. paX /paÆ/ <pa.Æ> fem. an edge of a water form. paXvu& /paÆ.vu~/ <pa.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to foster 2. to bring up. paiXyo /pa.Æi.jo/ <pa.Æi.jo> masc. a memorial stone. pa&` /pa~k˙/ <pa~.kh> fem. a wing.
  • 123. 123 pa&`6I /pa~k˙.Îi/ <pa~.kh.Îii> fem. a petal. pa&`u& /pa~.k˙u~/ <pa~.khu~> adj. 1. not dense 2. thinly catered. pa&grvu& /pa~.gr.vu~/ <pa~.g.r.vu~> v.intr. to blossom. pa&c /pa~c/ <pa~.c> adj. five. pa&cm /pa~.cm/ <pa~.c.m> fem. the fifth day of either of the fortnight of the Hindu calander. pa&jrapoX /pa~Ô.ra.poÆ/ <pa~.Ô.ra.po.Æ> fem. a charitable aylum for domestic animals and birds. pa&jru& /pa~Ô.ru~/ <pa~.Ô.ru~> neut. a cage. pa&{aIs /pa~t.ris/ <pa~.trii.s> adj. thirty five. pa&9I /pa~.t˙i/ <pa~.thii> fem. the line caused by combed hair. pa&d6I /pa~d.Îi/ <pa~.d.Îii> fem. a small tender leaf. pa&p8 /pa~.p¯/ <pa~.p.¯> fem. the eye- lash. pa&s5 /pa~.sˇ˙/ <pa~.s.ˇh> adj. sixty five. pa&sXI /pa~.s.Æi/ <pa~.s.Æii> fem. a rib. ipckarI /pic.ka.ri/ <pi.c.ka.rii> fem. a kind of water-gun. ipta /pi.ta/ <pi.ta> masc. the father. ip]a /pit.t/ <pi.tt> neut. bile. ip]aX /pit.tÆ/ <pi.tt.Æ> neut. brass. ip{aa; /pit.rai/ <pi.tr.ii> masc. a cousin. iptra; /pi.t.rai/ <pi.t.ra.ii> masc. a cousin. ippU6I /pi.pu.Îi/ <pi.puu.Îii> fem. a pipe-like whistle. ipyr /pi.jr/ <pi.j.r> neut. the paternal house of a married woman. ipyu /pi.ju/ <pi.ju> masc. a lover. ipLlu& /pil.lu~/ <pi.llu~> neut. a skein. ip=ac /pi.ßac/ <pi.ßa.c> neut. ghost. ipStaXIs /pis.ta.Æis/ <pi.sta.Æii.s> adj. forty-five. ip&6I /pi¯.Îi/ <pi~.Îii> fem. the calf of the leg. pIgXvu& /pi.gÆ.vu~/ <pii.g.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to melt. pI2u& /pi.c˙u~/ <pii.chu~> neut. a feather. pI2eh5 /pi.c˙e.hˇ˙/ <pii.che.h.ˇh> fem. a retreat. pI2o /pi.c˙o/ <pii.cho> masc. a pursuit. pI4vu& /piˇ.vu~/ <pii.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to beat severely. pI5 /piˇ˙/ <pii.ˇh> fem. the back (of the body).
  • 124. 124 pI5Ika /pi.ˇ˙i.ka/ <pii.ˇhii.ka> fem. a background. pI5I /pi.ˇ˙i/ <pii.ˇhii> fem. fragrant yellow mixture applied to the bodies of the bridegroom and the bride. pI6a /pi.Îa/ <pii.Îa> fem. pain. pI8u& /pi.¯u~/ <pii.¯u~> neut. drink. pIp /pip/ <pii.p> neut. a barrel. pIpX /pi.pÆ/ <pii.p.Æ> fem. a kind of tree. pIpXo /pip.Æo/ <pii.p.Æo> fem. a kind of tree. pIrsvu& /pi.rs.vu~/ <pii.r.s.vu~> v.tr. to serve food (formal). pIlvu& /pil.vu~/ <pii.l.vu~> v.tr. to crush. pIlu& /pi.lu~/ <pii.lu~> neut. a baby chicken. pIvu& /pi.vu~/ <pii.vu~> v.tr. to drink. pIsvu& /pis.vu~/ <pii.s.vu~> v.tr. to grind. pIXa= /pi.Æaß/ <pii.Æa.ß> fem. yellowness. pIXu& /pi.Æu~/ <pii.Æu~> adj. yellow. pI&`vu& /pi~k˙.vu~/ <pi~.kh.vu~> v.tr. to ransack. pI&jvu& /pi~µÔ.vu~/ <pi~.Ô.vu~> v.tr. 1. to card 2. to comb 3. to lengthen a talk etc. unduly. pu~t /puk˙.t/ <pu.kht> adj. mature. pu*y /pu¯.j/ <pu.¯j> neut. righteousness. pu{a /put.r/ <pu.tr> masc. a son. pu{av0U /put.r.v.d˙u/ <pu.tr.v.dhuu> fem. a son’s wife. pU{aI /put.ri/ <pu.trii> fem. a daughter. punr /pu.nr/ <pu.n.r> advb. again. punravlokn /pun.rav.lo.kn/ <pu.n.ra.v.lo.k.n> neut. a revision. puravtRn /pun.ra.vr.tn/ <pu.n.ra.v.rt.n> neut. a repetition. punrav<i]a /pun.ra.vrut.ti/ <pu.n.ra.vr≤u.tti> fem. a reprint. punruikt /pu.n.ru.kti/ <pu.n.ru.kti> fem. a repetition (of an expression). punjRNm /pu.nr.Ôn.m/ <pu.n.rÔ.nm> masc. a rebirth. punlRGn /pu.nr.lg.n/ <pu.n.rl.gn> neut. a remarriage. puint /pu.nit/ <pu.ni.t> adj. holy. purbhar /pur.b.har/ <pu.r.b.ha.r> adj. at the climax. purv5o /pur.v.ˇ˙o/ <pu.r.v.ˇho> masc. supply.
  • 125. 125 purv8I /pu.rv.¯i/ <pu.r.v.¯ii> fem. a supplement. purvar /pur.var/ <pu.r.va.r> adj. proved. purSktaR /pu.rs.kr.ta/ <pu.r.sk.rta> masc. an originator. purSkar /pu.rs.kar/ <pu.r.ska.r> masc. a prize. pura8 /pu.ra¯/ <pu.ra.¯> neut. Purana. pura8u& /pu.ra.¯u~/ <pu.ra.¯u~> adj. 1. ancient 2. old. puratn /pu.ra.tn/ <pu.ra.t.n> adj. ancient. puravo /pu.ra.vo/ <pu.ra.vo> masc. 1. a proof 2. an evidence 3. a testimony. pura&t /pu.ra~nt/ <pu.ra~.t> fem. balance (in account). puruq /pu.ruß/ <pu.ru.s°> masc. 1. a man 2. a husband. puroiht /pu.ro.hit/ <pu.ro.hi.t> masc. a family prist. pulav /pu.lav/ <pu.la.v> masc. a food item (made of rice). puQkX /puß.k / <pu.s°k.Æ> adj. plentiful. puQp /puß.p/ <pu.s°p> neut. a flower. puStk /pus.tk/ <pu.st.k> neut. a book. puiStka /pus.ti.ka/ <pu.sti.ka> fem. a booklet. puiLl&g /pul.ling/ <pu.lli~.g> neut. masculine. pU2pr2 /puc˙.p.rc˙/ <puu.ch.p.r.ch> fem. a verbal inquiry. pU2vu& /puc˙.vu~/ <puu.ch.vu~> v.tr. 1. to ask 2. to inquire. pUjvu& /puÔ.vu~/ <puu.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to worship. pUja /pu.Ôa/ <puu.Ôa> fem. worship. pUjapo /pu.Ôa.po/ <puu.Ôa.po> masc. articles of worship. pUjar8 /pu.Ôa.r¯/ <puu.Ôa.r.¯> fem. a female worshiper. pUjarI /pu.Ôa.ri/ <puu.Ôa.rii> masc. a male worshiper. pUjy /puÔ.j/ <puu.Ôj> adj. worth worshiping (lit. meaning). Used to address the elders in letter writing. pU5 /puˇ˙/ <puu.ˇh> fem. the back. pUtXI /put.Æi/ <puu.t.Æii> fem. 1. a doll 2. the pupil of the eye. pUrk /pu.rk/ <pu.r.k> adj. supplementary. pUrtu& /pur.tu~/ <puu.r.tu~> adj. sufficient.
  • 126. 126 pUrpa4 /pur.paˇ/ <puu.r.pa.ˇ> advb. at full speed. pUrvu& /pur.vu~/ <puu.r.vu~> v.tr. to fill up air etc. pUrI /pu.ri/ <puu.rii> fem. a food item. pUru& /pu.ru~/ <puu.ru~> adj. complete. pUrepUru& /pu.re.pu.ru~/ <puu.re.pu.ru~> adj. absolutely complete. pU8R /pur.¯/ <puu.r¯> adj. complete. pU8Rivram /pur.¯.vi.ram/ <puu.r¯.vi.ra.m> neut. a full-stop. pU8aR&k /pur.¯a~k/ <puu.r¯a~.k> masc. an integer. pUi8Rma /pur.¯i.ma/ <puu.r¯i.ma> fem. a full moon day. pUvR /pur.v/ <puu.rv> adj. east. pUvRg/h /pur.v.gr.h/ <puu.rv.gr.h> masc. prejudice. pUvRj /pur.vÔ/ <puu.rv.Ô> masc. an ancestor. pUvRjNm /pur.v.Ôn.m/ <puu.rv.Ô.nm> masc. a previous birth. pUvRpx /pur.v.pk.ß/ <puu.rv.p.kß> masc. an initail argument. pUvaRpr /pur.va.pr/ <puu.rva.p.r> adj. contextual. pUXo /pu.Æo/ <puu.Æo> masc. a bundle of grass. pU&26u& /pu~c˙.Îu~/ <puu~.ch.Îu~> neut. a tail. pU&@ /pu~.Ôi/ <puu~.Ôii> fem. wealth. pU&jo /pu~.Ôo/ <puu~.Ôo> masc. dirt. p<(9kr8 /pru.t˙k.k.r¯/ <pr≤u.thth.k.r.¯> neut. analysis. p<(vI /pru.t˙vi/ <pr≤uth.vii> fem. the earth. pe4 /peˇ/ <pe.ˇ> neut. 1. the stomach 2, the belly. pe4-ru& /peˇ.b˙.ru~`/ <pe.ˇ.bh.ru~> adj. self-centered. pe4avvu& /pe.ˇav.vu~/ <pe.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to light 2. to ignite 3. to kindle. pe4I /pe.ˇi/ <pe.ˇii> fem. a box. pe7I /pe.Î˙i/ <pe.Îhii> fem. a business house. pe7u& /pe.Î˙u~/ <pe.Îhu~> neut. the gum of a tooth. pe8I /p´.¯i/ <pe.¯ii> fem. a frying pan. pelu& /pe.lu~/ <pe.lu~> pron. that. pe=ab /pe.ßab/ <pe.ßa.b> masc. urine. pesvu& /pes.vu~/ <pe.s.vu~> v.intr. to eneter.
  • 127. 127 pe&6o /pe¯.Îo/ <pe~.Îo> masc. a kind of sweet. pe&tro /p´~t.ro/ <pe~.t.ro> masc. a stratagem. pE6u& /pi.Îu~/ <pi.Îu~> neut. a wheel. pEsadar /pi.sa.dar/ <pi.sa.da.r> adj. rich. pEso /pi.so/ <pi.so> masc. 1. money 2. a one paisa coin. pok /pok/ <po.k> fem. a lod cry of wailing. pokX /po.kÆ/ <po.k.Æ> adj. hollow. pokar /po.kar/ <po.ka.r> masc. a loud cry. pocu& /po.cu~/ <po.chu~> adj. soft. po4lI /poˇ.li/ <po.ˇ.lii> fem. a small bundle. po5 /poˇ˙/ <po.ˇh> fem. a caravan. po7vu& /poÎ˙.vu~/ <po.Îh.vu~> v.intr. to sleep (literary, formal). po8u& /po.¯u~/ <po.¯u~> adj. equal to three quarters. po8oso /po.¯o.so/ <po.¯o.so> adj. 3/4th of hundred. pot /pot/ <po.t> neut. texture. potu& /po.tu~/ <po.tu~> neut. a wet piece of cloth used for cleaning various surfaces. pote /po.te/ <po.te> pron. self. po9I /po.t˙i/ <po.thii> fem. an unbound book. podXo /pod.Æo/ <po.d.Æo> masc. a lump of fresh dung. popcu& /pop.cu~/ <po.p.cu~> neut. the eye-lid. pop4 /po.pˇ/ <po.p.ˇ> masc. a parrot. pop6o /pop.Îo/ <po.p.Îo> masc. a thin crust. poy8u& /poj.¯u~/ <po.j.¯u~> neut. a white lotus. polad /po.lad/ <po.la.d> neut. steel. polu& /po.lu~/ <po.lu~> adj. hollow. po=ak /po.ßak/ <po.ßa.k> masc. apparel. poq /poß/ <po.s°> masc. the third month of the Vikram samvat. poqk /po.ßk/ <po.s°.k> adj. nutritive. poq8 /po.߯/ <po.s°.¯> neut. 1. nourishment 2. nutrition. poX /poÆ/ <po.Æ> fem. a street (originally with a gate). po&k /pø~k/ <po~.k> masc. roasted green grains of ceratin corns such as wheat, etc.
  • 128. 128 po&`vu& /pø~k˙.vu~/ <po~.kh.vu~> v.tr. the formal ritual of receiving bride and bridegroom. pO{a /put.r/ <pu.tr> masc. a grandson. pO{aI /put.ri/ <pu.trii> fem. a granddaughter. pOrai8k /pu.ra.¯ik/ <pu.ra.¯i.k> adj. related to the Puranas. pOiQ4k /puß.ˇik/ <pu.s°ˇi.k> adj. nutritious. pOAa /pu.a/ <pu.a> masc. a kind of rice flake. p/k4 /pr.kˇ/ <pr.k.ˇ> adj. open. p/kr8 /prk.r¯/ <pr.k.r.¯> neut. 1. a chapter 2. a subject. p/kar /pr.kar/ <pr.ka.r> masc. 1. sort 2. kind. p/ka= /pr.kaß/ <pr.ka.ß> masc. light. p/ka=vu& /pr.kaß.vu~/ <pr.ka.ß.vu~> v.intr. 1. to shine 2. to glow. p/k<it /pr.kru.ti/ <pr.kr≤u.ti> fem. nature. p/kop /pr.kop/ <pr.ko.p> masc. anger. p/k/Iya /pr.kri.ja/ <pr.krii.ja> fem. a method. p/~yat /prk˙.jat/ <pr.khja.t> adj. renowned. p/g4vu& /pr.gˇ.vu~/ <pr.g.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to come into existence. p/git /pr.g.ti/ <pr.g.ti> fem. progress. p/cilt /pr.c.lit/ <pr.c.li.t> adj. prevalent. p/c&6 /pr.c¯.Î/ <pr.c~.Î> adj. terribly huge. p/car /pr.car/ <pr.ca.r> masc. propaganda. p/cur /pr.cur/ <pr.cu.r> adj. excessive. p/C2Nn /pr.c˙nn/ <pr.ch.nn> adj. covered. p/jnn /pr.Ô.nn/ <pr.Ô.n.n> neut. biological reproduction p/jXvu& /pr.ÔÆ.vu~/ <pr.Ô.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to burn. p/ja /pr.Ôa/ <pr.Ôa> fem. people. p/jas]aak /pr.Ôa.st.tak/ <pra.Ôa.s.tta.k> adj. republic. p/8am /pr.¯am/ <pr.¯a.m> masc. 1. a bow 2. a salutation. p/8alI /pr.¯a.li/ <pr.¯a.mii> fem. 1. a custom 2. a tradition. p/8alIka /pr.¯a.li.ka/ <pr.¯a.lii.ka> fem. 1. a custom 2. a tradition. p/8eta /pr.¯e.ta/ <pr.¯e.ta> masc. 1. the author 2. the originator.
  • 129. 129 p/t /prt/ <pr.t> fem. a copy of a book. p/it /pr.ti/ <pr.ti> postp. towards. p/itkar /pr.ti.kar/ <pr.ti.k.r> masc. resistance. p/itkaVy /pr.ti.kav.j/ <pr.ti.ka.vj> neut. a parody. p/itkUX /pr.ti.kuÆ/ <pr.ti.kuu.Æ> adj. unsuitable. p/itik/ya /pr.ti.kri.ja/ <pr.ti.kri.ja> fem. reaction. p/it3oq /pr.ti.g˙oß/ <pr.ti.gho.s°> masc. an echo. p/it}aa /pr.tig.na/ <pr.ti.gna> fem. 1. a vow 2. a promise. p/it)vin /pr.ti.d˙v.ni/ <pr.ti.dhv.ni> masc. an echo. p/itini0 /pr.ti.ni.d˙i/ <pr.ti.ni.dhi> masc. a representative. p/itpx /pr.ti.pk.ß/ <pr.ti.p.kß> masc. an opposite argument. p/itb&0 /pr.ti.bn.d˙/ <pr.ti.b~.dh> masc. 1. prohibition 2. restriction. p/itib&b /pr.ti.bim.b/ <pr.ti.bi~.b> neut. a reflection. p/it-a /pr.ti.b˙a/ <pr.ti.bha> fem. natural or extraordinary mental faculty. p/itro0 /pr.ti.rod˙/ <pr.ti.ro.dh> masc. resistance. p/itvad /pr.ti.vad/ <pr.ti.va.d> masc. refutation. p/itQ5a /pr.tiß.ˇ˙a/ <pr.ti.s°ˇha> fem. reputation. p/itSp0IR /pr.ti.spr.d˙i/ <pr.ti.sp.rdhii> masc. a rival. p/ithar /pr.ti.har/ <pr.ti.ha.r> masc. a gate-keeper. p/tIk /pr.tik/ <pr.tii.k> neut. a symbol. p/tIxa /pr.tik.ßa/ <pr.tii.kßa> fem. a waiting for. p/tIit /pr.ti.ti/ <pr.tii.ti> fem. conviction. p/Tyx /pr.tjk.ß/ <pr.tj.kß> adj. 1. visible 2. the knowledge gain through senses. p/Tyy /pr.tj.j/ <pr.tj.j> masc. an affix. p/Ty&Cya /pr.tjn.ca/ <pr.tj~.ca> fem. the string of a bow. p/Tyagmn /prt.ja.g.mn/ <pr.tja.g.m.n> neut. a return. p/Tyu]ar /prt.u.ttr/ masc. 1. a reply 2. a rejoinder. p/Tye /prt.je/ <pr.tje> postp. 1. at 2. towards. p/Tyek /prt.jek/ <pr.tje.k> adj. every one.
  • 130. 130 p/9m /pr.t˙m/ <pr.th.m> adj. 1. first 2. fundamental 3. initial. p/9ma /pr.t˙.ma/ <pr.th.ma> fem. a nominative case. p/9a /pr.t˙a/ <pr.tha> fem. 1. a custom 2. a tradition. p/dix8a /pr.dk.ßi.¯a/ <pr.d.kßi.¯a> fem. moving circular (left to right) motion round a person or thing as a part of a religious ritual. p/d=Rk /pr.dr.ßk/ <pr.d.rß.k> masc. exhibitor. p/d=Rn /pr.dr.ßn/ <pr.d.rß.n> neut. exhibition. p/dan /pr.dan/ <pr.da.n> neut. contribution. p/de= /pr.deß/ <pr.de.ß> masc. 1. a region 2. territory. p/doq /pr.doß/ <pr.do.s°> masc. dusk. p/0an /pr.d˙n/ <pr.dha.n> masc. minister. p/p&c /pr.pµc/ <pr.p~.c> masc. deceit. p/bX /pr.bÆ/ <pr.b.Æ> adj. very strong. p/-at /pr.b˙at/ <pr.bha.t> neut. dawn. p/-aityu& /pr.b˙a.ti.ju~/ <pr.bha.ti.ju~> neut. a devotional song that sung at dawn. p/-av /pr.b˙av/ <pr.bha.v> masc. 1. effectiveness 2. influence. p/-u /pr.b˙u/ <pr.bhu> masc. god. p/-u]v /pr.b˙ut.v/ <pr.bhu.ttv> neut. mastery. p/m]a /pr.mt.t/ <pr.m.tt> adj. excited. p/ma8 /pr.ma¯/ <pr.ma.¯> neut. 1. norm 2. standard 3. proof (in logic). p/ma8-Ut /pr.ma¯.b˙ut/ <pr.ma.¯.bhuu.t> adj. reliable. p/mai8k /pr.ma.¯ik/ <pr.ma.¯i.k> adj. honesty. p/mad /pr.mad/ <pr.ma.d> masc. laziness. p/mu` /pr.muk˙/ <pr.mu.kh> masc. 1. chief 2. president. p/mey /pr.me.j/ <pr.me.j> masc. a theorem. p/yTn /pr.jt.n/ <pr.j.tn> masc. an effort. p/ya8 /pr.ja¯/ <pr.ja.¯> neut. a departure. p/yas /pr.jas/ <pr.ja.s> masc. an effort. p/yog /pr.jog/ <pr.jo.g> masc. 1. an experiment 2. a trial.
  • 131. 131 p/yojk /pr.jo.Ôk/ <pr.jo.Ô.k> masc. an organizer. p/ly /pr.lj/ <pr.l.j> masc. destruction of the creation by a deluge. p/lap /pr.lap/ <pr.la.p> masc. 1. lamentation 2. prattle. p/lo-n /pr.lo.b˙n/ <pr.lo.bh.n> neut. a temptation. p/vcn /pr.v.cn/ <pr.v.c.n> neut. a lecture. p/vah /pre.vah/ <pr.va.h> masc. 1. a flow 2. a current. p/vahI /pr.va.hi/ <pr.va.hii> fem. liquid. p/vahI /pr.va.hi/ <pr.va.hii> adj. liquid. p/vI8 /pr.vi¯/ <pr.vii.¯> adj. expert. p/v<i]a /pr.vrut.ti/ <pr.vr≤u.tti> fem. activity. p/ve= /pr.veß/ <pr.ve.ß> masc. entrance. p/ve=k /pr.ve.ßk/ <pr.ve.ß.k> masc. introduction of a book or a play etc. p/vei=ka /pr.ve.ßi.ka/ <pr.ve.ßi.ka> fem. an introductory book. p/=iSt /pr.ßs.ti/ <pr.ß.sti> fem. eulogy. p/s&=k /pr.ßm.ßk/ <pr.s~.ß.k> masc. admirer. p/s&=a /pr.ßm.ßa/ <pr.s~.ßa> fem. eulogy. p/½ /prß.n/ <pr.ßn> masc. a question. p/½p{a /prß.n.pt.r/ <pr.ßn.p.tr> neut. a question paper. p/sNn /pr.sn.n/ <pr.s.nn> adj. 1. pleased 2. satisfied. p/srvu& /pr.sr.vu~/ <pr.s.r.vu~> v.intr. to spread. p/s&g /pr.s˜g/ <pr.s~.g> masc. 1. an occasion 2. an event. p/sad /pr.sad/ <pr.sa.d> masc. 1. grace 2. favor. p/sadI /pr.sa.di/ <pr.sa.dii> fem. 1a thing or etable offered to a deity. p/sa0n /pr.sa.d˙n/ <pr.sa.dh.n> neut. equipment. p/sar /pr.sar/ <pr.sa.r> masc. spread. p/is)0 /pr.sid˙.d˙/ <pr.si.dhdh> adj. famous. p/Stav /prs.tav/ <pr.sta.v> masc. a proposal. p/S9an /prs.t˙an/ <pr.stha.n> neut. a departure. p/hsn /pr.h.sn/ <pr.h.s.n> neut. a comical play. p/har /pr.har/ <pr.ha.r> masc. 1. a blow 2. a striking.
  • 132. 132 p/acIn /pra.cin/ <pra.cii.n> adj. ancient. p/a8 /pr¯/ <pra.¯> masc. breath. p/a8I /pra.¯i/ <pra.¯ii> neut. an animal. p/a9imk /prat˙.mik/ <pra.th.mi.k> adj. primary. p/adei=k /pra.de.ßik/ <pra.de.ßi.k> adj. 1. regional 2. territorial. p/a0aNy /pra.d˙an.j/ <pra.dha.nj> neut. priority. p/a)yapk /pra.d˙ja.pk/ <pra.dhja.p.k> masc. a professor. p/ayi¾t /pra.jß.cit/ <pra.j.ßci.t> neut. repentance. p/ayoigk /pra.jo.gik/ <pra.jo.gi.k> adj. experimental. p/arB0 /pra.rb.d˙/ <pra.r.bdh> neut. 1. fate 2. destiny. p/as /pras/ <pra.s> masc. rhyming. p/as&igk /pra.sm.gik/ <pra.s~.gi.k> adj. 1. unusual 2. incidental. p/a&t /prant/ <pra~.t> masc. a province. ip/y /pri.j/ <pri.j> adj. 1. dear 2. beloved. p/It /prit/ <prii.t> fem. 1. love 2. affection. p/exk /prek.ßk/ <pre.kß.k> masc. 1. an onlooker 2. a member in audience 3. a spectator. p/et /pret/ <pre.t> neut. a ghost. p/em /prem/ <pre.m> masc. love. p/erk /pre.rk/ <pre.r.k> adj. 1. inspiring 2. causal (form). p/er8a /pre.r.¯a/ <pre.r.¯a> fem. inspiration. p/ervu& /prer.vu~/ <pre.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to inspire 2. to encourage. p/oTsahn /prot.sa.hn/ <pro.tsa.h.n> neut. encouragement. p/O7 /pruÎ˙/ <pru.Îh> adj. mature. f fkro /p˙k.ro/ <ph.k.ro> masc. a paragraph. fkIr /p˙.kir/ <ph.kii.r> masc. a Muslim ascetic. fkIrI /p˙.ki.ri/ <ph.kii.rii> fem. saintly life. fKt /p˙k.t/ <ph.kt> advb. only. fgavvu& /p˙.gav.vu~/ <ph.ga.v.vu~> v.tr. to reject (little rudely). fjetI /p˙.Ôe.ti/ <ph.Ôe.tii> fem. disgrace. f4 /p˙ˇ/ <ph.ˇ> advb. `shame shame’
  • 133. 133 f4k6I /p˙.ˇk.Îi/ <ph.ˇ.k.Îii> fem. alum. f4kvu& /p˙.ˇk.vu~/ <ph.ˇ.k.vu~> v.intr. to go astray. f4karvu& /p˙ˇ.kar.vu~/ <ph.ˇ.ka.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to beat 2. to give a blow 3. to hit (a ball). f4kIyu& /p˙.ˇk.(i).ju~/ <ph.ˇ.kii.ju~> adj. easily breakable. f4ko /p˙ˇ.ko/ <ph.ˇ.ko> masc. loss (in business). f4ko /p˙ˇ.ko/ <ph.ˇ.ko> masc. a young beautiful girl. (slang). f4ak6o /p˙.ˇak.Îo/ <ph.ˇ.k.Îo> masc. a fire-cracker. f4a8u& /p˙.ˇa.¯u~/ <ph.ˇ.¯u~> neut. an abusive marriage song. f6k /p˙.Îk/ <ph.Î.k> fem. a flap of a garment. f6ko /p˙Î.ko/ <ph.Î.ko> masc. sudden terror. f6co /p˙Î.co/ <ph.Î.co> masc. 1. disposal 2. liquidation of debts. f4af4 /p˙.ˇa.p˙ˇ/ <p.ˇa.ph.ˇ> advb. non-stop. f8go /p˙¯.go/ <ph.¯.ko> masc. a shoot (of a plant, etc.). f8s /p˙.¯s/ neut. a kind of fruit. f8sI /p˙¯.si/ fem. a kind of vegetable pod. ftvo /p˙t.vo/ masc. a religious command (in Islam). fteh /p˙.teh/ <ph.te.h> fem. victory. ffXtu& /p˙.p˙Æ.tu~/ <ph.ph.Æ.tu~> adj. boiling. frk /p˙.rk/ <ph.r.k> masc. difference. frkvu& /p˙.rk.vu~/ <ph.r.k.vu~> v.intr. to flutter. frj /p˙.rÔ/ <ph.r.Ô> fem. duty. frijyat /p˙r.Ôi.jat/ <ph.r.Ôi.ja.t> adj. compulsory. frtaram /p˙r.ta.ram/ <ph.r.ta.ra.m> masc. a wandering man. frtu& /p˙r.tu~/ <ph.r.tu~> adj. surrounding. frfiryu& /p˙r.p˙r.(i).ju~/ <ph.r.ph.ri.ju~> neut. a pamphlet. frman /p˙r.man/ <ph.r.ma.n> neut. an order. frvu& /p˙r.vu~/ <ph.r.vu~> v.intr. to move. frsa8 /p˙r.sa¯/ <ph.r.sa.¯> neut. fried tasty food items. frak /p˙.rak/ <ph.ra.k> neut. a frock.
  • 134. 134 fraX /p˙.raÆ/ <ph.ra.Æ> masc. light food taken while fasting. firyad /p˙.ri.jad/ <ph.ri.ja.d> fem. a complain. firyadI /p˙.ri.ja.di/ <ph.ri.ja.dii> masc. a complainant. frI /p˙.ri/ <ph.rii> advb. again. fla8u& /p˙.la.¯u~/ <ph.la.¯u~> neut. 1. some one 2. some thing. flahar /p˙.la.har/ <ph.la.ha.r> masc. fruit diet. fskvu& /p˙.sk.vu~/ <ph.s.k.vu~> v.intr. to burst down with the sound of tearing. fsavu& /p˙.sa.vu~/ <ph.sa.vu~> v.intr. to entrapped. fX /p˙Æ/ <ph.Æ> neut. a fruit. fXdayk /p˙Æ.da.jk/ <ph.Æ.da.j.k> adj. fruitful. fXvu& /p˙Æ.vu~/ <ph.Æ.vu~> v.exp. 1. to bear fruit 2. to be benefitted. fXaw /p˙.Æa.u~/ <ph.Æa.u~> adj. fruit bearing (plants, trees etc). fiXyu& /p˙.Æi.ju~/ <ph.Æi.ju~> neut. a street. f&goXvu& /p˙˜.goÆ.vu~/ <ph~.go.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to throw. f&4avu& /p˙¯.ˇa.vu~/ <ph~.ˇa.vu~> v.intr. to change direction. f&6 /p˙nÎ/ <ph~.Î> masc. fund. f&fosvu& /p˙m.p˙os.vu~/ <ph~.pho.s.vu~> v.tr. to search minutely. fakvu& /p˙k.vu~/ <pha.k.vu~> v.tr. to have a mouthful of a powdery thing. fakI /p˙a.ki/ <pha.kii> fem. powdered medicine. fako /p˙a.ko/ <pha.ko> masc. an act of placing a mouthful of a powdery thing. fag8 /p˙a.g¯/ <pha.g.¯> masc. the fifth month of the Vikram year. facr /p˙a.cr/ <pha.c.r> fem. a wage. fajl /p˙a.Ôl/ <pha.Ô.l> adj. surplus. fa4 /p˙aˇ/ <pha.ˇ> fem. a splitting. fa4k /p˙a.ˇk/ <pha.ˇ.k> neut. a railway crossing. fa4fU4 /p˙aˇ.p˙uˇ/ <pha.ˇ.phu.ˇ> fem. disunity. fa4vu& /p˙aˇ.vu~/ <pha.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to be torn. fa6 /p˙aÎ/ <pha.Î> fem. a splitting. fat6o /p˙at.Îo/ <pha.t.Îo> masc. a eunuch. fans /p˙a.ns/ <pha.n.s> fem. a lantern. faydakark /p˙a.j.da.ka.rk/ <pha.j.da.ka.r.k> adj. beneficial.
  • 135. 135 faydo /p˙aj.do/ <pha.j.do> masc. benefit. fargtI /p˙ar.g.ti/ <pha.r.g.tii> fem. a divorce. fars /p˙a.rs/ <pha.r.s> neut. a farce. fal /p˙al/ <pha.l> masc. crop. faltu& /p˙al.tu~/ <pha.l.tu~> adj. unnecessary. falvu& /p˙al.vu~/ <pha.l.vu~> v.intr. to bloom. fav4 /p˙a.vˇ/ <ph.v.ˇ> fem. adaptability. favvu& /p˙av.vu~/ <pha.v.vu~> v.exp. 1. to suit 2. to succeed. faXv8I /p˙a.Æv.¯i/ <pha.Æ.v.¯ii> fem. 1. distribution 2. allotment. faiXyu& /p˙a.Æi.ju~/ <pha.Æi.ju~> neut. a turban. faXo /p˙a.Æo/ <pha.Æo> masc. an allotted share. fa&k6u& /p˙a~k.Îu~/ <pha~.k.Îu~> adj. praiseworthy. fa&ko /p˙a~.ko/ <pha~.ko> masc. vain pride. fa&4o /p˙a~.ˇo/ <pha~.ˇo> masc. 1. a branch 2. a diverging part. fa&d /p˙a/ <pha~.d> fem. a pot-belly. fa&fa& /p˙a~.p˙a~/ <pha~.pha~> masc. vain efforts. fa&s /p˙a~s/ <pha~.s> fem. a splinter. fa&sI /p˙a~.si/ <pha~.sii> fem. gallows. fa&sIgr /p˙a~.si.gr/ <pha~.sii.g.r> masc. an executioner. fa&so /p˙a~.so/ <pha~.so> masc. noose. ifkr /p˙i.kr/ <phi.k.r> fem. anxiety. ifKku&/p˙ik.ku~/ <phi.kku~> adj. pale. if4kar /p˙iˇ.kar/ <phi.ˇ.ka.r> masc. hatred. iflsUf /p˙il.sup˙/ <phi.l.suu.ph> masc. a philosopher. iflsUfI /p˙il.su.p˙i/ <phi.l.suu.phii> fem. philosophy. fI8 /p˙i¯/ <phii.¯> neut. foam. fI8vu& /p˙i¯.vu~/ <phii.¯.vu~> v.tr. to froth. fIfu& /p˙i.p˙u~/ <phii.phu~> neut. 1. a husk 2. an empty pod. fugavo /p˙u.ga.vo/ <phuu.ga.vo> masc. inflation. fuTkarvu& /p˙ut.kar.vu~/ <phu.tka.r.vu~> v.tr. to hiss. fudIno /p˙u.di.no/ <phu.dii.no> masc. mint. fursd /p˙ur.sd/ <phuu.r.s.d> fem. leisure.
  • 136. 136 fuleku& /p˙u.le.ku~/ <phuu.le.ku~> neut. a marriage procession. fuvaro /p˙u.va.ro/ <phuu.va.ro> masc. a fountain. fUg /p˙ug/ <phuu.g> fem. mould. fUgvu& /p˙ug.vu~/ <phuu.g.vu~> v.intr. to become moldy. fU4vu& /p˙ut.vu~/ <phuu.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to break with a loud sound. fUdu& /p˙u.du~/ <phuu.du~> neut. a butterfly. fUmtu& /p˙um.tu~/ <phuu.m.tu~> neut. a tassel. fUl /p˙ul/ <phuu.l> neut. a flower. fUl8@ /p˙u.l¯.Ôi/ <phuu.l.¯.Ôii> adj. vain and boastful because of praise. fUlf4ak /p˙ul.p˙.ˇak/ <phu.l.ph.ˇa.k> adj. foppish. fUlvvu& /p˙u.lv.vu~/ <phuu.l.v.vu~> v.tr. to cause to swell fUlvu& /p˙ul.vu~/ <phuu.l.vu~> v.intr. . to swell 2. to blossom. fU&k /p˙u~k/ <phuu~.k> fem. a puff. fU&kvu& /p˙u~k.vu~/ <phuu~.k.vu~> v.tr. 1. to blow 2. to puff. fe8 /p˙e¯/ fem. a serpent’s hood. fefsu& /p˙ep˙.su~/ <phe.ph.su~> neut. a lung. fer /p˙er/ <phe.r> masc. difference. fer /p˙er/ <phe.r> masc. vertigo. ferIyo /p˙e.ri.jo/ <phe.rii.jo> masc. 1. a hawker 2. a peddler. ferI /p˙e.ri/ <phe.rii> fem. 1. a turn 2. a trip. fero /p˙e.ro/ <phe.ro> masc. 1. a turn 2. a trip. felavu& /p˙e.la.vu~/ <phe.la.vu~> v.intr. to spread. felavo /p˙e.la.vo/ <phe.la.vo> masc. circulation. fe&kvu& /p˙´~k.vu~/ <phe~.k.vu~> v.tr. 1. to throw 2. to hurl. fe&4o /p˙´~.ˇo/ <phe~.ˇo> masc. a kind of turban. fe&dvu& /p˙´~d.vu~/ <phe~.d.vu~> v.tr. to search. fe&slo /p˙´~s.lo/ <phe~.s.lo> masc. disposal. fo: /p˙oi/ <pho.ii> fem. father’s sister. fok /p˙ok/ <pho.k> adj. meaningless. foj /p˙oÔ/ <pho.Ô> fem. army. fo6vu& /p˙oÎ.vu~/ <pho.Î.vu~> v.tr. to break violently. fotrI /p˙ot.ri/ <pho.t.rii> fem. husk.
  • 137. 137 foru& /p˙o.ru~/ <pho.ru~> neut. a drop. folvu& /p˙ol.vu~/ <pho.l.vu~> v.tr. 1. to peel 2. to husk. foLlI /p˙ol.li/ <pho.llii> fem. a skin boil. foslavvu& /p˙os.lav.vu~/ <pho.s.la.v.vu~> v.tr. to coax. b bk bk /bk bk/ <b.k.b.k> neut. a prattle. bkrI /bk.ri/ <b.k.rii> fem. a female goat. bkru& /bk.ru~/ <b.k.ru~> neut. a goat. bkro /bk.ro/ <b.k.ro> masc. a male goat. bkvu& /bk.vu~/ <b.k.vu~> v.intr. to prattle. bixs /bk.ßiß/ <b.kßi.s> <b> fem. a gift. b`tr /bk˙.tr/ <b.kh.t.r> neut. an armor. bi`yo /b.k˙i.jo/ <b.khi.jo> masc. a stitch. b`e6o /b.k˙e.Îo/ <b.khe.Îo> masc. a quarrel. b`ol /b.k˙ol/ <b.kho.l> fem. a cave- like hollow. bg6vu& /b.gÎ.vu~/ <b.g.Î.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be spoiled 2. to be polluted. bg6o /bg.Îo/ <b.g.Îo> masc. the symbol for 2. bgl /b.gl/ <b.g.l> fem. the armpit. bga6 /b.gaÎ/ <b.ga.Î> masc. wastage. bga6vu& /b.gaÎ.vu~/ <b.ga.Î.vu~> v.tr. to waste. bgasu& /b.ga.su~/ <b.ga.Î.vu~> neut. a yawn. bgIco /b.gi.co/ <b.gi.co> masc. a garden. bcku& /bc.ku~/ <b.c.ku~> neut. a bite. bct /b.ct/ <b.c.t> fem. a saving. bcp8 /bc.p¯/ <b.c.p.¯> neut. childhood. bcvu& /bc.vu~/ <b.c.vu~> v.intr. to be saved. bcav /b.cav/ <b.ca.v> masc. a protection, a defense. bCcu& /bc.cu~/ <b.ccu~> neut. a child. bjar /b.Ôar/ <b.Ôa.r> neut. market. bza6vu& /b.Ô˙aÎ.vu~/ <b.Ôha.Î.vu~> v.tr. to thrust upon skillfully.
  • 138. 138 b4ako /b.ˇa.ko/ <b.ˇa.ko> masc. a potato. b6b6vu& /bÎ.bÎ.vu~/ <b.Î.b.Î.vu~> v.intr. to prattle. b6a: /b.Îai/ <b.Îa.ii> fem. boasting. b6a= /b.Îaß/ <b.Îa.ß> fem. boasting. b8gu& /b¯.gu~/ <b.¯.gu~> neut. 1. self- praise, 2. boasting. btk /b.tk/ <b.t.k> neut. a duck. btavvu& /b.tav.vu~/ <b.ta.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to show, 2. to guide. b]aI /bt.ti/ <b.ttii> fem. a lamp. b{aIs /bt.ris/ <b.trii.s> adj. thirty two, 32. bdn /b.dn/ <b.d.n> neut. the body. bdnxI /bd.nk.ßi/ <b.d.n.kßii> fem. defamation. bdnam /bd.nam/ <b.d.na.m> adj. notorious. bdbu /bd.bu/ <b.d.bu> fem. bad smell. bdma= /bd.maß/ <b.d.ma.ß> adj. wicked. bdlo /bd.lo/ <b.d.lo> masc. an exchange. bdsUrt /bd.su.rt/ <b.d.suu.r.t> adj. ugly (face). bdam /b.dam/ <b.da.m> fem. an almond. bdI /b.di/ <b.dii> fem. viciousness, corruption. b0u& /b.d˙u~/ <b.dhu~> adj. all, whole, entire, total. bnvu& /bn.vu~/ <b.n.vu~> v.intr. 1. to become, 2. to take shape. bnav /b.nav/ <b.na.v> masc. an event. bnav4 /b.na.vˇ/ <b.na.v.ˇ> fem. 1. construction, 2. cheating. bnevI /b.ne.vi/ <b.ne.vii> masc. sister’s husband. bNne /bn.ne/ <b.nne> adj. both. bpor /b.por/ <b.po.r> fem. noon, mid-day. bfaro /b.p˙a.ro/ <b.pha.ro> masc. sultry weather. bbUck /b.bu.ck/ <b.buu.c.k> adj. stupid. bm8u& /bm.¯u~/ <b.m.¯u~> adj. double. byan /b.jan/ <b.ja.n> neut. 1. description, 2. narration. brkt /br.kt/ <b.r.k.t> fem. 1. profit, 2. benefit. br24 /br.c˙ˇ/ <b.r.ch.ˇ> adj. rough.
  • 139. 139 br6o /br.Îo/ <b.r.Îo> masc. the back. br8I /br.¯i/ <b.r.¯ii> fem. a jar. brf /b.rp˙/ <b.r.ph> masc. 1. ice, 2. snow. brfI /br.p˙i/ <b.r.phii> fem. a kind of sweet. brbad /br.bad/ <b.r.ba.d> adj. ruined. brabr /b.ra.br/ <b.ra.b.r> adj. 1. equal, 2. similar, 3. right, 4. proper. brobr /b.ro.br/ <b.ro.b.r> adj. 1. equal, 2. similar, 3. right, 4. proper broX /b.roÆ/ <b.ro.Æ> fem. the spleen. blke /bl.ke/ <b.l.ke> advb. not only that. bla /b.la/ <b.la> fem. 1. a ghost, 2. a person who harasses like a ghost. bil /b.li/ <b.li> masc. offering to a deity. bs /bs/ <b.s> advb. enough. bs /bs/ <b.s> fem. bus. bhadUr /b.ha.dur/ <b.ha.duu.r> adj. brave. bhanu& /b.ha.nu~/ <b.ha.nu~> neut. an excuse. bhar /b.har/ <b.ha.r> postp. outside. bihQkar /b.hiß.kar/ <b.hi.s°ka.r> masc. 1. rejection, 2. excommunication, 3. boycott. bhu /b.hu~/ <b.hu~> adj. 1. many, 2. much. bhucra /b.hu.c.ra/ <b.hu.c.ra> fem. a goddess of that name. bhumit /b.hu.m.ti/ <b.hu.m.ti> fem. majority. bhu£pI /b.hu.ru.pi/ <b.huu.ruu.pii> adj. assuming various forms with an intention to hide an original one. bhu£pI /b.hu.ru.pi/ <b.huu.ruu.pii> masc. 1.a person who assumes various forms with an intention to hide his/ her original one. 2. a person who assume various forms to entertain people. bhu&vcn /b.hu~.v.cn/ <b.hu~.v.c.n> neut. plural. bhen /b.hen/ <b.he.n> fem. sister. bheru& /b.he.ru~/ <b.he.n> adj. deaf. bhera= /b.he.raß/ <b.he.ra.ß> fem. deafness. bX /bÆ/ <b.Æ> nuet.1.power, 2. strength. bXt8 /bÆ.t¯/ <b.Æ.t.¯> neut. fuel. bXtra /b. .t.ra/ <b.Æ.t.ra> fem. pain caused by burning.
  • 140. 140 bXd /b.Æd/ <b.Æ.d> masc. 1. oxen, 2. bullock 3. an idiot. bXva`or /bÆ.va.k˙or/ <b.Æ.va.kho.r> adj. rebellious. bXvu& /bÆ.vu~/ <b.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to burn. bXvo /bÆ.vo/ <b.Æ.vo> masc. revolt. bXaTkar /b.Æat.kar/ <b.Æa.tka.r> masc. a rape. biXya /b.Æi.ja/ <b.Æi.ja> masc. hon. small-pox. biXyu& /b.Æi.ju~/ <b.Æi.ju~> adj. strong. bXev /b.Æev/ <b.Æe.v> fem. a festival. b&g6I /b˜.gÎi/ <b~.g.Îii> fem. a bangle. b&6I /b˜.Îi/ <b~.Îii> fem. a waistcoat. b&dr /bn.dr/ <b~.d.r> neut. 1. a port, 2. a harbor. b&dUk /bn.duk/ <b~.du.k> fem. a gun. b&dUk6I /bn.duk.Îi/ <b~.du.k.Îii> fem. a small gun. b&dobSt /bn.do.bs.t/ <b~.do.b.st> masc. arrangement. b&0 /bn.d˙/ <b~.dh> adj. closed. b&0 /bn.d˙/ <b~.dh> masc. a dam. b&0n /bn.d˙n/ <b~.dh.n> neut. 1. prohibition, 2. captivity. b&0bestu& /bnd˙.bes.tu~/ <b~.dh.be.s.tu~> adj. suitable. b&0besvu& /bnd˙.bes.vu~/ <b~.dh.be.s.vu~> v.intr. to be fitting. b&0ar8 /bn.d˙a.r¯/ <b~.dha.r.¯> neut. 1. constitution 2. construction. b&0ar8Iy /bn.d˙a.r.¯ij/ <b~.dha.r.¯i.j> adj. constitutional. b&i0yar /bn.d˙i.jar/ <b~.dhi.ja.r> adj. 1. unventilated, 2. stagnant. b&0I /bn.d˙i/ <b~.dhii> fem. prohibition. b&0u /bn.d˙u/ <b~.dhu> masc. 1. brother, 2. a co-worker. b&ba`anu& /bm.ba.k˙a.nu~/ <b~.ba.kha.nu~> neut. a fire-brigade station. b&bavaXo /bm.ba.va.Æo/ <b~.ba.va.Æo> masc. a fireman. b&bo /bm.bo/ <b~.bo> masc. a fire engine. b&srI /bns.ri/ <b~.s.rii> fem. a flute. b&sI /bns.ri/ <b~.sii> fem. a flute. ba /ba/ <ba> fem. mother. ba: /ba.i/ <ba.ii> fem. a maid-servant. bakI /ba.ki/ <ba.kii> adj. 1. residua, 2. balance, 3. surplus, 4. wanting.
  • 141. 141 ba`6vu& /ba.k˙Î.vu~/ <ba.kh.Î.vu~> v.intr. to quarrel. bag /bag/ <ba.g> masc. a garden. ba3u& /ba.g˙u~/ <ba.ghu~> adj. idiotic. baj /baÔ/ <ba.Ô> masc. a hawk. baj5 /ba.Ôˇ˙/ <ba.Ô.ˇh> masc. a foot- stool. bajrI /baÔ.ri/ <ba.Ô.rii> fem. millet. ba@ /ba.Ôi/ <ba.Ôii> fem. a game. ba@gr /ba.Ôi.gr/ <ba.Ôii.g.r> masc. a juggler. bazvu& /ba.Ô˙.vu~/ <ba.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. 1. to embrace, 2. to quarrel. ba4lI /baˇ.li/ <ba.ˇ.lii> fem. a bottle. ba8 /ba¯/ <ba.¯> neut. an arrow. ba8avXI /ba.¯a.v.Æi/ <ba.¯a.v.Æii> masc. an expert archer. batl /ba.tl/ <ba.t.l> adj. cancelled. bap /bap/ <ba.p> masc. father. bap6u& /bap.Îu~/ <ba.p.Îu~> adj. extremely helpless. bapdada /bap.da.da/ <ba.p.da.da> masc. pl. forefathers. bafvu& /bap˙.vu~/ <ba.ph.vu~> v.tr. to cook by boiling. babt /ba.bt/ <ba.b.t> fem. an issue. babaga6I /ba.ba.ga.Îi/ <ba.ba.ga.Îii> fem. a hand-driven vehicle for children. babo /ba.bo/ <ba.bo> masc. 1. a son, 2. a boy. bar /bar/ <ba.r> adj. 1. twelve, 2. 12. bar8u& /bar.¯u~/ <ba.r.¯u~> neut. a door. barmu& /bar.mu~/ <ba.r.mu~> adj. twelfth. barmu& /bar.mu~/ <b.r.mu~> neut. a religious rite performed on the twelfth day after a person’s death. bar= / bars /ba.rß, ba.rs/ <ba.r.ß/ ba.r.s> fem. twelfth day of either of the fortnights. barsa` /bar.sak˙/ fem. frame of a door. bara`6I /ba.ra.k˙.Îi/ fem. a series of simple syllables organized in a particular order. baraxrI /ba.ra.kß.ri/ fem. a series of simple syllables organized in a particular order. barI /ba.ri/ fem. a window. baru& /ba.ru~/ neut. an entrance. barEya /ba.ri.ja/ masc. a community so- named. baro4 /ba.roˇ/ masc. a community so- named. barobar /ba.ro.bar/ advb. directly.
  • 142. 142 baldI /bal.di/ fem. a bucket. bav6u& /bav.Îu~/ neut. the upper arm. bavn /ba.vn/ adj. 1. fifty two, 2. 52. bavlu& /bav.lu~/ neut. a statue. bavX /ba.vÆ/ masc. a kind of thorny tree. bavI /ba.vi/ fem. a female mendicant. bavIs /ba.vis/ adj. twenty two, 22. bavu& /ba.vu~/ neut. a cobweb. bavo /ba.vo/ masc. a mendicant. bas5 /ba.sˇ˙/ adj. sixty six. basmtI /bas.m.ti/ masc. a kind of rice. basUdI /ba.su.di/ fem. a kind of sweet. baho= /ba.hoß/ adj. skilful. baXk /ba. k/ neut. a child. baXp8 /baÆ.p¯/ neut. a childhood. baXpo9I /baÆ.po.t˙i/ <ba.Æ.po.thii> fem. a primer. baXbo0 /baÆ.bod˙/ <ba.Æ.bo.dh> adj. a variety of Devanagari script. baXm&idr /baÆ.mn.dir/ <ba.Æ.m~.di.r> neut. a nursery. baXlGn /baÆ.lg.n/ <ba.Æ.l.gn> neut. a child-marriage. baXvu& /baÆ.vu~/ <ba.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to burn. ba&k6o /ba~k.Îo/ <ba~.k.Îo> masc. a bench. ba&0vu& /ba~d˙.vu~/ <ba~.dh.vu~> v.tr. 1.to tie 2. to wrap. ba&0o /ba~.d˙o/ <ba~.dho> masc. a physical construction. ba&y /ba~j/ <ba~.j> fem. a sleeve. ba&y0rI /ba~j.d˙.ri/ <ba~.j.dh.rii> fem. security. ibcaru& /bi.ca.ru~/ <bi.ca.ru~> adj. poor. ib2anu& /bi.c˙a.nu~/ <bi.cha.nu~> neut. 1. a bed. 2. a mattress. bI2avvu& /bi.c˙av.vu~/ <bii.cha.v.vu~> v.tr. to spread. ibnAnu-vI /bin..nu.b˙.vi/ <bi.n..nu.bh.vii> adj. inexperienced. ibnj£rI /bin.Ô.ru.ri/ <bi.n.Ô.ruu.rii> adj. unnecessary. ibn=rtI /bin.ßr.ti/ <bi.n.ß.r.tii> adj. unconditional. iblkul /bil.kul/ <bi.l.ku.l> advb. 1. wholly, 2. in the least. ibla6I /bi.la.Îi/ <bi.la.Îii> fem. a cat (female). ibla6o /bi.la.Îo/ <bi.la.Îo> masc. a cat (male).
  • 143. 143 ibLlo /bil.lo/ <bi.llo> masc. 1. a badge, 2. a medal. ibv6avvu& /biv.Îav.vu~/ <bi.v.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. to frighten. ibham8u& /bi.ha.m¯u~/ <bi.ha.m.¯u~> adj. frightful. ib&dI /bin.di/ <bi~.dii> fem. an ornamental dot on the forehead. ib&du /bin.du/ <bi~.du> neut. a drop. ib&b /bimb/ <bi~.b> neut. a reflection. bI /bi/ <bii> neut. a seed. bIk /bik/ <bii.k> fem. fear. bIcaru& /bi.ca.ru~/ <bii.ca.ru~> adj. 1. poor, 2. helpless. bIj /biÔ/ <bii.Ô> neut. a seed. bIj /biÔ/ <bii.Ô> fem. a second day of either of the fortnight of a lunar month. bIjvr /biÔ.vr/ <bii.Ô.v.r> masc. a man marrying for the seond time. bIju& /bi.Ôu~/ <bii.Ôu~> adj. 1. second, 2. another. bI6vu& /biÎ.vu~/ <bii.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to close (envelop etc.), 2. to wrap. bI6I /bi.Îi/ <bii.Îii> fem. a kind of cigar. bIna /bi.na/ <bii.na> fem. . fact. bIbI /bi.bi/ <bii.bii> fem. wife (mainly in Muslim dialect). bIbu& /bi.bu~/ <bii.bu~> neut. 1. a die, 2. a printing block. bI-Ts /bi.b˙t.s/ <bi.bh.ts> adj. disgusting. bImar /bi.mar/ <bi.ma.r> adj. sick bImarI /bi.ma.ri/ <bi.ma.rii> fem. sickness. bIvu& /bi.vu~/ <bii.vu~> v.intr. to fear. bu55u& /buˇ˙.ˇ˙u~/ <bu.ˇhˇhu~> adj. blunt. bu69l /buŒ.t˙l/ <bu.Î.th.l> adj. idiotic. bu6vu& /buÎ.vu~/ <bu.Î.vu~> v.intr. 1. to sink, 2. to drown bui)0 /bud˙.d˙i/ <bu.dhdhi> fem. intelligence. bu0var /bud˙.var/ <bu.dh.va.r> masc. Wednesday. bumra8 /bum.ra¯/ <bu.m.ra.¯> fem. loud shouts. bur`o /bur.k˙o/ <bu.r.kho> masc. a mask. bulbul /bul.bul/ <bu.l.bu.l> neut. a nightingale. bul&d /bu.lnd/ <bu.l~.d> adj. 1. grand, 2. loud and deep sound. bu&d /bund/ <bu~.d> neut. a drop.
  • 144. 144 bU /bu:/ <buu> fem. odor. bUc /buc/ <buu.c> masc. a cork. bUcu& /bu.cu~/ <buu.cu~> adj. a flat-nosed. bU4 /buˇ/ <buu.ˇ> fem. ear-lobe. bUm /bum/ <buu.m> fem. a shout. bUmlu& /bum.lu~/ <buu.m.lu~> neut. a kind of fish. be /be/ <be> adj. two. beAab£ /be.ab.ru/ <be.a.b.ruu> fem. disgrace. be:man /be.i.man/ <be.ii.ma.n> adj. dishonest. bew /beu/ <be.u~> adj. both. bekI /be.ki/ <be.kii> adj. an even number. be`br /be.k˙.br/ <be.kh.b.r> adj. ignorant. begm /be.gm/ <be.g.m> fem. a queen (Muslim). becen /be.cen/ <be.ce.n> adj. restless. becenI /be.ce.ni/ <be.ce.nii> fem. restlessness. be4 /beˇ/ <be.ˇ> masc. an island. be4I /be.ˇi/ <be.ˇii> fem. a daughter. be4o /be.ˇo/ <be.ˇo> masc. a son. be5k /be.ˇ˙k/ <be.ˇh.k> fem. a seat. be5a6u& /be.ˇ˙a.Îu~/ <be.ˇha.Îu~> adj. inactive (life). be6I /be.Îi/ <be.Îii> fem. shackles. be6u& /be.Îu~/ <be.Îu~> neut. a pair of water-pot. be6oX /be.ÎoÆ/ <be.Îo.Æ> adj. misshaped. be7&gu& /be.Î˙˜.gu~/ <be.Îh~.gu~> adj. disorderly. betaXa& /be.ta.Æa~/ <be.ta.Æa~> masc. pl. dimness of the eyes acquired around the age of 42. betaXIs /be.ta.Æis/ <be.ta.Æii.s> adj. forty-two. bedrkar /be.dr.kar/ <be.d.r.ka.r> adj. careless. be06k /be.d˙.Îk/ <be.dh.Î.k> advb. fearlessly. be0aru& /be.d˙a.ru~/ <b.dha.ru~> adj. double-edged. be)yan /be.d˙jan/ <be.dhj.n> adj. inattentive. benmUn /ben.mun/ <be.n.muu.n> adj. unparalleled. bepgu& /be.p.gu~/ <be.p.gu~> adj. biped. bebakXu& /be.bak.Æu~/ <be.ba.k.Æu~> adj. perplexed.
  • 145. 145 be-an /be.b˙an/ <be.bha.n> adj. unconscious. berojgar /be.roÔ.gar/ <be.ro.Ô.ga.r> adj. unemployed. bel6I /bel.Îi/ <be.l.Îii> adj. a pair (of two persons). bevkUf /bev.kup˙/ <be.v.ku.ph> adj. stupid. bev6 /be.vÎ/ <be.v.Î> adj. folded. be=k /be.ßk/ <be.ß.k> advb. undoubtedly. be=rm /be.ß.rm/ <be.ß.r.m> adj. shameless. be=u)0 /be.ßudd˙/ <be.ßu.dhdh> adj. swooned. be=umar /beßu.mar/ <be.ßu.ma.r> adj. limitless. bes8u& /bes.¯u~/ <be.s.¯u~> neut. a mourning ritual. besvu& /bes.vu~/ <be.s.vu~> v.intr. to sit. besvu& /bes.vu~/ <be.s.vu~> v.intr. to begin (of a month, a year or a season etc.). Ex. mne gya mihne p&drmu& vrs be5u&. beSvad /be.svad/ <be.sva.d> adj. tasteless. behal /be.hal/ <be.ha.l> adj. ruined. behUdI /be.hu.di/ <be.huu.dii> adj. irrational. bErI /bi.ri/ <bi.rii> fem. wife (now a derogatory word, particularly in urban and educated class). bo`u& /bo.k˙u~/ <bo.khu~> adj. toothless. bogdu& /bog.du~/ <bo.g.du~> neut. a tunnel. bocI /bo.ci/ <bo.cii> fem. the neck. boj /boÔ/ <bo.Ô> masc. 1. burden 2. weight. bo6vu& /boÎ.vu~/ <bo.Î.vu~> v.tr. to shave the head entirely. bo6u& /bo.Îu~/ <bo.Îu~> adj. a shaved off head. bo8I /bo.¯i/ <bo.¯ii> fem. the first cash-sale of the day. bodu& /bo.du~/ <bo.du~> adj. dull. bo0 /bod˙/ <bo.dh> masc. sermon. bor /bor/ <bo.r> neut. a kind of berry. bol /bol/ <bo.l> masc. a speech. bolvu& /bol.vu~/ <bo.l.vu~> v.intr. to speak. bolacalI /bo.la.ca.li/ <bo.la.ca.lii> fem. a verbal quarrel. bolI /bo.li/ <bo.lii> fem. a dialect. bovu& /bo.vu~/ <bo.vu~> v.tr. to sow.
  • 146. 146 boXvu& /boÆ.vu~/ <bo.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to dip, 2. to soak. Bya=I /bja.ßi/ <bja.ßii> adj. eighty two. b/a−8 /brah.m¯/ <bra.hm.¯> masc. Brahmin. - -kt /b˙k.t/ <bh.kt> masc. worshiper (male) -kta8I /b˙k.ta.¯i/ <bh.kta.¯ii> fem. 1. worshiper (female), 2. wife of a worshiper. -ikt /b˙k.ti/ <bh.kti> fem. devotion. -gt /b˙.gt/ <bh.g.t> masc. worshiper (male) -gta8I /b˙g.ta.¯i/ <bh.g.ta.¯ii> fem. 1. worshiper (female), 2. wife of a worshiper. -gvtI /bg.v.ti/ <bh.g.v.tii> adj. divine. -gvan /b+g.van/ <bh.g.va.n> masc. god. -gvu& /b˙g.vu~/ <bh.g.vu~> adj. reddish. -ignI /b.gi.ni/ <bh.gi.nii> fem. sister. -gIr9 /b.gi.rt˙/ <bh.dii.r.th> adj. extremely difficult. -Gn /b˙g.n/ <bh.gn> adj. broken. -c6vu& /b˙.cÎ.vu~/ <bh.c.Î.vu~> v.tr. to eat recklessly. -jn /b˙.Ôn/ <b.Ô.n> neut. 1. devotional song, 2. hymn -jvvu& /b˙.Ôv.vu~/ <bh.Ô.v.vu~> v.tr. to perform (a play etc.) -jvu& /b˙Ô.vu~/ <bh.Ô.vu~> v.tr. 1. to worship through singing, 2. to recite. -ijyu& /b˙.Ôi.ju~/ <bp.ji.yu~> neut. a kind of fried food made of gram flour. -4kvu& /b˙.ˇk.vu~/ <bh.Ôi.ju~> v.intr. to roam. -4kavu& /b˙ˇ.ka.vu~/ <bh.ˇ.ka.vu~> v.intr. to collide. -4Uiryu& /b˙.tu.ri.ju~/ <bh.ˇuu.ri.ju~> neut. puppy. -44 /bhˇ.ˇ/ <bh.tt> masc. a surname. -i5yar`anu& /b˙.ˇ˙i.jar.kha.nu~/ <bh.ˇhi.ja.r.kha.nu~> neut. a bakery. -55I /b˙ˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <bh.ˇhˇhii> fem. 1. an oven, 2. a furnace, 3. a kiln. -6 /b˙Î/ <bh.Î> adj. brave (person). -6vIr /b˙Î.vir/ <bh.Î.vii.r> adj. brave -6kI /b˙Î.ki/ <bh.Î.kii> fem. porridge.
  • 147. 147 -6ko /b˙Î.ko/ <bh.Î.ko> masc. a big flame. -6ako /b˙.Îa.ko/ <bh.Îa.ko> masc. an explosive sound. -8kar /b˙¯.kar/ <bh.¯.ka.r> masc. a sound indicating a future event. -8tr /b˙¯.tr/ <bh.¯.t.r> neut. education. -8vu& /b˙¯.vu~/ <bh.¯.vu~> v.tr. to study. -8I /b˙.¯i/ postp. towards. -{aI@ /b˙t.ri.Ôi/ <bh.trii.Ôii> fem. a niece. -± /b˙d.r/ <bh.dr> adj. auspicious. -pko /b˙p.ko/ <bh.p.ko> masc. 1. a grand appearance, 2. a grand show. --k /b˙.b˙k/ <bh.bh.k> fem. luster. -ravvu& /b˙b˙.rav.vu~/ <bh.bh.ra.v.vu~> v.tr. to sprinkle powder. --Ukvu& /b˙.b˙uk.vu~/ <bh.bhuu.k.vu~> v.intr. to blaze suddenly. --Ut /b˙.b˙ut/ <bh.bhuu.t> fem. ashes. --UtI /b˙.b˙u.ti/ <bh.bhuu.tii> fem. ashes. -mrI /b˙m.ri/ <bh.m.rii> fem. a wasp (female). -mro /b˙m.ro/ <bh.m.ro> fem. a wasp (male). -mvu& /b˙m.vu~/ <bh.m.vu~> v.intr. 1. to rotate, 2. to wander. -Mmr /b˙m.mr/ <bh.mm.r> fem. the eyebrow. -y&kr /b˙.jan.kr/ <bh.j~.k.r> adj. frightful. -yank /b˙.ja.nk/ <bh.ja.n.k> adj. frightful. -r6vu& /b˙.rÎ.vu~/ <bh.r.Î.vu~> v.tr. to grind. -rt /b˙.rt/ <bh.r.t> neut. embroidery. -rtgU&98 /b˙.rt gu~.t˙¯/ <bh.r.t.gu~.th.Î> neut. embroidery. -rtI /b˙r.ti/ <bh.r.tii> fem. tide. -rpUr /b˙r.pur/ <bh.r.puu.r> adj. abundant. -r-a&`Xu& /b˙r.b˙a~k˙.Æu~/ <bh.r.bha~.kh.Æu~> neut. the dawn. -rm /b˙.rm/ <bh.r.m> masc. illusion. -rmavu& /b˙r.ma.vu~/ <bh.r.ma.vu~> v.intr. to be deceived.
  • 148. 148 -rvvu& /b˙.rv.vu~/ <bh.r.v.vu~> v.tr. to hang. -rva6 /b˙r.vaÎ/ <bh.r.va.Î> masc. a shepherd. -rvu& /b˙r.vu~/ <bh.r.vu~> v.tr. to fill. -rvu& /b˙r.vu~/ <bh.r.vu~> v.tr. to measure. -raw /b˙.ra.u/ <bh.ra.u> adj. 1. plump, 2. chubby. -rosapa{a /b˙.ro.sa.pat.r/ <bh.r.sa.pa.tr> adj. trustworthy. -roso /b˙.ro.so/ <bh.ro.so> masc. trust. -yuR&-adyuR& /b˙.rju~.b˙ad.rju~/ adj. prosperous. -lmnsa: /b˙l.mn.sai/ <bh.l.m.n.sa.ii> fem. goodness. -la: /b˙.la.i/ <bh.la.ii> fem. 1. goodness, 2. gentleness. -lam8 /b˙.la.m¯/ <bh.la.m.¯> fem. recommendation. -lu& /b˙.lu~/ <bh.lu~> adj. good. -le /b˙le/ <bh.le> advb. well. -v /b˙v/ <bh.v> masc. life. -vn /b˙.vn/ <bh.v.n> neut. a big house. -va: /b˙.va.i/ <bh.va.ii> fem. 1. a folk-drama, 2. fiasco. -va6o /b˙.va.Îo/ <bh.va.Îo> masc. fiasco. -vanI /b˙.va.ni/ <bh.va.nii> fem. the goddess Parvati. -vayo /b˙.va.jo/ <bh.va.jo> masc. the actor of a -va: - a folk-drama. -ivQy /b˙.viß.j/ <bh.vi.s°j> neut. future. -vu& /b˙.vu~/ <bh.vu~> neut. the eyebrow. -vo-v /b˙.vo.b˙v/ <bh.vo.bh.v> advb. in each birth. -Vy /b˙.vj/ <bh.vj> adj. grand. -svu& /b˙s.vu~/ <bh.s.vu~> v.intr. to brak. -Xtu& /b˙Æ.tu~/ <bh.Æ.tu~> adj. similar. -Xvu& /b˙Æ.vu~/ <bh.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to mix with. -&ga8 /b˙˜.ga¯/ <bh~.ga.¯> neut. a break. -&gar /b˙˜.gar/ <bh~.ga.r> masc. scrap. -&6ar /b˙¯.Îar/ <bh~.Îa.r> masc. 1. a granary 2. a store-house. -&6aro /b˙¯.Îa.ro/ <bh~.Îa.ro> masc. a collective dinner for community given as a part of social custom or religious ritual. -&6oX /b˙¯.Îo / <bh~.Îa.ro> neut. fund.
  • 149. 149 -&-ervu& /b˙m.b˙er.vu~/ <bh~.bhe.r.vu~> v.tr. to incite. -a /b˙a/ <bha> masc. an honorable term used for elders. -a: /b˙a.i/ <bha.ii> masc. brother. -a:caro /b˙a.i.ca.ro/ <bha.ii.ca.ro> masc. brotherhood. -a:b&0I /b˙a.i.bn.di/ <bha.ii.b~.dhii> fem. friendship. -a:-a&6u /b˙a.i.b˙a~¯.Îu/ <bha.ii.bha~.Îu> masc. pl. brothers and sisters of the same presents. -a`rI /b˙ak˙.ri/ <bha.kh.rii> fem. a kind of bread. -ag /b˙ag/ <bha.g> masc. 1. share, 2. part. -agvu& /b˙ag.vu~/ <bha.g.vu~> v.intr. to run away. -agakar /b˙a.ga.kar/ <bha.ga.ka.r> masc. division (in maths). -agIdar /b˙a.gi.dar/ <bha.gii.da.r> masc. partner (normally in business). -agIdarI /b˙a.gi.da.ri/ <bha.gii.da.rii> fem. partnership. -agoX /b˙a.goÆ/ <bha.go.Æ> fem. an outskirt of a village/ a small town. -aGy /b˙ag.j/ <bha.gj> neut. 1.fate, 2. destiny. -aGyu&tU4yu& /b˙a.gju~.tu.ˇju~/ <bha.gju~.tu.ˇju~> adj. broken. -aGye /b˙ag.je/ <bha.gje> advb. rarely. -a@ /b˙a.Ôi/ <bha.Ôii> fem. vegetables (leafy). -a@mUXa /b˙a.Ôi.mu.Æa/ <bha.Ôii.muu.Æa> masc. pl. an insignificant person or thing. -a4 /b˙aˇ/ <bha.ˇ> masc. a bard. -a4a: /b˙a.ˇa.i/ <bha.ˇa.ii> fem. 1. the function of a bard, 2. excessive flattery. -ai4yo /b˙a.ˇi.jo/ <bha.ˇi.jo> masc. a community so-named. -a6u& /b˙a.Îu~/ <bha.Îu~> neut. 1. rent, 2. fair, 3. freight. -a6Ut /b˙a.Îut/ <bha.Îu.t> masc. a tenant. -a8aVyvhar /b˙a.¯a.vjv.har/ <bha.¯a.vj.v.ha.r> masc. relation permitting joint meals. -ai8yo /b˙a.¯i.jo/ <bha.¯i.jo> masc. a sister’s son. -a8I /b˙a.¯i/ <bha.¯ii> fem. a sister’s daughter. -a8u& /b˙a.¯u~/ <bha.¯u~> neut. a dish served. -a8ej /b˙a.¯eÔ/ <bha.¯e.Ô> masc. a sister’s son.
  • 150. 150 -a8o /b˙a.¯o/ <bha.¯o> masc. a sister’s son. -at /b˙at/ <bha.t> fem. design. -at /b˙at/ <bha.t> masc. pl. cooked rice. -adrvo /b˙a.dr.vo/ <ba.d.r.vo> masc. eleventh month of the Vikram year. -an /b˙an/ <bha.n> neut. consciousness. -a-I /b˙a.b˙i/ <bha.bhii> fem. a brother’s wife. -ar /b˙ar/ <bha.r> masc. 1. weight, 2. burden. -ar8 /b˙a.r¯/ <bha.r.¯> neut. 1. weight, 2. burden. -art /b˙a.rt/ <bha.r.t> neut. India. -artIy /b˙ar.ti.j/ <bha.r.tii.j> adj. Indian. -are /b˙a.re/ <bha.re> adj. 1. heavy, 2. weighty. -aro /b˙a.ro/ <bha.ro> masc. a bundle of grass or wood. -alo6u& /b˙a.lo.Îu~/ <bha.lo.Îu~> neut. an arrow. -av /b˙av/ <bha.v> masc. rate. -av /b˙av/ <bha.v> masc. feeling. -avna /b˙av.na/ <bha.v.na> fem. 1. desire 2. sentiment. -avvu& /b˙av.vu~/ <bha.v.vu~> v.exp. to like in taste. -ava9R /b˙a.var.t˙/ <bha.va.rth> masc. implied meaning. -aiv /b˙a.vi/ <bha.vi> neut. 1. future, 2. fate. -aivk /b˙a.vik/ <bha.vi.k> adj. emotional. -aq8 /b˙a.߯/ <bha.s°.¯> neut. 1. a speech, 2.a lecture, 3. a discourse. -aqa /b˙a.ßa/ <bha.s°a> fem. language. -aqa&tr /b˙a.ßa~n.tr/ <bha.s°a~.t.r> neut. translation. -aqa&trkar /b˙a.ßa~n.tr.kar/ <bha.s°a~.t.r.ka.r> masc. translator. -aQy /b˙aß.j/ <bha.s°j> neut. commentary. -as /b˙as/ <bha.s> masc. an illusion. -aX /b˙aÆ/ <bha.Æ> fem. whereabouts. -aXvu& /b˙aÆ.vu~/ <bha.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to see. -a&g /b˙a~˜.g/ <bha~.g> fem. 1. hemp, 2. a drink containing hemp. -a&gfo6 /b˙a~g.p˙oÎ/ <bha~.g.pho.Î> fem. breakage. -a&gro /b˙a~˜g.ro/ <bha~.g.ro> masc. a kind of herb.
  • 151. 151 -a&gvu& /b˙a~g.vu~/ <bha~.g.vu~> v.tr. to break. -a&jg6 /b˙a~Ô.gÎ/ <bha~.Ô.g.Î> fem. 1. negotiations, 2. quarrel. -a&jg6Iyu& /b˙a~Ô.g.Îi.ju~/ <bha~.Ô.g.Îii.ju~> adj. 1. quarrelsome, 2. negotiator. -a&6vu& /b˙a~¯Î.vu~/ <bha~.Î.vu~> v.tr. to revile. -a&-rvu& /b˙a~.b˙r.vu~/ <bha~.bh.r.vu~> v.intr. to bellow. i-`ar8 /b˙i.k˙a.r¯/ <bhi.kha.r.¯> fem. a female beggar. i-`arI /b˙i.k˙a.ri/ <bhi.kha.rii> masc. a male beggar. i-Nn /b˙in.n/ <bhi.nn> adj. different. -I` /b˙ik˙/ <bhii.kh> fem. begging. -I6 /b˙iÎ/ <bhii.Î> fem. crowdedness. -I6vu& /b˙iÎ.vu~/ <bhii.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to shut up, 2. to fasten. -Itr /b˙i.tr/ <bhii.t.r> neut. within. -Ina= /b˙i.naß/ <bhii.na.ß> fem. moisture. -Inu& /b˙i.nu~/ <bhii.nu~> adj. 1.wet, 2. soaked, 3. moist. -Il /b˙il/ <bhii.l> masc. a community so named. -I&g6u& /b˙i~g.Îu~/ <bhii~.g.Îu~> neut. 1. a dead skin, 2. a scale. -I&jvvu& /b˙i~.Ôv.vu~/ <bhii.Ô.v.vu~> v.tr. to soak. -I&6o /b˙i¯.Îo/ <bhi.Îo> masc. okra. -I&t /b˙i~t/ <bhi~.t> fem. a wall. -Ulk8u& /b˙u.lk.¯u~/ adj. absent-minded. -Ul-ulam8I /b˙ul.b˙u.lam.¯i/ <bhu.l.bhu.la.m.¯ii> fem. a labyrinth. -USko /b˙us.ko/ <bhuu.sko> masc. a jump downward. -Uk&p /b˙u.kmp/ <bhuu.k~.p> masc. an earthquake. -UkI /b˙u.ki/ <bhuu.kii> fem. fine powder. -Uko /b˙u.ko/ <bhuu.ko> masc. powder. -U` /b˙uk˙/ <bhuu.kh> fem. hunger. -U`ru& /b˙uk˙.ru/ <bhuu.kh.ru~> adj. grey. -U~yu& /b˙u.k˙ju~/ <bhuu.khju~> adj. hungry. -UgoX /b˙u.goÆ/ <bhu.go.Æ> fem. geography. -Ucr /b˙u.cr/ <bhu.c.r> adj. terrestrial. -Ut /b˙ut/ <bhuu.t> neut. a ghost.
  • 152. 152 -UtavX /b˙u.ta.vÆ/ <bhuu.ta.v.Æ> fem. a group of ghosts. -Udev /b˙u.dev/ <bhuu.de.v> masc. a Brahman. -Uim /b˙u.mi/ <bhuu.mi> fem. land. -Uimka /b˙u.mi.ka/ <bhuu.mi.ka> fem. an introduction. -Uimit /b˙u.mi.ti/ <bhuu.mi.ti> fem. geometry. -Uimdah /b˙u.mi.dah/ <bhuu.mi.da.h> masc. burial. -UrkI /b˙ur.ki/ <bhuu.r.kii> fem. a spell. -Uiryu& /b˙u.ri.ju~/ <bhuu.ri.ju~> adj. bluish. -Uru& /b˙u.ru~/ <bhuu.ru~> adj. blue. -Ul /b˙ul/ <bhuu.l> fem. 1. mistake, 2. error. -Ulvu& /b˙ul.vu~/ <bhuu.l.vu~> v.intr. to forget. -Ulu& /b˙u.lu~/ <bhuu.lu~> adj. astray. -Uvo /b˙u.vo/ <bhuu.vo> masc. a remover of ghosts. -Usko /b˙us.ko/ <bhuu.s.ko> masc. a jump downward. -UStrivdya /b˙us.tr.vi.dja/ <bhuu.st.r.vi.dja> fem. geology. -U&kvu& /b˙u~k.vu~/ <bhu~.k.vu~> v.intr. to bray. -U&gX /b˙u˜.g / <bhu~.g.Æ> fem. a long-tube like trumpet. -U&gXI /b˙u~˜.g.Æi/ <bhu~.g.Æii> fem. a small pipe or a small tube. -U&gXu& /b˙u~˜.g.Æu~/ <bhu~.g.Æu~> neut. a big pipe or a big tube. -U&jvu& /b˙u~Ô.vu~/ <bhu~.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to roast. -U&6 /b˙u¯Î/ <bhuu~.Î> neut. a pig. -U&6a: /b˙u¯.Îai/ <bbhuu~.Îa.ii> fem. wickedness. -U&6u& /b˙u¯.Îu~/ <bhuu.Îu~> adj. wicked. -U&svu& /b˙u~s.vu~/ <bhuu~.s.vu~> v.tr. to erase. -eg /b˙eg/ <bhe.g> masc. admixture. -egu& /b˙e.gu~/ <bhe.g> adj. 1. mixed, 2. collected. -ej /b˙eÔ/ <bhe.Ô> masc. humidity. -eju& /b˙e.Ôu~/ <bhe.Ôu~> neut. 1.the brain, 2. intellect. -e4 /b˙eˇ/ <bhe.ˇ> fem. a meeting. -e4 /b˙eˇ/ <bhe.ˇ> fem. a gift. -e4vu& /b˙eˇ.vu~/ <bhe.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to embrace. -e4o /b˙e.ˇo/ <bhe.ˇo> masc. a meeting.
  • 153. 153 -ed /b˙ed/ <bhe.d> masc. difference. -ed /b˙ed/ <bhe.d> masc. mystery. -ed-av /b˙ed.b˙av/ <bhe.d.bha.v> masc. discrimination. -edvu& /b˙ed.vu~/ <bhe.d.vu~> v.tr. 1. to pierce, 2. to thurst. -edI /b˙e.di/ <bhe.dii> adj. mysterious. -edu /b˙e.du/ <bhe.du> masc. mystic. -ervvu& /b˙e.rv.vu~/ <bhe.r.v.vu~> v.tr. to hang. -eX /b˙eÆ/ <bhe.Æ> fem. a mixture. -eXvvu& /b˙e.Æv.vu~/ <bhe.Æ.v.vu~> v.tr. to mix. -eXseX /b˙eÆ.seÆ/ <bhe.Æ.se.Æ> fem. adulteration. -eXseXIyu& /b˙eÆ.se.Æi.ju~/ <bhe.Æ.se.Æii.ju~> adj. 1. adulterated, 2. miscellaneous. -e&= ~ -e&s /b˙´~s ~ b˙´~ß/ <bhe~.ß ~ bhe~.s> fem. a buffalo. -o: /b˙o.i/ <bho.ii> masc. a community so named. -og /b˙og/ <bho.g> masc. 1. a sacrifice, 2. an offering to the god. -ogv4o /b˙og.v.ˇo/ <bho.g.v.ˇo> masc. ownership. -ogvvu& /b˙o.gv.vu~/ <bho.g.v.vu~> v.tr. to enjoy (the ownership, possession). -ogivlas /b˙og.vi.las/ <bho.g.vi.la.s> masc. luxury. -ogI /b˙o.gi/ <bho.gii> adj. a person who enjoys or suffers. -oGy /b˙og.j/ <bho.gj> adj. worth enjoying. -ojn /b˙o.Ôn/ <bho.Ô.n> neut. a mean (formal). -o4 /b˙oˇ/ <bho.ˇ> adj. idiotic. -o4vo /b˙oˇ.vo/ <bho.ˇ.vo> masc. an earthen jug. -omyo /b˙o.mi.jo/ <bho.mi.jo> masc. a guide. -oir&g /b˙o.ri˜g/ <bho.ri~.g> masc. a big serpent. -olu& /b˙o.lu~/ <bho.lu~> neut. a monkey. -oXvvu& /b˙o.Æv.vu~/ <bho.Æ.v.vu~> v.tr. to cheat. -oXu& /b˙o.Æu~/ <bho.Æu~> adj. a simple- hearted. -o&kvu& /b˙ø~k.vu~/ <bho.k.vu~> v.tr. 1. to pierce, 2. to bore. -o&5p /b˙ø~.ˇ˙p/ <bho.ˇh.p> fem. crestfallen. -o&5u& /b˙ø~.ˇ˙u~/ <bho.ˇhu~> adj. crestfallen.
  • 154. 154 -o&y /b˙ø~j/ <bho.> fem. 1. land, 2. ground. -o&ytXIyu& /b˙ø~j.t.Æi.ju~/ <bho.j.t.Æi.ju~> neut. a ground-floor. -o&yru& /b˙ø~j.ru~/ <bho.j.ru~> neut. a tunnel. -Ogoilk /b˙u.go.lik/ <bhu.go.li.k> adj. geographical. -Oitk /b˙u.tik/ <bh.ti.k> adj. 1. physical, 2. materialistic, 3. mundane. -/m /b˙rm/ <bhr.m> masc. illusion. -/Q4 /b˙rß.ˇ/ <bhr.s°ˇ> neut. 1. polluted, 2. degenerated. -/Q4acar /b˙rß.ˇa.car/ <bhr.s°ˇa.ca.r> masc. corruption. -/amk /b˙ra.mk/ <bhra.m.k> adj. deceptive. -/a&it /b˙ra~n.ti/ <bra~.ti> fem. illusion. -<8 /b˙ru¯/ <br≤u.¯> masc. an undeveloped embryo. m mkr /m.kr ra.ßi/ <m.k.r> fem. the Capricorn, the tenth sign of the zodiac. mka: /m.ka.i/ <m.ka.ii> fem. maize. mkan /m.kan/ <m.ka.n> neut. a house. mkkm /mk.km/ <m.kk.m> adj. firm. m`ml /mk˙.ml/ <m.kh.m.l> neut. velvet. m~`IcUs /mk˙.k˙i.cus/ <m.khkhii.cuu.s> adj. extremely miser. mg /mg/ <m.g> masc. pl. a kind of pulse. mgj /m.gÔ/ <m.g.Ô> neut. the brain. mgj /m.gÔ/ <m.g.Ô> masc. a kind of sweet. mgtru& /m.gt.ru~/ <m.g.t.ru~> neut. a mosquito. mgfXI /mg.p˙.Æi/ <m.g.ph.Æii> fem. groundnut. mgr /m.gr/ <m.g.r> masc. alligator. mck /m.ck/ <m.c.k> fem. giving in. mcko6 /mc.koÎ/ <m.c.ko.Î> fem. muscle stratch. mc6vu& /m.cÎ.vu~/ <m.c.Î.vu~> v.tr. to twist. mC2r /mc.c˙r/ <m.cch.r> neut. a mosquito. m2vo /mc˙.vo/ <m.ch.vo> masc. a small boat.
  • 155. 155 mjnU /mÔ.nu/ <m.Ô.nuu> adj. lovelorn. mjbUt /mÔ.but/ <m.Ô.buu.t> adj. strong. mjbUtI /mÔ.bu.ti/ <m.Ô.buu.tii> fem. strength. mjbUr /mÔ.bur/ <m.Ô.buu.r> adj. helpless. mjbUrI /mÔ.bu.ri/ <m.Ô.buu.rii> fem. helplessness. mja /m.Ôa/ <m.Ôa> fem. pleasant. mjUr /m.Ôur/ <m.Ôuu.r> masc. a labor. mjUs /m.Ôus/ <m.Ôuu.s> masc. a big wooden box carving on it. mjja /mÔ.Ôa/ <m.ÔÔa> fem. the marrow of bone. m4ku& /mˇ.ku~/ <m.ˇ.ku~> neut. a wink. m4m4avvu& /mˇ.m.ˇav.vu~/ <m.ˇ.m.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. to wink. m4vu& /mˇ.vu~/ <m.ˇ.vu~> v.exp. to be cured. m5 /mˇ˙/ <m.ˇh> masc. pl. a kind of pulse. m5 /mˇ˙/ <m.ˇh> masc. a monastery. m5arvu& /m.ˇ˙ar.vu~/ <m.ˇha.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to repair, 2. to fix error in a writing. m5o /m.ˇ˙o/ <m.ˇho> masc. a food made of yogurt. m6du& /mÎ.du~/ <m.Î.du~> neut. a dead body. m6aga&5 /m.Îa.ga~ˇ˙/ <m.Îa.ga~.ˇh> fem. a deadlock. m7vu& /mÎ˙.vu~/ <m.Îh.vu~> v.tr. to frame (a photo for example). mi8 /m.¯i/ <m.¯i> masc. a gem. mi8yar /m.¯i.jar/ <m.¯i.ja.r> masc. a professional bangle-maker. mt /mt/ <m.t> masc. 1. an opinion, 2. a vote. mtdar /mt.dar/ <m.t.da.r> masc. a voter. mtp{a /mt.pt.r/ <m.t.p.tr> neut. a voting paper. mt-ed /mt.b˙ed/ <m.t.bhe.d> masc. difference of opinion. mtlb /mt.lb/ <m.t.l.b> fem. 1. purpose, 2. intention. mtlibyu& /mt.lb.i.ju~/ <m.t.l.bi.ju~> adj. selfish. mtai0kar /m.ta.d˙i.kar/ <m.ta.dhi.ka.r> masc. the right to vote. mit /m.ti/ <m.ti> fem. intellect. mtu& /m.tu~/ <m.tu~> neut. signature.
  • 156. 156 m9vu& /mt˙.vu~/ <m.th.vu~> v.intr. to churn. m9am8 /m.t˙a.m¯/ <m.tha.m.¯> fem. hard work. m9aXu& /m.t˙a.Æu~/ <m.tha.Æu~> neut. 1. a heading, 2. a top. mdd /m.dd/ <m.d.d> fem. help. mdinyu& /m.dn.i.ju~/ <m.d.ni.ju~> neut. a young one of an elephant. mdarI /m.da.ri/ <m.da.rii> masc. a jugglar. midra /m.di.ra/ <m.di.ra> fem. wine. m0 /m.d˙/ <m.dh> neut. honey. m0ur /m.d˙ur/ <m.dhu.r> adj. sweet. m)y /md˙.j/ <m.dhj> adj. 1. middle, 2. central. m0rat /md˙.rat/ <m.dh.ra.t> fem. mid-night. mn /mn/ <m.n> neut. an organ of desire. mnn /m.nn/ <m.n.n> neut. deep- thinking. mnsUbo /mn.su.bo/ <m.n.su.bo> masc. motive. mnSvI /m.ns.vi/ <m.n.svii> adj. 1. self-willed, 2. whimsical. mna: /m.nai/ <m.na.ii> fem. 1. prohibition, 2. forbidding. mnam8u& /m.nam.¯u~/ <m.na.m.¯u~> neut. reconciliation. mnavvu& /m.nav.vu~/ <m.na.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to pursue, 2. to pacify. mnIqa /m.ni.ßa/ <m.nii.s°a> fem. desire. mnuQy /m.nuß.j/ <m.nu.s°j> masc. a human being. mne /m.ne/ <m.ne> pron. to me. mnobX /m.no.bÆ/ <m.no.b.Æ> neut. willpower. mnor9 /m.no.rt˙/ <m.no.r.th> masc. desire. mnor&jk /m.no.rn.Ôk/ <m.no.r~.Ô.k> adj. entertaining. mnor&jn /m.no.rn.Ôn/ <m.no.r~.Ô.n> neut. entertainment. mnoiv}aan /m.no.vig.nan/ <m.no.vi.gna.n> neut. spychology. mnohr /m.no.hr/ <m.no.h.r> adj. attractive. mft /m.p˙t/ <m.ph.t> advb. free of cost. mbl` /mb.lk˙/ <m.b.l.kh> adj. abundant. mmt /m.mt/ <m.m.t> fem. insistence.
  • 157. 157 mmra /mm.ro/ <m.m.ra> masc. a type of rice flake. mmXavvu& /mm.Æav.vu~/ <m.m.Æa.v.vu~> v.tr. to chew. mrkvu& /m.rk.vu~/ <m.r.k.vu~> v.intr. to smile. mr3I /mr.g˙i/ <m.r.ghii> fem. a hen. mrjad /mr.Ôad/ <m.r.Ôa.d> fem. decency. mrjadI /mr.Ôa.di/ <m.r.Ôa.dii> adj. observing strict untouchablility (a religious practice found mainly among the Vaishnava. This untouchability has nothing to do with social untouchablility). mrijyat /mr.Ôi.jat/ <m.r.Ôi.ja.t> adj. voluntary. mr@ /mr.Ôi/ <m.r.Ôii> fem. desire. mr@vo /mr.Ôi.vo/ <m.r.Ôii.vo> masc. diver. mr6avu& /mr.Îa.vu~/ <m.r.Îa.vu~> v.intr. to be twisted. mr6o /mr.Îo/ <m.r.Îo> masc. dysentery. mr8 /m.r¯/ <m.r.¯> neut. death. mri8yu& /m.r.¯i.ju~/ <m.r.¯i.ju~> adj. desperate. mrd /m.rd/ <m.r.d> masc. male. mrvu& /mr.vu~/ <m.r.vu~> v.intr. to die. mrvo /mr.vo/ <m.r.vo> masc. a small unripe mango. mrisyo /m.r.si.jo/ <m.r.si.jo> masc. a mourning song. mrhUm /mr.hum/ <m.r.huu.m> adj. 1. deceased, 2. late. mramt /m.ra.mt/ <m.ra.m.t> fem. 1. repair, 2. mending. mrI /m.ri/ <m.rii> fem. black or white pepper. mrImsalo /m.ri.m.sa.lo/ <m.rii.m.sa.lo> masc. spices. mro6 /m.roÎ/ <m.ro.Î> masc. a shape (of a letter for example). mmR /mr.m/ <m.rm> masc. deep meaning. myaRda /mr.ja.da/ <m.rja.da> fem. 1. limit, 2. border. myaRidt /mr.ja.dit/ <m.rja.di.t> adj. limited. mlkvu& /m.lk.vu~/ <m.l.k.vu~> v.intr. to smile. mlm /m.lm/ <m.l.m> masc. ointment. mlml /ml.ml/ <m.l.m.l> neut. muslin. mla: /m.lai/ <m.la.ii> fem. cream.
  • 158. 158 mvalI /m.va.li/ <m.va.lii> masc. a scoundrel. m=£ /mß.ru/ <m.ß.ru~> neut. cotton and silk mixed yarn. m=hUr /mß.hur/ <m.ß.huu.r> adj. renowned. m+krI /mß.k.ri/ <m.ßk.rii> fem. 1. a joke, 2. a jest. mslt /ms.lt/ <m.s.l.t> fem. consultation. msXvu& /m.sÆ.vu~/ <m.s.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to knead. msa8 /m.sa¯/ <m.sa.¯> neut. a burial-place. msai8ya /m.sa.¯i.jo/ <m.sa.¯i.ja> masc. a mourner accompanying a funeral procession. msalo /m.sa.lo/ <m.sa.lo> masc. spices. mso /m.so/ <m.so> masc. a wart. mStk /ms.tk/ <m.st.k> neut. the head. mhiqR /m.hr.ßi/ <m.h.rs°i> masc. a great sage. mh&t /m.hnt/ <m.h~.t> masc. the head of a monastery. mha /m.ha/ <m.ha> masc. forth month of the Vikram year. mhakaVy /m.ha.kav.j/ <m.ha.ka.vj> neut. epic. mhamarI /m.ha.ma.ri/ <m.ha.ma.rii> fem. an epidemic. mhar9I /m.ha.r.t˙i/ <m.ha.r.thii> masc. an extremely powerful warrior. mharaj /m.ha.raÔ/ <m.ha.ra.Ô> masc. 1.an emperor, 2. a temple priest, 3. a cook. mharaja /m.ha.ra.Ôa/ <m.ha.ra.Ôa> masc. an emperor. mhara8I /m.ha.ra.ni/ <m.ha.ra.¯ii> fem. an empress. mhaly /m.ha.lj/ <m.ha.l.j> masc. a palace. mhavro /m.hav.ro/ <m.ha.v.ro> masc. practice. mhasagr /m.ha.sa.gr/ <m.ha.sa.g.r> masc. an ocean. mihno /m.hi.no/ <m.hi.no> masc. a month. mihla /m.hi.la/ <m.hi.la> fem. a woman. mhuvr /m.hu.vr/ <m.huu.v.r> neut. a snake charmer’s flute. mhe&k /m.h´~k/ <m.he~.k> fem. fragrance. mheC2a /m.hec.c˙a/ <m.he.ccha> fem. an ambition. mhe8u& /m.he.¯u~/ <m.he.¯u~> neut. a taunt.
  • 159. 159 mhetl /m.he.tl/ <m.he.t.l> fem. a time limit. mhetI /m.he.ti/ <m.he.tii> fem. 1. a teacher’s wife, 2. a female teacher. mheto /m.he.to/ <m.he.to> masc. 1. teacher, 2. an accountant. mhent /m.he.nt/ <m.he.n.t> fem. mental or manual work. mhenta8u& /m.hen.ta.¯u~/ <m.he.n.ta.¯u~> neut. remuneration. mheman /m.he.man/ <m.he.ma.n> masc. hon. a guest. mhel /m.hel/ <m.he.l> masc. a palace. mXtr /mÆ.tr/ <m.Æ.t.r> neut. 1. remuneration 2. profit. mXvu& /mÆ.vu~/ <m.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to meet. mXvu& /mÆ.vu~/ <m.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to gain. m&ko6o /m˜.ko.Îo/ <m~.ko.Îo> masc. a kind of black ant. m&gXfero /m˜.Æ.p˙e.ro/ <m~.g.Æ.phe.ra> masc. a marriage ritual in which bride and bridegroom move around the marriage platform. m&gXvar /m˜.gÆ.var/ <m~.g.Æ.va.r> masc. Tuesday. m&gXsU{a /m˜.gÆ.sut.r/ <m~.g.Æ.su.tr> neut. a necklace- like ornament usually presented by the bridegroom to the bride. m&gXacr8 /m˜g.Æa.c.r¯/ <m~.g.Æa.c.r.¯> neut. invocation of a divine being at the bringing of an auspicious work. m&@ra /mµ.Ôi.ra/ <m~.Ôii.ra> masc. pl. a pair of cymbals. m&jUr /mµ.Ôur/ <m~.Ôuu.r> adj. approved. m&jUrI /mµ.Ôu.ri/ <m~,Ôuu.rii> fem. approval. m&6p /m¯.Îp/ <m~.Î.p> masc. a decorated platform. m&6vu& /m¯Î.vu~/ <m~.Î.vu~> v.intr. .to begin, 2. to start. m&trvu& /mn.tr.vu~/ <m~.t.r.vu~> v.tr. to bind by a spell. m&tVy /mn.t.vj/ <m~.t.vj> neut. opinion. m&{a /mnt.r/ <m~.tr> masc. a spell. m&{aI /mn.tri/ <m~.trii> masc. a minister. m&9n /mn.t˙n/ <m~.th.n> neut. a churning. m&d /mnd/ <m~.d> adj. slow. m&dva6 /mnd.vaÎ/ <m~.d.va.Î> fem. sickness. m&idr /mn.dir/ <m~.di.r> neut. a temple.
  • 160. 160 m&dI /mn.di/ <m~.dii> fem. 1. scarcity, 2. trade depression. ma /ma/ <ma> fem. 1. mother, 2. grandmother. ma:ka&glu& /mai.ka˜g.lu~/ <ma.ii.ka~.g.lu~> adj. physically weak. mak6 /ma.kÎ/ <m> masc. a bug. ma` /mak˙/ <ma.kh> fem. a fly. ma`8 /ma.k˙¯/ <ma.kh.¯> neut. butter. mag /mag/ <ma.g> fem. demand. magvu& /mag.vu~/ <ma.g.vu~> v.tr. to ask for. magu& /ma.gu~/ <ma.gu~> neut. a proposal for betrothal. ma28 /ma.c˙¯/ <ma.ch.¯> fem. a fisherwoman. ma2lI /mac˙.li/ <m> fem. a fish. ma2I /ma.c˙i/ <ma.chii> masc. a fisherman. ma@ /ma.Ôi/ <ma.Ôii> adj. former. ma@ /ma.Ôi/ <ma.Ôii> fem. hon. 1. a grandmother, 2. a goddess. ma4I /ma.ˇi/ <ma.ˇii> fem. clay. ma4e /ma.ˇe/ <ma.ˇe> postp. for ma5u& /ma.ˇ˙u~/ <ma.ˇhu~> adj. .bad, 2. wrong. ma6I /ma.Îi/ <ma.Îii> fem. 1. mother, 2. goddess. ma8 /ma¯/ <ma.¯> fem. a metallic pot. ma8vu& /ma¯.vu~/ <ma.¯.vu~> v.tr. to enjoy. ma8s /ma.¯s/ <ma.¯.s> masc. a human being. ma8sa: /ma¯.sai/ <ma.¯.sa.ii> fem. humility. ma8ek /ma.¯ek/ <ma.¯e.k> neut. a ruby. mata /ma.ta/ <ma.ta> fem. 1. mother, 2. goddess. ma{a /mat.r/ <ma.tr> advb. 1. only, 2. merely. ma{aa /mat.ra/ <ma.tra> fem. a unit of measure. ma9akU4 /ma.t˙a.kuˇ/ <ma.tha.kuu.ˇ> fem. unnecessary discussion. ma9afrel /ma.t˙a.p˙.rel/ <ma.tha.ph.re.l> adj. hot-tempered. ma9a-are /ma.t˙a.b˙a.re/ <ma.tha.bha.re> adj. 1. challenging, 2. uncontrollable. ma9u& /ma.t˙u~/ <ma.thu~> neut. head. madiXyu& /ma.dÆ.ju/ <ma.d.Æi.ju~> neut. an amulet. mada /ma.da/ <ma.da> adj. female.
  • 161. 161 ma)ym /mad˙.jm/ <ma.dhj.m> adj. medium. man /man/ <ma.n> neut. fame. manta /man.ta/ <ma.n.ta> fem. 1. a pledge, 2. a religious vow. mand /ma.nd/ <ma.n.d> adj. honorary. mannIy /ma.n.ni.j/ <ma.n.nii.j> adj. honorable. manpan /man.pan/ <ma.n.pa.n> neut. respect. manvu& /man.vu~/ <ma.n.vu~> v.tr. to believe. manisk /man.sik/ <ma.n.si.k> adj. mental. manItu& /ma.ni.tu~/ <ma.nii.tu~> adj. favorite. maNy /man.j/ <ma.nj> adj. acceptable. map /map/ <ma.p> neut. measure. mafI /ma.p˙i/ <ma.phii> fem. forgiveness. mabap /mabap/ <ma.ba.p> neut. pl. parents. mama /ma.ma/ <ma.ma> masc. hon. mother’s brother. mamI /ma.mi/ <ma.mii> fem. mother’s brother’s wife. mamUlI /ma.mu.li/ <ma.muu.lii> adj. insignificant. mamo /ma.mo/ <ma.mo> masc. mother’s brother. mayka&glu& /maj.ka˜g.lu~/ <ma.j.ka~.g.lu~> adj. very weak (in terms of physical construction). maya /ma.ja/ <ma.ja> fem. illusion. mar /mar/ <ma.r> masc. beating. marpI4 /mar.piˇ/ <ma.r.pii.ˇ> fem. repeated or severe beating. marft /mar.p˙t/ <ma.r.ph.t> postp. 1. with, 2. by, 3. through. marvu& /mar.vu~/ <ma.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to beat, 2. to strike. maramarI /ma.ra.ma.ri/ <ma.ra.ma.rii> fem. a violent clash. magR /marg/ <ma.rg> masc. a road. maimRk /mar.mik/ <ma.rmi.k> adj. subtle. mal /mal/ <ma.l> masc. goods. maldar /mal.dar/ <ma.l.da.r> adj. rich. malmta /mal.m.ta/ <ma.l.m.ta> fem. property. malimlkt /mal.mil.kt/ <ma.l.mi.l.k.t> fem. property. mailk /ma.lik/ <ma.li.k> masc. 1. owner, 2. a master, 3. a boss, 4. god.
  • 162. 162 mailkI /ma.li.ki/ <ma.li.kii> fem. ownership. mail= /ma.liß/ <ma.li.ß> fem. massaging. mavjt /mav.Ôt/ <ma.v.Ô.t> fem. care. mav5u& /mav.ˇ˙u~/ <ma.v.ˇhu~> neut. unseasonable rain. mavi6yu& /ma.vÎ.ju~/ <ma.v.Îi.ju~> adj. too much obedient of mother. mavtr /mav.tr/ <ma.v.t.r> neut. pl. parents. mavo /ma.vo/ <ma.vo> masc. 1. solid cream of milk, 2. kernel of fruits etc. ma=I /ma.ßi/ <ma.ßii> fem. mother’s sister. mas /mas/ <ma.s> masc. a month. maisk /ma.sik/ <ma.si.k> adj. monthly. maisk /ma.sik/ <ma.si.k> neut. women’s menses. maso /ma.so/ <ma.so> masc. mother’s sister’s husband. maihtI /ma.hi.ti/ <ma.hi.tii> fem. knowledge. maX /maÆ/ <ma.Æ> masc. a storey. maX`u& /maÆ.k˙u~/ <ma.Æ.khu~> neut. 1. a structure, 2. a frame. maXa /ma.Æa/ <ma.Æa> fem. a garland. maiXyu& /ma.Æi.ju~/ <ma.Æi.ju~> neut. a storey. maXI /ma.Æi/ <ma.Æii> masc. a gardener. maXo /ma.Æo/ <ma.Æo> masc. a nest. ma&jvu& /ma~Ô.vu~/ <ma~.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to cleanse a pot and etc. ma&6vu& /ma~Î.vu~/ <ma~.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to begin, 2. to start. ma&6vu& /ma~Î.vu~/ <ma~.Î.vu~> v.tr. to close. ma&dgI /ma~d.gi/ <ma~.d.gii> fem. sickness. ma&dlu& /ma~d.lu~/ <ma~.d.lu~> adj. always sick. ma&du& /ma~.du~/ <ma~.du~> adj. sick. ma&s /ma~s/ <ma~.s> neut. flash. ma&sahar /ma~.sa.har/ <ma~.sa.ha.r> masc. meat or mutton food. ma&saharI /ma~.sa.ha.ri/ <ma~.sa.ha.rii> adj. non- vegetarian. imjagru& /mi.Ôa.g.ru~/ <mi.Ôa.g.ru~> neut. a hinge. imjaj /mi.ÔaÔ/ <mi.Ôa.Ô> masc. temperament. imja@ /mi.Ôa.Ôi/ <mi.Ôa.Ôii> adj. hot- tempered.
  • 163. 163 imit /mi.ti/ <mi.ti> fem. a date. im{a /mit.r/ <mi.tr> masc. a friend. im{ata /mit.r.ta/ <mi.tr.ta> adj. friendship. im(ya /mit˙.ja/ <mi.thja> adj. 1. illusory, 2. unreal. imlkt /mil.kt/ <mil.k.t> fem. property. imln /mi.lan/ <mi.l.n> neut. 1. meeting, 2. union. imlav4 /mi.la.vˇ/ <mi.la.v.ˇ> fem. adulteration. imlavvu& /mi.lav.vu~/ <mi.la.v.vu~> v.tr. to mix. imS{aI /mis.tri/ <mi.strii> masc. a skilled craftsman. mI5a: /mi.ˇ˙a.i/ <mi.ˇha.ii> fem. sweet. mI5a= /mi.ˇ˙aß/ <mii.ˇha.ß> fem. sweetness. mI5u& /mi.ˇ˙u~/ <mii.ˇhu~> neut. salt. mI5u& /mi.ˇ˙u~/ <mii.ˇhu~> adj. sweet. mI8 /mi::¯/ <mii.¯> neut .wax. mI8b]aI /mi:Î.bt.ti/ <mii.¯.b.ttii> fem. candle. mI&6u& /miÎ.Îu~/ <mii.Îu~> neut. a figure of zero. mI&7X /mi~.Î˙Æ/ <mii~.Îh.Æ> neut. a kind of fruit. mI&7u& /mi~¯.Î˙o/ <mii~.Îhu~> adj. shrewd. muk¥mo /mu.kd.d.mo/ <mu.k.dd.mo> masc. a law suit. mukablo /mu.kab.lo/ <mu.ka.b.lo> masc. a comparison. mukt /muk.t/ <mu.kt> adj. free. muikt /muk.ti/ <mu.kti> fem. freedom. mu`vas /muk˙.vas/ <mu.kh.va.s> masc. a sort of mouth cleaning food taken after a meal. mu`I /mu.k˙i/ <mu.khii> masc. chief of a village or a community. mu~y /muk˙.j/ <mu.khj> adj. 1. chief, 2. foremost. mug4 /mu.gˇ/ <mu.g.ˇ> masc. a crown. mu55I /muˇ˙.ˇ˙i/ <mu.ˇhˇhii> fem. a fist. mutr6I /mu.tr.Îi/ <mu.t.r.Îii> fem. a urinal. mudt /mu.dt/ <mu.d.t> fem. a fixed time. mu¥l /mud.dl/ <mu.dd.l> fem. the principal amount. mu¥o /muddo/ <mu.ddo> masc. issue. mu±k /mud.rk/ <mu.dr.k> masc. printer.
  • 164. 164 mu±a /mud.ra/ <mu.dra> fem. a stamp. muin/mu.ni/ <mu.ni> masc. a sage. munIm /mu.nim/ <mu.ni.m> masc. 1. an accountant, 2. a manager. mufils /mup˙.lis/ <mu.ph.li.s> adj. penniless. mur3I /mur.g˙i/ <mu.r.ghii> fem. hen. murityo /mu.r.ti.o/ <mu.r.ti.jo> masc. a would-be-son-in-law or bridegroom. murBbI /mu.rb.bi/ <mu.r.bbii> adj. elderly. murBbo /mu.rb.bo/ <mu.r.bbo> masc. a kind of conserved food. murad /mu.rad/ <mu.ra.d> fem. desire. mulk /mu.lk/ <mu.l.k> masc. a territory. multvI /mu.lt.vi/ <mu.l.t.vii> adj. postponed. mulv8I /mu.lv.¯i/ <mu.l.v.¯ii> fem. valuation. mulakat /mu.la.kat/ <mu.la.ka.t> fem. a visit. mulaym /mu.la.jm/ <mu.la.j.m> adj. soft. mu+kel /muß.kel/ <mu.ßke.l> adj. difficult. mu+kelI /muß.ke.li/ <mu.ßke.lii> fem. difficulty. mus¥o /mu.sd.do/ <mu.s.ddo> masc. a draft. muslman /mu.sal.man/ <mu.s.l.ma.n> masc. a follower of Islam. musafr /mu.sa.p˙r/ <mu.sa.ph.r> masc. a traveller. musafrI /mu.sa.p˙.ri/ <mu.sa.ph.rii> fem. 1 a travel, 2. a journey. musIbt /mu.si.bt/ <mu.sii.b.t> fem. trouble. muiSlm /mus.lim/ <mu.sli.m> masc. a follower of Islam. mUkvu& /muk.vu~/ <mu.k.vu~> v.tr. to put. mU&gu& /mu˜.gu/ <muu~.gu~> adj. 1. speechless, 2. silent. mU2 /muc˙/ <mu.ch> fem. the moustache. mU5 /muˇ˙/ <mu.ˇh> fem. the hilt of a sword. mU6I /mu.Îi/ <muu.Îii> fem. 1. capital, 2. investment. mUtr /mu.tr/ <muu.t.r> neut. urine. mUtrvu& /mu.tr.vu~/ <muu.t.r.vu~> v.intr. to urinate. mU{aip*6 /mut.r.pi¯.Î/ neut. the kidney. mU{aa=y /mut.ra.ßj/ <muu.tra.ß.j> masc. the bladder.
  • 165. 165 mUr` /mu.rk˙/ <muu.r.kh> adj. fool. mUtR /mur.t/ <muu.rt> adj. 1. corporeal, 2. concrete. mUitR /mur.ti/ <muu.rti> fem. an idol. mUlvvu& /mu.lv.vu~/ <muu.l.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to ascertain the price, 2. to assay. mULy /mul.j/ <muu.lj> neut. 1. value, 2. price. mUX /muÆ/ <muu.lj> neut. 1. origin, 2. root, 3. fundamental. mUXaxr /mu.Æak.ßr/ <muu.Æa.kß.r> masc. pl. the letters of an alphabet. mUXo /mu.Æo/ <muu.Æo> masc. a radish. mU&gu& /mu˜.gu~/ <muu~.gu~> adj. 1. speechless, 2. dumb. mU&zv8 /mu~Ô˙.v¯/ <muu~.Ôh.v.¯> fem. uneasiness. mU&zavu& /mu~.Ô˙a.vu~/ <muu.Ôha.vu~> v.intr. to be perplexed. mU&6vu& /mu¯Î.vu~/ <mu~.Î.vu~> v.tr. to shave the head entirely. m<Tyu& /mrut.ju~/ <mr≤u.tju~> neut. death. m<d&g /mru.d˜g/ <mr≤u.d~.g> neut. a kind of drum. me6I /me.Îi/ <me.Îii> fem. an upper storey. me9I /me.t˙i/ <me.tii> fem. 1. a kind of seed used for seasoning, 2. a plant used as vegetable. me9Ipak /me.t˙i.pak/ <me.thii.pa.k> masc. a sweet made of me9I. me9Iyu& /met˙.ju~/ <me.thii.ju~> neut. a kind of pickles seasoned with me9I. med /med/ <me.d> masc. fat. mednI /med.ni/ <me.d.nii> fem. congregation. medan /me.dan/ <me.da.n> neut. 1. a plain, 2. a playground. mena /me.na/ <me.na> fem. a kind of song-bird. mel /m´l/ <me.l> masc. 1. filth, 2. dirt. mel`aw& /m´l.k˙a.u~/ <me.la.kha.u~> adj. a cloth that conceals dirt. mel6I /m´l.Îi/ <me.l.Îii> fem. a female ghost. melvu& /mel.vu~/ <me.l.vu~> v.tr. to put. melu& /m´.lu~/ <me.lu~> adj. 1. dirty, 2. filthy. me&= /m´~ß/ <me.ß> fem. soot. meXv8 /meÆ.v¯/ <me.Æ.v.¯> neut. a mixture. meXvvu& /me.Æv.vu~/ <me.Æ.v.vu~> v.tr. to mix.
  • 166. 166 meXap /me.Æap/ <me.Æa.p> masc. 1. a meeting, 2. a union. meXav6o /me.Æav.Îo/ <me.Æa.v.Îo> masc. a public function. meXo /me.Æo/ <me.Æo> masc. a fair. me& /m´~/ <me~> pron. I. moklvu& /mokl.vu~/ <mo.k.l.vu> v.tr. to send. mokXa= /mok.Æaß/ <mo.k.Æa.ß> fem. 1. roominess, 2. freedom, 3. comfort. mokXu& /mok.Æu~/ <mo.k.Æu~> adj. 1. spacious, 2. open. moka8 /mo.ka¯/ <mo.ka.¯> fem. a condolence ritual. moko /mø.ko/ <mo.ko> masc. a favorable opportunity. mox /mok.ß/ <mo.kß> masc. liberation. mogro /mog.ro/ <mo.g.ro> masc. a kind of flower plant. moc8 /mo.c¯/ <mo.c.¯> fem. a female of the cobbler community. mocI /mo.ci/ <mo.cii> masc. 1. a cobbler, 2. a name of a community. moj6I /moÔ.Îi/ <mo.Ô.Îii> fem. a kind of light, embroidered shoe. mojmja /moÔ.m.Ôa/ <mo.Ô.m.Ôa> fem. 1 luxury, 2. comfort. moj=o` /moÔ.ßok˙/ <mo.Ô.ßo.kh> masc. luxury. moju& /mo.Ôu~/ <mo.Ôu~> neut. a wave. moju& /mo.Ôu~/ <mo.Ôu~> neut. a glove. mojUd /mo.Ôud/ <mo.Ôu.d> adj. existing. mo4u& /mo.ˇu~/ <mo.ˇu~> adj. 1. big, 2. large, 3. adult, 4. elder. mo6u& /mo.Îu~/ <mo.Îu~> adj. late. mo7amo7 /mø.Î˙a.moÎ˙/ <mo.Îha.mo.Îh> advb. fact to face. mo7u& /mø.Î˙u~/ <mo.Îhu~> neut. the mouth. mo8 /mo¯/ <mo.¯> neut. lubricant mixed with flour. mot /møt/ <mo.t> neut. death. moityo /mo.ti.jo/ <mo.ti.jo> masc. cataract. motI /mo.ti/ <mo.tii> neut. a pearl. modI /mo.di/ <mo.dii> masc. a grocery. mo- /mob˙/ <mo.bh> masc. a beam supporting a roof. mo-adar /mo.b˙a.dar/ <mo.bha.da.r> adj. 1. respected, 2. having high status. mor /mor/ <mo.r> masc. peacock. morco /mor.co/ <mo.r.co> masc. front.
  • 167. 167 morlI /mor.li/ <mo.r.lii> fem. a flute. mors /mo.rs/ <mo.r.s> fem. granular sugar. moiryo /mor.(i).jo/ <mo.ri.jo> masc. a kind of wild corn. morI /mø.ri/ <mo.rii> fem. a drain. mol /mol/ <mo.l> masc. a standing crop. movu& /mo.vu~/ <mo.vu~> v.tr. to lubricate flour with oil, ghee etc. mosm /mo.sm/ <mo.s.m> fem. a season. mosmI /mos.mi/ <mo.s.mii> adj. seasonal. mos&bI /mo.sm.bi/ <mo.s~.bii> fem. a kind of fruit. mosaX /mo.saÆ/ <mo.sa.Æ> neut. the maternal side of relation. mosaXu& /mo.sa.Æu~/ <mo.sa.Æu~> neut. 1. gifts given by the parents to their daughter on her first pregnancy, 2. gifts given by the maternal side of the relatives. moh /moh/ <mo.h> masc. fascination. mohk /mo.hk/ <mo.h.k> adj. charming. mohn9aX /mo.hn.t˙a / <mo.h.n.tha.Æ> masc. a kind of sweetmeets. mohvu& /moh.vu~/ <mo.h.vu~> v.tr. to be fascinated or deluded. moXu& /mø.Æu~/ <mo.Æu~> adj. tasteless. mo& /mø~/ <mo~> neut. 1. the mouth, 2. face. mo&3varI /mø~g˙.va.ri/ <mo~.gh.va.rii> fem. 1. dearness, 2. allowance. mo&3u& /mø~˜.gu~/ <mo~.ghu~> adj. extremely dear. mOn /mun/ <mu.n> neut. self- imposed dumbness. mOlvI /mul.vi/ <mul.vii> masc. 1. a learned Muslim, 2. an expert in Islamic laws. mOlIk /mu.lik/ <mu.lii.k> adj. original. Myan /mjan/ <mja.n> neut. a scabbard. y yk<t /jk.rut/ <j.kr≤u.t> neut. the liver. yjman /jÔ.man/ <j.Ô.ma.n> masc. a host. y}a /jg.n/ <j.gn> masc. a religious performance. ymdUt /jm.dut/ <j.m.duu.t> masc. a servant of the god of death. y= /jß/ <j.ß> masc. fame. y&{a /jn.tr/ <j~.tr> neut. a machine.
  • 168. 168 yatna /jat.na/ <ja.t.na> fem. suffering. ya{aa /jat.ra/ <ja.tra> fem. a pilgrim. yad /jad/ <ja.d> fem. memory. yadI /ja.di/ <ja.dii> fem. a note. yan /jan/ <ja.n> neut. a vehicle (formal) yar /jar/ <ja.r> masc. friend. ya&i{ak /ja~t.rik/ <ja~.tri.k> adj. machine- like. yuikt /juk.ti/ <ju.kti> fem. 1. skill, 2. trick. yug /jug/ <ju.g> masc. an age. yu)0 /jud˙.d˙/ <ju.dhdh> neut. war. yuvk /ju.vk/ <ju.v.k> masc. a young man. yuvtI /juv.ti/ <ju.v.tii> fem. a young women. yuvraj /juv.raÔ/ <ju.v.ra.Ô> masc. a crown prince. yuvra}aI /juv.rag.ni/ <ju.v.ra.gnii> fem. the wife of a crown prince. yog /jo.g/ <jo.g> masc. union. yoganuyog /jo.ga.nu.jog/ <jo.ga.nu.jo.g> advb. 1. by chance, 2. incidently. yoignI /jo.gi.ni/ <jo.gi.nii> fem. a female ascetic. yogI /jo.gi/ <jo.gii> masc. an ascetic. yoGy /jog.j/ <jo.gj> adj. 1. proper, 2. needful. yojk /jo,Ôk/ <jo.Ô.k> masc. an organizer. yojna /joÔ.na/ <jo.Ô.na> fem. a plan. yojvu& /joÔ.vu~/ <jo.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to plan. yoin /jo.ni/ <jo.ni> fem. a female’s generative organ. yOvn /jau.ban/ <ju.v.n> neut. youth. r rkm /r.km/ <r.k.m> fem. a thing. rkabI /r.ka.bi/ <r.ka.bii> fem. 1. a plate, 2. a saucer. rkt /rk.t/<r.kt> neut. blood. rxk /rk.ßk/ <r.kß.k> masc. a guard. rxa /rk.ßa/ <r.kßa> fem. a protection. r`6p44I /r.k˙Î.pˇ.ˇi/ <r.kh.Î.p.ˇˇii> fem. 1. wandering, 2. roaming. r`6vu& /r.k˙Î.vu~/ <r.kh.Î.vu~> v.intr. 1. to wander, 2. to roam. r`6u& /rk˙.Îu~/ <r.kh.Îu~> adj. 1. wandering, 2. roaming.
  • 169. 169 r`at /r.k˙at/ <r.kha.t> fem. an illicit wife. r`e /r.k˙e/ <r.khe> advb. by chance. r`evaX /r.k˙e.vaÆ/ <r.khe.va.Æ> masc. 1. guardian, 2. a protector. rg /rg/ <r.g> fem. a vein. rgi=yu& /r.g.ßi.ju~/ <r.g.ßi.ju~> adj. slow and tedious. r3va4 /rg.vaˇ/ <r.gh.va.ˇ> masc. bewilderment. rcna /rc.na/ <r.c.na> fem. 1. construction, 2. composition. rciyta /rc.ji.ta/ <r.c.ji.ta> masc. 1. a constructor, 2. a composer. rcvu& /rc.vu~/ <r.c.vu~> v.tr. 1. to construct, 2. to compose. rj /rÔ/ <r.Ô> fem. 1. a molecule, 2. a particle. rjk8 /rÔ.k¯/ <r.Ô.k.¯> masc. a particle of dust. rjko /rÔ.ko/ <r.Ô.ko> masc. a kind of grass. rjt /r.Ôt/ <r.Ô.t> neut. silver. rjnI /rÔ.ni/ <r.Ô.nii> fem. night. rjpUt /rÔ.put/ <r.Ô.pu.t> masc. a man belonging to Rajput community. rja /r.Ôa/ <r.Ôa> fem. 1. a holiday, 2. a leave. rja: /r.Ôai/ <r.Ôa.ii> fem. a quilt. rjaic55I /r.Ôa.ciˇ˙ˇ˙i/ <r.Ôa.ci.ˇhˇhii> fem. a written permission. r4vu& /rˇ.vu~/ <r.ˇvu~> v.tr. to speak the same thing repeatedly. r6vu& /rÎ.vu~/ <r.Î.vu~> v.intr. to weep. r6aroX /r.Îa.roÆ/ <r.Îa.ro.Î> fem. weeping. ri7yaXu& /r.Î˙i.ja.Æu~/ <r.Îhi.ja.Æu~> adj. fascinating. r8 /r¯/ <r.¯> neut. a desert. r8 /r¯/ <r.¯> neut. a battle-field. r8kvu& /r.¯k.vu~/ <r.¯.k.vu~> v.intr. to tinkle. r8kar /r¯.kar/ <r.¯.ka.r> masc. a tinkling sound. r82o6 /r¯.c˙oÎ/ masc. Lord Sri Krishna. r8z8vu& /r¯.Ô˙¯.vu~/ <r.¯.Ôh.¯.vu~> v.intr. to tinkle repeatedly. rtn /r.tn/ <r.t.n> neut. the pupil of the eye. rtl /r.tl/ <r.t.l> masc. a measure of weight. rtva /rt.va/ <r.t.va> masc. a kind of skin disease.
  • 170. 170 rta= /r.taß/ <r.ta.ß> fem. redness. rtaXu& /r.ta.Æu~/ <r.ta.Æu~> neut. yam. rta&0Xu& /r.ta~n.d˙.Æu~/ <r.ta~.dh.Æu~> adj. night-blind. rTn /rt.n/ <r.tn> neut. a gem. r9 /rt˙/ <r.th> masc. a chariot. r¥I /rd.di/ <r.ddii> fem. 1. useless, 2. scrap papers and etc. rbarI /r.ba.ri/ <r.ba.rii> masc. a shepherd. rmk6u& /r.mk.Îu~/ <r.m.k.Îu~> neut. a toy. rm`a8 /rm.k˙a¯/ <r.m.kha.¯> neut. a riot. rmjan /rm.Ôan/ <r.m.Ôha.n> masc. the ninth and the holy month of the Hijri era. rmz4 /rm.Ô˙ˇ/ <r.m.Ôh.ˇ> fem. the climax and the higest tempo of dancing, singing etc. rmt /r.mt/ <r.m.t> fem. 1. a game, 2. a play. 3. a sport. rmityaX /r.m.ti.jaÆ/ <r.m.ti.ja.Æ> adj. 1. playful, 2. joyful. rmrmvu& /rm.rm.vu~/ <r..m.r.m.vu~> v.intr. 1. to jingle, 2. to tinkle. rmvu& /rm.vu~/ <r.m.vu~> v.intr. 1. to play, 2. to sport. rmUj /r.muÔ/ <r.mu.Ô> fem. 1. humor, 2. fun. rvrvvu& /rv.rv.vu~/ <r.v.r.v.vu~> v.intr. to occur a biting sensation on the tongue. rivvar /r.vi.var/ <r.vi.va.r> masc. Sunday. rvo /r.vo/ <r.vo> masc. granular flour of wheat. rs /rs/ <r.s> masc. juice. rs /rs/ <r.s> masc. interest. rsaksI /r.sa.k.si/ <r.sa.k.sii> fem. an intense contest. rsadar /r.sa.dar/ <r.sa.da.r> adj. juicy. rsay8 /r.sa.j¯/ <r.sa.j.¯> neut. chemical. risk /r.sik/ <r.si.k> adj. romantic. rsI /r.si/ <r.sii> fem. a vaccine. rsId /r.sid/ <r.sii.d> fem. a receipt. rso /r.so/ <r.so> masc. thick juice of cooked vegetables. rso;yo /r.so.i.jo/ <r.so.ii.jo> masc. a male cook. rso;8 /r.so.i.j¯/ <r.so.ii.j.¯> fem. a female cook.
  • 171. 171 rso: /r.so.i/ <r.so.ii> fem. 1. cooking, 2. cooked food. rso6u& /r.so.Îu~/ <r.so.Îu~> neut. a kitchen. rsoXI /r.so.Æi/ <r.so.Æii> fem. a bug- like tumor. rSto /rs.to/ <r.sto> masc. 1. a road, 2. a cure, 3. a solution. rSsI /rs.si/ <r.ssii> fem. a thick string. rhSy /r.hs.j/ <r.h.sj> neut. secret. rhe5a8 /r.he.ˇ˙a¯/ <r.he.ˇha.¯> neut. 1. a house, 2. an abode, 3. a residence. rhe8Ikr8I /r.he.¯i.kr.¯i/ <r.he.¯ii.k.r.¯ii> fem. 1. life style, 2. manners. rhevu& /r.he.vu~/ <r.he.vu~> v.intr. 1. to live, 2. to dwell, 3. to reside. rXvu& /rÆ.vu~/ <r.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to earn. riXyam8u& /r. i.ja.m.¯u~/ <r.Æi.ja.m.¯u~> adj. 1. beautiful, 2. pleasant. r&k /r˜k/ <r~.k> adj. poor. r&g /r˜g/ <r~.g> masc. color. r&g-Uim /r˜.g.b˙u.mi/ <r~.g.bhuu.mi> fem. a theatre. r&g7&g /r˜g.Î˙˜g/ <r~.g.Îh~.g> masc. manners. r&g-ed /r˜.b˙ed/ <r~.g.bhe.d> masc. racism. r&glo /r˜g.lo/ <r~.g.lo> masc. a clown. r&gvu& /r˜g.vu~/ <r~.g.vu~> v.tr. to color. r&gIn /r˜.gin/ <r~.gii.n> adj. colorful. ra: /ra.i/ <ra.ii> fem. 1. mustard plant, 2. mustard. raxs /rak.ßs/ <ra.kß.s> masc. 1. a monster, 2. a demon, 3. a devil. raxsI /rak.ß.si/ <ra.kß.sii> adj. 1. devilish, 2. monstrous. ra` /ra.k˙/ <ra.kh> fem. ashes. ra`6I /rak˙.Îi/ <ra.kh.Îii> fem. a thread that sisters tie on the arm of the brothers for their protection. ra`vu& /rak˙.vu~/ <ra.kh.vu~> v.tr. to keep. ra`o6Iyu& /ra.k˙o.Îi.ju~/ <ra.kho.Îii.ju~> adj. grey. rag /rag/ <ra.g> masc. tune. raj /raÔ/ <ra.Ô> neut. a kingdom. rajku&vr /raÔ.ku~.vr/ <ra.Ô.ku~.v.r> masc. a prince rajku&vrI /raÔ.ku~v.ri/ <ra.Ô.ku~.v.rii> fem. a princess. rajkar8 /raÔ.ka.r¯/ <ra.Ô.ka.r.¯> neut. politics.
  • 172. 172 rajkIy /raÔ.ki.j/ <ra.Ô.kii.j> adj. political. rajkumar /raÔ.ku.mar/ <ra.Ô.ku.ma.r> masc. prince. rajgadI /raÔ.ga.di/ <ra.Ô.ga.dii> fem. a throne. raj0anI /raÔ.d˙a.ni/ <ra.Ô.dha.nii> fem. a state’s capital. rajnIit /raÔ.ni.ti/ <ra.Ô.nii.ti> fem. politics. rajnEitk /raÔ.ni.tik/ <ra.Ô.ni.ti.k> adj. political. rajrmt /raÔ.r.mt/ <ra.Ô.r.m.t> fem. diplomacy. raja /ra.Ôa/ <ra.Ôa> masc. the king. ra@ /ra.Ôi/ <ra.Ôii> adj. pleased. rajy /raÔ.j/ <ra.Ôj> neut. a state. rajyai-qek /raÔ.ja.b˙i.ßek/ <ra,Ôja,bhi.s°e.k> masc. 1. enthronement, 2. coronation. ra6 /raÎ/ <ra.Î> fem. a shout. ra8I /ra.¯i/ <ra.¯ii> fem. queen. ra8Ivas /ra.¯i.vas/ <ra.¯ii.va.s> masc. a harem. ra8o /ra.¯o/ <ra.¯o> masc. a Rajput king. rat /rat/ <ra.t> fem. night. ratidvs /rat.di:.vs/ <ra.t.di.v.s> adj. day and night. ratpaXI /rat.pa.Æi/ <ra.t.pa.Æii> fem. a night-shift. ratvaso /rat.va.so/ <ra.t.va.so> masc. a halt for a night. ratu& /red/ <ra.tu~> adj. red. rai{a/rat.ri/ <ra.tri> fem. night. ranI /ra.ni/ <ra.nii> adj. wild. raf6o /rap˙.Îo/ <ra.ph.Îo> masc. 1. an ant-hill, 2. a serpent’s burrow. rab /rab/ <ra.b> fem. gruel. ram7ol /ram.Î˙ol/ <ra.m.Îho.l> masc. a big drum. rampatr /ram.pa.tr/ <ra.m.pa.t.r> neut. a begging-bowl. ramfX /ram.p˙Æ/ <ra.m.ph.Æ> neut. a kind of fruit. ramba8 /ram.ba¯/ <ra.m.ba.¯> neut. infallible. ram-roso /ram.b˙.ro.so/ <ra.m.bh.ro.so> masc. faith in god. ram-rose /ram.b˙.ro.se/ <ra.m.bh.ro.so> postp. 1. things left on the faith in god, 2. things left unattended. ramrajy /ram.raÔ.j/ <ra.m.ra.Ôj> neut. an ideal state.
  • 173. 173 ramlIla /ram.li.la/ <ra.m.lii.la> fem. a folk drama. ramI /ra.mi/ <ra.mii> masc. a gardener. ramo /ra.mo/ <ra.mo> masc. a domestic servant. ray8 /ra.j¯/ <ra.j.¯> fem. a tree. ray8 /ra.j¯/ <ra.j.¯> neut. fruits of ray8 tree. rav8h(9o /ra.v¯.ht˙.t˙o/ <ra.v.¯.h.ththo> masc. a kind of musical instrument. ravi8yo /ra.v.¯i.jo/ <ra.v.¯i.jo> masc. a village-watchman. raQ4^ /raß.ˇr/ <ra.s°ˇr> neut. a nation. raQ4^Iy /raß.ˇri.j/ <ra.s°ßˇri.j> adj. national. ras /ras/ <ra.s> masc. a kind of collective dance. rasayi8k /ra.sa.j.¯ik/ <ra.sa.j.¯i.k> adj. chemical. raht /ra.ht/ <ra.h.t> fem. relief. rahdarI /rah.da.ri/ <ra.h.da.rii> masc. a traveler on a foot. rahbr /rah.br/ <ra.h.b.r> masc. a guide. rahu /ra.hu/ <ra.huu> masc. a planet of that name. ra&0vu& /ra~d˙.vu~/ <ra~.dh.vu~> v.tr. to cook. irbavvu& /ri.bav.vu~/ <ri.ba.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to persecute, 2. to tyrannize. irvaj /ri.vaÔ/ <ri.va.Ô> masc. a custom. irsavu& /ri:sa.vu~/ <ri.sa.vu~> v.intr. to be displeased. rIzvvu& /ri.Ô˙v.vu~/ <rii.Ôh.v.vu~> v.tr. to please. rI7u& /ri.Î˙u~/ <rii.Îhu~> adj. seasoned. rIt /rit/ <rii.t> fem. 1. method, 2. style. rIt-at /rit.b˙at/ <rii.t.bha.t> masc. pl. manners. rItirvaj /rit.ri.vaÔ/ <rii.t.ri.va.Ô> masc. pl. customs. rI&g8 /ri˜.g¯/ <rii~.g.¯> neut. an eggplant. rI&2 /ri~c˙/ <rii~.ch> neut. a bear. ruAab /ru.ab/ <ru.a.b> masc. 1. pomp, 2. grandeur. rucvu& /ruc.vu~/ <ru.c.vu~> exp. to like. ruic /ru.ci/ <ru.ci> fem. liking. ruickr /ru.ci.kr/ <ru.ci.k.r> adj. 1. tasteful, 2. likable. rudn /ru.dn/ <ru.d.n> neut. weeping.
  • 174. 174 rui0r /ru.d˙ir/ <ru.dhi.r> neut. blood. £ /ru/ <ruu> neut. cotton. £zvu& /ruÔ˙.vu~/ <ruu.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. to be healed. £5vu& /ruˇ˙.vu~/ <ruu.ˇh.vu~> v.intr. to be enraged because of displeasure. £6u& /ru.Îu~/ <ruu.Îu~> adj. graceful. £7 /ruÎ˙/ <ruu.Îh> adj. traditionally established. £i7 /ru.Î˙i/ <ruu.Îhi> fem. a custom. £p /rup/ <ruu.p> neut. 1. appearance, 2. form. £pk /ru.pk/ <ruu.p.k> neut. a metaphor. £pre`a /rup.re.k˙a/ <ruu.p.re.kha> fem. an outline. £paXu& /ru.pa.Æu~/ <ruu.pa.Æu~> adj. beautiful. £pa&tr /ru.pa~n.tr/ <ruu.pa~.t.r> neut. transformation. £ipyo /ru.pi.jo/ <ruu.pi.jo> masc. India’s currency. £p&u /ru.pu~/ <ruu.pu~> neut. silver. £b£ /rub.ru/ <ruu.b.ruu> advb. in the presence of. £mzUm /rum.Ô˙um/ <ruu.m.Ôhuu.m> advb. with the sounds of jingling anklets. £mal /ru.mal/ <ruu.ma.l> masc. 1. towel, 2. handkerchief. £&0vu& /ru~d˙.vu~/ <ruu~.dh.vu~> v.tr. 1. to restrict 2. to stop. re`a /re.k˙a/ <re.kha> fem. a line. re`a&= /re.ka~mß/ <re.kha~.ß> masc. a longitude. rec /rec/ <re.c> masc. a purgative. re6 /reÎ/ <re.Î> fem. a raid. re6vu& /reÎ.vu~/ <re.Î.vu~> v.tr. to pour. rei7yaX /re.Î˙i.jaÆ/ <re.Îhi.ja.Æ> adj. 1. stray, 2. ownerless and wandering. re7u& /re.Î˙u~/ <re.Îhu~> adj. uncared for by any one. re8 /re¯/ <re.¯> neut. a substance for soldering metals. retI /re.ti/ <re.tii> fem. sand. rebzeb /reb.Ô˙eb/ <re.b.Ôhe.b> adj. wet with perspiration. rel /rel/ <re.l> fem. flood. relm2el /re.lm.c˙el/ <re.l.m.che.l> fem. an overflow. relavu& /re.la.vu~/ <re.la.vu~> v.intr. to spread like a stream. relo /re.lo/ <re.lo> masc. a small thin flow. re=m /re.ßm/ <re.ßh.m> neut. silken.
  • 175. 175 resadar /re.sa.dar/ <re.sa.da.r> adj. fibrous. reso /re.so/ <re.so> masc. fiber. re&kvu& /r´~k.vu~/ <re~.k.vu~> v.intr. to bellow (of cow, buffalo). rok6 /ro.kÎ/ <ro.k.Î> fem. cash. rok6Iyu& /ro.k.Îi.ju~/ <ro.k.Îii.ju~> adj. dealing in cash. rokvu& /rok.vu~/ <ro.k> v.tr. to stop. roka8 /ro.ka¯/ <ro.ka.¯> neut. delay. rog /rog/ <ro.g> masc. disease. roigyu& /ro.gi.ju~/ <ro.gi.ju~> adj. sick. roj /roÔ/ <ro.Ô> masc. 1. a day, 2. a date. roj /roÔ/ <ro.Ô> masc. a daily wage. rojnI=I /roÔ.ni.ßi/ <ro.Ô.nii.ßii> fem. a diary. rojbroj /roÔ.b.roÔ/ <ro.Ô.b.ro.Ô> advb. everyday. ro@ /ro.Ôi/ <ro.Ôii> fem. maintenance. rojo /ro.Ôo/ <ro.Ôo> masc. a fast-day for Muslim. ro4lI /roˇ.li/ <ro.ˇ.lii> fem. a thin, soft circular bread of wheat flour. rotl /ro.tl/ <ro.t.l> adj. apt to weep over trifles. ronk /ro.nk/ <ro.n.k> fem. beauty. ropvu& /rop.vu~/ <ro.p.vu~> v.tr. 1. to plant, 2. to sow. roma&c /ro.ma~µc/ <ro.ma~.c> masc. a thrill. rovu& /ro.vu~/ <ro.vu~> v.intr. to cry. ro=nI /roß.ni/ <ro.Ô.nii> fem. illumination. roq /roß/ <ro.s°> masc. 1. anger, 2. wrath. rO± /ru.dr/ <ru.dr> adj. 1. terrible, 2. horrible. l lkvo /lk.vo/ <l.k.vo> masc. paralysis. lx8 /lk.߯/ <l.kß.¯> neut. 1. a sign, 2. a symptom, 3. quality. låmI /lk.ßmi/ <l.kß.mii> fem. the wide of lord Vishnu and the goddess of wealth. l`pit /lk˙.p.ti/ <l.kh.p.ti> masc. a millionaire. l`lU4 /lk˙.luˇ/ <l.kh.luu.ˇ> adj. abundant. l`vu& /lk˙.vu~/ <l.kh.vu~> v.tr. to write.
  • 176. 176 l`a8 /l.k˙a¯/ <l.kha.¯> neut. written material. l`av4 /l.k˙a.vˇ/ <l.kha.v.ˇ> fem. writing. l`o4I /l.k˙o.ˇi/ <l.kho.ˇii> fem. a marble. lg6I /lg.Îi/ <l.g.Îii> fem. a bar of gold. lgn /l.gn/ <l.g.n> neut. marriage. lg-g /lg.b˙g/ <l.g.bh.g> advb. approximately. lgatar /l.ga.tar/ <l.ga.ta.r> advb. nonstop. lgam /l.gam/ <l.ga.m> fem. 1. the bit of bridle, 2. control. lgavvu& /l.gav.vu~/ <l.ga.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to smear with, 2. to join. lgI /l.gi/ <l.gii> advb. 1. till, 2. up to. lgolg /l.go.lg/ <l.go.l.g> postp. very near. lGn /lg.n/ <l.gn> neut. marriage. l3rv3r /l.g˙r.v.g˙r/ <l.g.r.v.g.r> adj. tattered. l3u /l.g˙u/ <l.ghu> adj. small. l3utm /l.g˙u.tm/ <l.ghu.t.m> adj. minimum. l3umtI /l.g˙u.m.ti/ <l.ghu.m.tii> fem. minority. lckvu& /l.ck.vu~/ <l.c.k.vu~> v.intr. to bend down because of burden. lcko /lc.ko/ <l.c.ko> masc. a lump of a viscous substance. lcpc /lc.pc/ <l.c.p.c> adj. viscous and doughy. ljam8I /l.Ôam.¯i/ <l.Ôa.m.¯ii> fem. a kind of plant whose leaves contract when we touch. ljavvu& /l.Ôav.vu~/ <l.Ôa.v.vu~> v.tr. to disgrace. ljja /lÔ.Ôa/ <l.ÔÔa> fem. modesty. l4 /lˇ/ <l.ˇ> fem. a thin string of hair. l4kvu& /l.ˇk.vu~/ v.intr. to hang. l4kaXu& /lˇ.ka.Æu~/ <l.ˇ.ka.Æu~> adj. apt to walk. l4ku& /lˇ.ku~/ <l.ˇ.ku~> neut. a graceful expression or physical attitude. l6t /l.Ît/ <l.Î.t> fem. a fight. l6vu& /lÎ.vu~/ <l.Î.vu~> v.intr. 1. to fight, 2. to quarrel. l6a: /l.Îai/ <l.Îa.ii> fem. a battle. l6ayk /l.Îa.jk/ <l.Îa.j.k> adj. 1. warlike, 2. inclined to fight. l78 /l.Î˙¯/ <l.Îh.¯> fem. manner.
  • 177. 177 l8vu& /l¯.vu~/ <l.¯.vu~> v.tr. 1. to reap, 2. to harvest. lt /lt/ <l.t> fem. habit. l]ao /lt.to/ <l.tto> masc. 1. a locality, 2. a street. l96vu& /l.t˙Î.vu~/ <l.th.Î.vu~> v.intr. 1. to stumble, 2. to deteriorate. l96Iyu& /l.t˙.Îi.ju~/ <l.ˇh.Îii.ju~> neut. stumbling. lpkvu& /l.pk.vu~/ <l.p.k.vu~> v.intr. to be scorched. lpkaro /lp.ka.ro/ <l.p.ka.ro> masc. repeated scorching or stinging pain. lp2p /lp.c˙p/ <l.p.ch.p> fem. underhand maneuvering. lp4 /l.pˇ/ <l.p.ˇ> fem. . a swoop, 2. a pouncing upon. lp4vu& /l.pˇ.vu~/ <l.p.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to trap someone. lp6ak /lp.Îak/ <l.p.Îa.k> fem. a slap. lplp /lp.lp/ <l.p.l.p> fem. prattle. lpvu& /lp.vu~/ <l.p.vu~> v.intr. to hide. lpsvu& /l.ps.vu~/ <l.p.s.vu~> v.intr. to slip. lps8u& /l.ps.vu~/ <l.p.s.vu~> adj. slippery. lpavu& /l.pa.vu~/ <l.pa.vu~> v.intr. to hide oneself. lpe4vu& /l.peˇ.vu~/ <l.pe.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to wrap, 2. to involve someone. lpe6vu& /l.peÎ.vu~/ <l.pe.Î.vu~> v.tr. to besmear thickly. lpe6o /l.pe.Îo/ <l.pe.Îo> masc. a thick layer. lPp6 /lp.pÎ/ <l.pp.Î> fem. a slap. lPpn2Ppn /lp.pn.c˙p.pn/ <l.pp.n.ch.pp.n> fem. useless worry or discussion. lf6ff6 /l.p˙Î.p˙.p˙Î/ <l.ph.Î.ph.ph.Î> advb. with disorderly clothing. lfru& /lp˙.ru~/ <l.ph.ru~> neut. a lump of the nose-mucus. lb6vu& /l.bÎ.vu~/ <l.b.Î.vu~> v.intr. to hand. lbaco /l.ba.co/ <l.ba.co> masc. a disorderly collection of cloths, broken things and etc. lba6 /l.baÎ/ <l.ba.Î> adj. roguish. lm8azI&k /lm.¯a.Ô˙i~k/ <l.m.¯a.Ôhi.k> fem. a tedious and useless discussion. lm8u& /lm.¯u~/ <l.m.¯u~> neut. the temple. ly /lj/ <l.j> masc. rhythm.
  • 178. 178 llkar /ll.kar/ <l.l.ka.r> masc. a loud singing or utterance. llkarvu& /ll.kar.vu~/ <l.l.ka.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to sing in a lingering tune, 2. to challenge someone. llcavu& /ll.ca.vu~/ <l.l.ca.v.vu~> v.tr. to be enticed. llna /ll.na/ <l.l.na> fem. a beautiful woman. lvro /lv.ro/ <l.v.ro> masc. a bruise caused by the nail etc. lvvu& /lv.vu~/ <l.v.vu~> v.intr. 1. to prate, 2. to chatter. lvajm /l.va.Ôm/ <l.va.Ô.m> neut. a periodic subscription. lvadI /l.va.di/ <l.va.dii> fem. pertaining to arbitration. lvaru& /l.va.ru~/ <l.va.ru~> neut. 1. a kid (of goat) 2. a lamb. lvaro /l.va.ro/ <l.va.ro> masc. prattle. liv&g /l.vi˜g/ <l.vi~.g> neut. a clove. liv&igyu& /l.vi˜.gi.ju~/ <l.vi~.gi.ju~> adj. as big as or shaped like a clove. l+kr /lß.kr/ <l.ßk.r> neut. army. ls8 /l.s¯/ <l.s.¯> neut. garlic. lsrko /l.sr.ko/ <l.s.r.ko> masc. a scratch. lso4vu& /l.soˇ.vu~/ <l.so.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to mash. lha8I /l.ha.¯i/ <l.ha.¯ii> fem. gift distributing among the relatives. lhavo /l.ha.vo/ <l.ha.vo> masc. a chance. lihyo /l.hi.jo/ <l.hi.jo> masc. a scribe. lher /l.her/ <l.he.r> fem. a wave. lherI /l.he.ri/ <l.he.rii> adj. joyful. lXvu& /lÆ.vu~/ <l.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to bend down. l&g6u& /l˜g.Îu~/ <l~.g.Îu~> adj. 1. lame, 2. cripple. l&g6o /l˜g.Îo/ <l~.g.Îo> masc. a type of a mango. l&gr /l˜.gr/ <l~.g.r> neut. an anchor. l&gUr /l˜.gur/ <l~.guu.r> masc. a monkey. l&go4Iyu& /l˜.go.ˇi.jo/ <l~.go.ˇi.ju~> masc. childhood (friend). l&p4 /lm.pˇ/ <l~.p.ˇ> adj. adulterous. l&bcors /lmb.co.rs/ <l~.b.co.r.s> adj. rectangular. l&bodr /lm.bo.dr/ <l~.bo.d.r> adj. pot-bellied. lak6I /lak.Îi/ <la.k.Îii> fem. a stick.
  • 179. 179 lak6u& /lak.Îu~/ <la.k.Îu~> neut. 1. wood, 2. timber. laxi8k /lak.ß.nik/ <la.kß.¯i.k> adj. 1. peculiar, 2. typical. la` /lak˙/ <la.kh> fem. sealing-wax. la` /lak˙/ <la.kh> adj. one hundred thousand. la`u& /la.k˙u~/ <la.khu~> neut. a birth- mark. lag /lag/ <la.g> masc. 1. a support, 2. an opportunity. lag8I /lag.¯i/ <la.g.¯ii> fem. sentiment. lagt /la.gt/ <la.g.t> fem. local taxes. lagvg /lag.vg/ <la.g.v.g> fem. influence (for getting gain illegally). lagvu& /lag.vu~/ <la.g.vu~> v.exp. to feel. lagvu& /lag.vu~/ <la.g.vu~> v.intr. to kindle. lacar /la.car/ <la.ca.r> adj. helpless. laj /laÔ/ <la.Ô> fem. 1. credit, 2. reputation. la4I /ma.ˇi/ <la.ˇii> fem. timber-market. la5I /la.ˇ˙i/ <la.ˇhii> fem. a thick stick. la6 /laÎ/ <la.Î> masc. pl. endearment. la6kvayu& /la.Îk.va.ju~/ <la.Î.k.va.ju~> adj. beloved (child). la6vo /laÎ.vo/ <la.Î.vo> masc. a kind of sweet. la6u /la.Îu~/ <la.Îu> masc. a kind of sweet. lat /lat/ <la.t> fem. a kick. lad /lad/ <la.d> fem. excretion of some quadrupeds such as horse. ladvu& /lad.vu~/ <la.d.vu~> v.tr. to load. ladI /la.di/ <la.dii> fem. flooring tile. la0vu& /lad˙.vu~/ <la.dh.vu~> v.exp. 1. to find, 2. to get. lap4 /la.pˇ/ <la.p.ˇ> fem. a slap. laprva /la.pr.va/ <la.p.r.va> adj. careless. lap=I /lap.ßi/ <la.p.ßii> fem. a sweet of that name. lafo /la.p˙o/ <la.pho> masc. a slept. la- /lab˙/ <la.bh> masc. 1. advantage, 2. benefit. layk /la.jk/ <la.j.k> adj. suitable. lal /lal/ <la.l> adj. red. lalc /la.lc/ <la.l.c> fem. greed. lalcu& /lal.cu~/ <la.l.cu~> adj. greedy.
  • 180. 180 lalsa /lal.sa/ <la.l.sa> fem. intense desire. lala= /la.laß/ <la.la.ß> fem. redness. lailma /la.li.ma/ <la.li.ma> fem. redness. lalI /la.li/ <la.lii> fem. redness. lavrI /lav.ri/ <la.v.rii> fem. a kind of bird. lavvu& /lav.vu~/ <la.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to bring, 2. to fetch, 3. to buy. la= /laß/ <la.ß> fem. a corpse. laX /laÆ/ <la.Æ> fem. 1. saliva, 2. spittle. laXo /la.Æo/ <la.Æo> masc. a burning coal. la&38 /la~˜.g¯/ <la~.g.¯> fem. fasting. la&c /la~c/ <la~.c> fem. a bribe. la&bu& /la~.bu~/ <la~.bu~> adj. long. ili`t /li.k˙it/ <li.khi.t> adj. written. iljjt /liÔ.Ôt/ <li.ÔÔ.t> fem. keen joy. ilip /li.pi/ <li.pi> fem. script. illam /li.lam/ <li.la.m> neut. auction. ilso4o /li.so.ˇo/ <li.so.ˇo> masc. 1. a thin line 2. a bruise. il&g /li˜.g/ <li~.g> neut. 1. a sign, 2. the idol of Lord Shiva, 3. the generative organ of the male. il&bu /lim.bu~/ <li~.bu~> neut. a lemon. il&bu6I /lim.bu.Îi/ <li~.bu.Îii> fem. a lemon-tree. il&boXI /lim.bo.Æi/ <li~.bo.Æii> fem. the fruit of a neem tree. lI` /lik˙/ <lii.kh> fem. 1. an egg of a louse, 2. a nit. lIcI /li.ci/ <lii.cii> fem. a kind of fruit- tree or its fruit. lI4I /li.ˇi/ <lii.ˇii> fem. a line. lIm6I /lim.Îi/ <lii.m.Îii> fem. a kind of neem tree. lIm6o /lim.Îo/ <lii.m.Îo> masc. a neem tree. lIlm /li.lm/ <lii.l.m> neut. emerald. lIla /li.la/ <lii.la> fem. play. lIlalher /li.la.l.her/ <lii.la.l.he.r> fem. complete happiness. lIla= /li.laß/ <lii.la.ß> fem. greenness. lIlu& /li.lu~/ <lii.lu~> neut. green. lIsu& /li.su~/ <lii.su~> adj. smooth. lI&4 /li~ˇ/ <lii~.ˇ> neut. nasal mucus. lI&6I& /li~¯.Îi/ <lii~.Îii> fem. excrement of goat etc.
  • 181. 181 lI&p8 /li~.p¯/ <lii~.p.¯> neut. daubing with cow-dung, clay etc. lI&pvu& /li~p.vu~/ <lii~.p.vu~> v.tr. to daub with cow-dung, clay etc. luCca: /luc.cai/ <lu.cca.ii> fem. cunningness. luCcu& /luc.cu~/ <lu.ccu~> adj. cunning. lu2i8yu& /lu.c˙.¯i.ju~/ <lu.ch.¯i.ju~> neut. jute cloth for wiping. lu4aru /lu.ˇa.ru/ <lu.ˇa.ru> masc. a robber. luhar /lu.har/ <lu.ha.r> masc. a blacksmith. lu&gI /lu˜.gi/ <luu~.gii> fem. a cylindrical garment worn round the waist and covering the legs. lU /lu/ <luu> fem. sunstroke. lU`s /lu.k˙s/ <luu.kh.s> fem. a kind of skin-disease. lU`u& /lu.k˙u~/ <luu.khu~> adj. dry (without oil, ghee etc.). lug6a&l]aa& /lug.Îa~.lt.ta~/ <luu.g.Îa~.l.tta~> neut. pl. clothes and similar other things. lUg6u& /lug.Îu~/ <luu.g.Îu~> neut. 1. a garment, 2. a sari, 3. an article of dress. lU2vu& /luc˙.vu~/ <lu.ch.vu~> v.tr. to wipe. lU4 /luˇ/ <luu.ˇ> fem. robbing. lU4vu& /luˇ.vu~/ <luu.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to rob. lU8 /lu¯/ <luu.¯> neut. salt. lU8o /lu.¯o/ <luu.¯o> masc. the effects of combination with salt. lUm /lum/ <luu.m> fem. a bunch. lUlI /lu.li/ <luu.lii> fem. the tongue (derogatory). lUlu& /lu.lu~/ <lu.lu~> adj. lame. le` /lek˙/ <le.kh> masc. 1. an article, 2. a writing. le`k /le.k˙k/ <le.kh.k> masc. a writer (male) le`n /le.k˙n/ <le.kh.n> neut. writing. le`u& /le.k˙u~/ <le.khu~> neut. account. le`e /le.k˙e/ <le.khe> advb. at the rate. le8dar /l´¯.dar/ <le.¯.da.r> adj. a creditor. le8de8 /le¯.de¯/ <le.¯.de.¯> fem. relation of financial transaction. lep /lep/ <le.p> masc. coating. lepvu& /lep.vu~/ <le.p.vu~> v.tr. to coat. lebas /le.bas/ <le.ba.s> masc. costume.
  • 182. 182 le-agu /le.b˙a.gu/ <le.bha.gu~> adj. unreliable (person). levadeva /le.va.de.va/ <le.va.de.va> fem. 1. relation, 2. concern. levu& /le.vu~/ <le.vu~> v.tr. 1. to take, 2. to purchase, 3. to accept. lok /lok/ <lo.k> masc. 1. people, 2. a mythological region of the universe. lokk9a /lok.k.t˙a/ <lo.k.k.tha> fem. a folktale. lokgIt /lok.git/ <lo.k.gii.t> neut. a folksong. lokccaR /lok.cr.ca/ <lo.k.c.rca> fem. popular talk. lok@vn /lok.Ôi.vn/ <lo.k.Ôii.v.n> neut. social life. lokip/y /lok.pri.j/ <lo.k.pri.j> adj. popular. lok-oGy /lok.b˙og.j/ <lo.k.bho.gj> adj. capable of being understood by the masses. lokmt /lok.mt/ <lo.k.m.t> masc. public opinion. lok=ahI /lok.ßa.hi/ <lo.k.ßa.hii> fem. democracy. lokiht /lok.hit/ <l> neut. public welfare. lokacar /lo.ka.car/ <lo.ka.ca.r> masc. social customs. lokoikt /lo.kok.ti/<lo.ko.kti> fem. a proverb. loko]ar /lo.kot.tr/ <lo.ko.tt.r> adj. super-human. lo`&6 /lo.k˙¯Î/ <lo.kh~.Î> neut. iron. locn /lo.cn/ <lo.c.n> neut. the eye (poetic). loco /lo.co/ <lo.co> masc. a lump. lo4 /loˇ/ <lo.ˇ> masc. 1. flour, 2. fine powder. lo4vu& /loˇ.vu~/ <lo.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to roll on around. lo7I /lo.Î˙i/ <lo.Îhii> fem. an iron pan. lo7u& /lo.Î˙u~/ <lo.Îhu~> neut. iron. lop /lop/ <lo.p> masc. 1. merger, 2. assimilation. lopvu& /lop.vu~/ <lo.p.vu~> v.intr. to hide. lofr /lo.p˙r/ <lo.ph.r> adj. a vagabond. lo- /lob˙/ <lo.bh> masc. greed. lo-am8u& /lo.b˙am.¯u~/ <lo.bha.m.¯u~> adj. enticing. lo-I /lo.b˙i/ <lo.bhii> adj. greedy. lohcu&bk /loh.cum.bk/ <lo.h.cu~.b.k> neut. a magnet. lohIyaX /lo.hi.jaÆ/ <lo.hii.ja.Æ> adj. 1. bloody, 2. violent, 3. stained with blood. lohI /lo.hi/ <lo.hii> neut. blood.
  • 183. 183 lohIwkaXo /lo.hi.u.ka.Æo/ <lo.hii.u.ka.Æo> masc. quarrel. lohIluha8 /lo.hi.lu.ha¯/ <lo.hii.lulha.¯> adj. bleeding heavily. lohIva /lo.hi.va/ <lo.hii.va> masc. a kind of disease related to blood. loiXyu& /lo.Æi.ju~/ <lo.Æi.ju~> neut. ear- ornament for women. lo&do /lø~.do/ <lo~.do> masc. a lump of sticky. lOikk/lu.kik/ <lu.ki.k> adj. worldly. v vkrvu& /v.kr.vu~/ <v.k.r.vu~> v.intr. 1. to deteriorate 2. to worsen. vkro /vk.ro/ <v.k.ro> masc. sale. vkIl /v.kil/ <v.kii.l> masc. a lawyer. vkIlatnamu& /v.ki.lat.na.mu~/ <v.kii.la.t.na.mu~> neut. power of attorney. vktVy /vk.tv.j/ <v.kt.vj> neut. a speech. vkta /vk.ta/ <v.kta> masc. a speaker. v`t /v.k˙t/ <v.kh.t> masc. time. v`tov`t /v.k˙.to.v.k˙t/ <v.kh.to.v.kh.t> advb. 1. often, 2. frequently. v`a8 /v.k˙a¯/ <v.kha.¯> masc. praise. v`a8vu& /v.k˙a¯.vu~/ <v.kha.¯.vu~> v.tr. to praise. v`ar /v.k˙ar/ <v.kha.r> fem. a store house. v`o6vu& /v.k˙oÎ.vu~/ <v.kho.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to find faults, 2. to criticize. vg6aw /vg.Îau/ <v.g.Îa.u~> adj. pertaining to wood. vg6o /vg.Îo/ <v.g/Îo> masc. barren region. vgr /v.gr/ <v.g.r> postp. without. vga6vu& /v.gaÎ.vu~/ <v.ga.Î.vu~> v.tr. to cause to sound (of musical instrument). vga6vu& /v.gaÎ.vu~/ <v.ga.Î.vu~> v.tr. 1. to harm, 2. to injure. vgere /v.ge.re/ <v.ge.re> advb. et cetera. vgo /v.go/ <v.go> masc. a locality. vgovvu& /v.gov.vu~/ <v.go.v.vu~> v.tr. to defame. v3ar /v.g˙ar/ <v.gha.r> masc. the act of sizzling a liquid dish with boiled mixture of ghee or oil and spices. v3arvu& /v.g˙ar.vu~/ <v.gha.r.vu~> v.tr. to sizzle a liquid dish with boiled ghee or oil and spices.
  • 184. 184 vcgaXo /vc.ga.Æo/ <v.c.ga.Æo> masc. in middle part of time. vcn /v.cn/ <v.c.n> neut. promise. vcn /v.cn/ <v.c.n> neut. number (grammatical). vclu& /vc.lu~/ <v.c.lu~> adj. 1. middle, 2. intermediate. vCce /vc.ce/ <v.cce> postp. in the middle. v2U4vu& /v.c˙uˇ.vu~/ <va.chu.ˇ.vu~> v.intr. to go off suddenly. v2eru& /v.c˙e.ru~/ <va.che.ru~> neut. a colt. v2erI /v.c˙e.ri/ <v.che.rii> fem. a filly. v2o6vu& /v.c˙oÎ.vu~/ <v.cho.Î.vu~> v.tr. to separate. vjn /v.Ôn/ <v.Ô.n> neut. 1. weight, 2. burden. v4 /vˇ/ <v.ˇ> masc. reputation. v4lavu& /vˇ.la.vu~/ <v.ˇ.la.vu~> v.tr. 1. to become a religious/ caste convert, 2. to be polluted because of food, drinks etc. v4hukm /vˇ.hu.km/ <v.ˇ.hu.k.m> masc. an ordinance. v4a8a /v.ˇa.¯a/ <v.ˇa.¯a> masc. a kind of beans. v4av /v.ˇav/ <v.ˇa.v> masc. discount. v4avvu& /v.ˇav.vu~/ <v.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to exchange a big coin/ bill for smaller ones, 2. to encash a draft, note or checks etc. v4avvu& /v.ˇav.vu~/ <v.ˇa.v.vu~> v.tr. to pass by or cross safely. v4emaguR /v.ˇe.mar.gu/ <v.ˇe.ma.rgu> masc. a traveler. v6 /vÎ/ <vÎ> masc. a banyan tree. v6vo /vÎ.vo/ <v.Î.vo> masc. an ancestor. v6ssro /vÎ.ss.ro/ <v.Î.s.s.ro> masc. father of a father-in-law. v6sasu /vÎ.sa.su~/ <v.Î.sa.su> fem. mother of a father-in-law. v6Il /v.Îil/ <v.Îii.l> adj. elder person in a family. v6IlopaijRt /v.Îi.lo.par.Ôit/ <v.Îi.lo.pa.rÔi.t> adj. acquired or erned by ancestors. v6e /v.Îe/ <v.Îe> postp. 1. by, 2. with. v7vu& /vÎ˙.vu~/ <v.Îh.vu~> v.intr. to quarrel. v8kr /v¯.kr/ <v.¯.k.r> masc. a weaver. v8jar /v¯.Ôar/ <v.¯.Ôha.r> fem. a craven. v8vu& /v¯.vu~/ <v.¯.vu~> v.tr. 1. to weave, 2. to intertwine and make, 3. to roll bread, 4. to pick or gather crops.
  • 185. 185 v8svu& /v.¯s.vu~/ <v.¯.s.vu~> v.intr. 1. to worsen, 2. to deteriorate. v8a4 /v.¯aˇ/ <v.¯a.ˇ> masc. texture. vtn /v.tn/ <v.t.n> neut. native place. vtnI /vt.ni/ <v.t.ni> adj. a native. vtI /v.ti/ <v.tii> postp. on behalf of. vd /vd/ <v.d> fem. the dark half of a lunar month. vdn /v.dn/ <v.d.n> neut. the face (poetic). v¥I /vd.di/ <v.ddii> fem. reminder (in mathematics). v0 /vd˙/ <v.dh> masc. a slaughter. v0vu& /vd˙.vu~/ <v.dh.vu~> v.intr. 1. to grow, 2. to increase. v0vu& /vd˙.vu~/ <v.dh.vu~> v.intr. to remain as a residue. v0a: /v.d˙a.i/ <v.dha.ii> fem. good news. v0am8u& /v.d˙am.¯u~/ <v.dha,m.¯u~> neut. a ceremonial worship of goddess on an auspicious event. v0arvu& /v.d˙ar.vu~/ <v.dha.r.vu~> v.tr. to increase. v0arvu& /v.d˙ar.vu~/ <v.dha.r.vu~> v.tr. to save. v0are /v.d˙a.re/ <v.dha.re> adj. 1. more, 2. additional. v0avvu& /v.d˙av.vu~/ <v.dha.v.vu~> v.tr. to welcome gladly. v0u /v.d˙u/ <v.dhu> adj. more. v0U /v.d˙u/ <v.dhuu> fem. a wife. v0ervu& /v.d˙er.vu~/ <v.dhe.r.vu~> v.tr. to offer as a sacrifice. vn /vn/ <v.n> neut. forest. vnraj /vn.raÔ/ <v.n.ra.Ô> masc. the king of the forest- lion. vnSpit /v.ns.p.ti/ <v.n.sp.ti> fem. 1. trees, plants, etc. 2. vegetation. vpra= /vp.raß/ <v.p.ra.ß> masc. 1. use, 2. consumption. vfadar /v.p˙a.dar/ <v.pha.da.r> adj. faithful. vmn /v.mn/ <v.m.n> neut. vomiting. vmX /v.mÆ/ <v.m.Æ> masc. whirlpool. vy /vj/ <v.j> fem. age. vyov<)0 /v.jo.vrud˙.d˙/ <v.jo.vr≤u.dhdh> adj. 1. old, 2. elderly. vr /vr/ <v.r> masc. a bridegroom. vr` /v.rk˙/ <v.r.kh> masc. a very thin layer of gold or sliver.
  • 186. 186 vr3o6Iya& /vr.g˙o.Îi.ja~/ <v.r.gho.Îii.ja~> neut. pl. people accompanying a marriage procession. vr3o6o /masc./ <v.r.gho.Îo> masc. a marriage procession. vr8 /v.r¯/ <v.r.¯> fem. 1. a caste, 2. a social class. vr8aigyu& /vr.¯a.gi.ju~/ <v.r.¯a.gi.ju~> adj. 1. foppish, 2. vainly showy. vr8I /vr.¯i/ <v.r.¯ii> fem. selection. vrtvu& /v.rt.vu~/ <v.r.t.vu~> v.intr. to behave. vrtaro /vr.ta.ro/ <v.r.ta.ro> masc. 1. a prediction, 2. a forcast. vrdan /vr.dan/ <v.r.da.n> neut. blessing from a god, a saint etc. vrmaXa /vr.ma.Æa/ <v.r.ma.Æa> fem. the garland that bride puts round the neck of the bridegroom. vrraja /vr.ra.Ôa/ <v.r.ra.Ôa> masc. a bridegroom. vrvu& /vr.vu~/ <v.r.vu~> adj. 1. ugly, 2. misshaped, 3. wicked. vrsI /vr.si/ <v.r.sii> fem. ceremony performed on the first anniversary of someone’s death. vrs /v.rs/ <v.r.s> neut. year. vrsad /vr.sad/ <v.r.sa.d> masc. rain. vraX /v.raÆ/ <v.ra.Æ> fem. 1. steam, 2. vapor. viryaXI /v.ri.ja.Æi/ <v.ri.ja.Æii> fem. fennel seed. virQ5 /v.riß.ˇ˙/ <v.ri.s°ˇh> adj. chief. vru /v.ru/ <v.ru> neut. a wolf. vre6u& /v.re.Îu~/ <v.re.Îu~> neut. a rope. vro /v.ro/ <v.ro> masc. a caste dinner. vgR /vr.g/ <v.rg> masc. a class. vgRivg/h /vrg.vig.rh/ <v.rg.vi.gr.h> masc. a class-war. vcRs /vr.cs/ <v.rc.s> neut. controlling power. vcRSvI /vr.cs.vi/ <v.rc.svii> adj. powerful. v8R /vr.¯/ <v.r¯> masc. color. v8R /vr.¯/ <v.r¯> masc. letter. v8R /vr.¯/ <v.r¯> fem. caste. v8Rn /vr.¯n/ <v.r¯.n> neut. 1. description, 2. narration. v8Rvvu& /vr.¯v.vu~/ <v.r¯.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to describe, 2. to narrate. v8Rs&kr /vr.¯.s˜.kr/ <v.r¯.s~.k.r> adj. born of parents of different castes or religion.
  • 187. 187 v8aRnuk/m /vr.¯a.nu.krm/ <v.rna.nu.kr.m> masc. alphabetical order. vtR8U&k /vr.t.¯u~k/ <v.rt.¯u~.k> fem. 1. behavior, 2. conduct. vtRn /vr.tn/ <v.rt.n> neut. 1. behavior, 2. conduct. vtRman /vr.t.man/ <v.rt.ma.n> adj. 1. present, 2. current. vtRmankaX /vr.t.man.kaÆ/ <v.rt.ma.n> masc. present tense. vtRmanp{a /vr.t.man.pt.r/ <v.rt.ma.n.p.tr> neut. a newspaper. vtuRX /vr.tuÆ/ <v.rtu.Æ> neut. a circle. vqR /vr.ß/ <v.rs°> neut. an year. vqaR¢tu /vr.ßa.ru.tu/ <vv.rs°a.r≤u.tu> fem. the rainly season. vl8 /v.l¯/ <v.l.¯> neut. mental inclination. vlo8u& /v.lo.¯u~/ <v.lo.¯u~> neut. a churning rod. vlopat /v.lo.pat/ <v.lo.pa.t> masc. restlessness and dejection. vlopaityu& /v.lo.pa.ti,ju~/ <v.lo.pa.ti.ju~> adj. inclined to be restless and deject. vsit /vs.ti/ <v.s.ti> fem. population. vsvso /vs.v.so/ <v.s.v.so> masc. 1. remorse, 2. grudge. vsva4 /vs.vaˇ/ <v.s.va.ˇ> masc. 1. residing, 2. dwelling, 3. stay. vsvu& /vs.vu~/ <v.s.vu~> v.intr. 1. to dwell, 2. to reside. vs&t /v.snt/ <v.s~.t> fem. the spring season. vsa8u& /v.sa.¯u~/ <v.sa.¯u~> neut. a food item made of various spices and eaten normally in winter. vsavvu& /v.sav.vu~/ <v.sa.v.vu~> v.tr. to cause to live. vsavvu& /v.sav.vu~/ <v.sa.v.vu~> v.tr. to purchase durable things. vsaht /v.sa.ht/ <v.sa.h.t> fem. a settlement. visyt /v.si.jt/ <v.si.j.t> fem. inheritance. visytnamu& /v.si.jt.na.mu~/ <v.si.j.t> neut. a will. vsUkvu& /v.suk.vu~/ <v.su.k.vu~> v.intr. to cease yielding milk. vsUlat /v.su.lat/ <v.su.la.t> fem. an act of recovering money. vStI /vs.ti/ <v.stii> fem. population. vStIg8trI /vs.ti.g.¯t.ri/ <v.stii.g.¯.t.rii> fem. census. vStIp{ak /vs.ti.pt.rk/ <v.stii.p.tr.k> neut. a census record.
  • 188. 188 vStu /vs.tu/ <v.stu> fem. a thing. vS{a /vs.tr/ <v.str> neut. a garment. vha8 /v.ha¯/ <v.ha.¯> neut. a ship. vhal /v.hal/ <v.ha.l> neut. affection. vhI /v.hi/ <v.hii> fem. an account- book. vhIv4 /v.hi.vˇ/ <v.hii.v.ˇ> masc. an administration. vhIv4I /v.hi.v.ˇi/ <v.hii.v.ˇii> adj. administrative. vhIv&co /v.hi.vµ.co/ <v.hii.v~.co> masc. a bard keeping the record of genealogical tree. vhu /v.hu/ <v.hu> fem. a wife. vhem /v.hem/ <v.he.m> masc. 1. suspicion, 2. doubt. vhemI /v.he.mi/ <v.he,mii> adj. suspicious. vhelu& /v.he.lu~/ <v.he.lu~> adj. early. vhevar /v.he.var/ <v.he,va.r> masc. day to day interaction. vhevaru& /v.he.va.ru~/ <v.he.va.ru~> adj. honest in day to day interaction. vhevu& /v.he.vu~/ <v.he.vu~> v.intr. to flow. vheiXyu& /v.he.Æi.ju~/ <v.he.Æi.ju~> neut. a small stream. vheXo /v.he.Æo/ <v.he.Æo> masc. a stream. vhe&c8I /fem./ <v.he~.c.¯ii> fem. distribution. vhe&cvu& /v.h´~c.vu~/ <v.he~.c.vu~> v.tr. to distribute. vhorvu& /v.hor.vu~/ <v.ho.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to purchase 2. to undertake a risk thoughtlessly. vX /vÆ/ <v.Æ> masc. a twist. vXg8 /vÆ.g¯/ <v.Æ.g.¯> neut. 1. a relation, 2. a connection. vXgvu& /v.Æg.vu~/ <v.Æ.g.vu~> v.intr. 1. to cling, 2. to stick to. vXga6 /vÆ.gaÎ/ <v.Æ.ga.Î> masc. 1. ghost, 2, an evil spirit. vXtr /vÆ.tr/ <v.Æ.t.r> neut. 1. profit, 2. remuneration. vXvu& /vÆ.vu~/ <v.Æ.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be twisted, 2. to be bent. vXvu& /vÆ.vu~/ <v.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to return. vXavvu& /v.Æav.vu~/ <v.Æa.v.vu~> v.tr. to see one off. vXa&k /v.Æa~˜k/ <v.Æa~.k> masc. a turn. vXI /v.Æi/ <v.Æii> advb. besides. v&4oX /v¯.ˇoÆ/ <v~.ˇo.Æ> masc. whirlwind.
  • 189. 189 v&4oXIyo /v¯.ˇo.Æi.jo/ <v~.ˇo.Æii.jo> masc. whirlwind. v&trI /vn.t.ri/ <v~.t.ri> fem. a female ghost. v&dn /vn.dn/ <v~.d.n> neut. a respectful bow. v&dna /vn.da.na/ <v~.d.na> fem. 1. a bowing, 2. a salutation, 3. a prayer. v&do /vn.do/ <v.ndo> masc. a cockroach. v&= /vmß/ <v~.ß> masc. descendents. v&=pr&pra /vmß.p.rm.p.ra/ <v~.ß.p.r~.p.ra> fem. a femily-tree. va /va/ <va> advb. or. va /va/ <va> masc. wind. va /va/ <va> masc. rheumatism. vaky /vak.j/ <va.kj> neut. a sentence. vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g.vu~> v.exp. 1. to be injured, 2. to be wounded. vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g.vu~> v.intr. to be struck. vagvu& /vag.vu~/ <va.g.vu~> v.intr. to strike (of a clock). vagoXvu& /va.goÆ.vu~/ <va.go.Æ.vu~> v.intr. 1. to ruminate, 2. to chew and cud. va3 /va˙/ <va.gh> masc. tiger. va38 /va.g˙¯/ <va.gh.¯> fem. tigress. vack /va.ck/ <va.c.k> masc. reader. vacn /va.cn/ <va.c.n> neut. reading. vacnaly /va.c.na.lj/ <va.c.na.l.j> neut. a library. vaca /va.ca/ <va.ca> fem. a speech vaCya9R /vac.jar.t˙/ <va.cja.rth> adj. literal meaning. va26I /vac˙.Îi/ <va.ch.Îii> fem. a female calf. vaj /vaÔ/ <va.Ô> adj. tired. vajape4I /va.Ôa.pe.ˇi/ <va.Ôa.pe.ˇii> fem. a harmonium. vaij&{a /va.Ôin.tr/ <va.Ôi~.tr> neut. a musical organ. va4 /vaˇ/ <va.ˇ> fem. a road. va4 /vaˇ/ <va.ˇ> fem. a wick. va4vu& /vaˇ.vu~/ <va.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to pound or crush with a muller. va4a3a4 /va.ˇa.g˙aˇ/ <va.ˇa.gha.ˇ> fem. negotiations. va6 /vaÎ/ <va.Î> fem. 1. a hedge, 2. a fence, 3. a railing. va6kI /vaÎ.ki/ <va.Î.kii> fem. a cup- like small vessel.
  • 190. 190 va6ab&0I /va.Îa.bn.d˙i/ <va.Îa.b~.dhii> fem. group-ism. va6I /va.Îi/ <va.Îii> fem. a farm of nursing fruit or flower plants. va6o /va.Îo/ <va.Îo> masc. a backyard. va7 /vaÎ˙/ <va.Îh> masc. 1. a cut, 2. a wound. va7vu& /vaÎ˙.vu~/ <va.Îh.vu~> v.tr. 1. to cut, 2. to reap. vai8jy /va.¯iÔ.j/ <va.¯i.Ôj> neut. 1. trade, 2. commerce. vai8y8 /va.¯i.j¯/ <va.¯i.j.¯> fem. 1. a woman belonging to the Vania caste, 2. a Vani’s wife. vai8yo /va.¯i.jo/ <va.¯i.jo> masc. a man of the Vania caste. va8I /va.¯i/ <va.¯ii> fem. speech. vat /vat/ <va.t> fem. 1. a story, 2. a narrative. vatcIt /vat.cit/ <va.t.ci.t> fem. conversation. vatavr8 /va.ta.v.r¯/ <va.ta.v.r.¯> neut. atmosphere. vaTsLy /vat.sl.j/ <va.ts.lj> neut. affection. vad /vad/ <va.d> masc. 1. debate, 2. ism. vadX /va.dÆ/ <va.d.Æ> neut. a cloud. vadiXyu& /va.d.Æi.ju~/ <va.d.Æi.ju~> adj. cloudy. vadXu& /va.dÆ/ <va.Î.Æu~> neut. a cloud. van /van/ <va.n> masc. complexion. vangI /van.gi/ <va.n.gii> fem. an item. vanr /va.nr/ <va.n.r> masc. a monkey. vam8u& /vam.¯u~/ <va.m.¯u~> adj. inferior. vamn /va.man/ <va.m.n> adj. dwarfish. vay6a: /vaj.Îai/ <va.j.Îa.ii> fem. over wisdom. vay6u& /vaj.Îu~/ <va.j.Îu~> adj. causing gas in the body. vaydo /vaj.do/ <va.j.do> masc. 1. promise, 2. a forward transaction. vayro /vaj.ro/ <va.j.ro> masc. wind. vayro /vaj.ro/ <va.j.ro> masc. a popular or current trend. vayVy /va.jv.j/ <va.j.vj> adj. North- West. vayu /va.ju/ <va.ju~> masc. 1. wind, 2. air. vayu /va.ju/ <va.ju> masc. 1. gas, 2. indigestion. varvu& /var.vu~/ <va.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to restraint, 2. to prohibit.
  • 191. 191 vars /va.rs/ <va.r.s> masc. an inheritor. varsagt /var.sa.gt/ <va.ra.sa.g.t> adj. hereditary. varso /var.so/ <va.r.so> masc. 1. legacy, 2. heritage, 3. inheritance. var&var /va.rm.var/ <va.r~.va.r> advb. 1. repeatedy, 2. now and again. varafrtI /va.ra.p˙r.ti/ <va.ra.ph.r.tii> advb. one after another. vare36Iye /va.re.g˙.Îi.je/ <va.re.gh.Îii.je> advb. frequently. varo /va.ro/ <va.ro> masc. turn. vataR /var.ta/ <va.rta> fem. 1. a stroy, 2. a narrative. vaiqRk /var.ßik/ <va.rs°i.k> adj. 1. yearly, 2. annual. val /val/ <va.l> masc. a kind of pluse. valoX /va.loÆ/ <va.lo.Æ> fem. a green pod of kind of pulse used as a vegetable. vav /vav/ <va.v> fem. a step-well. vav4o /vav.ˇo/ <va.v.ˇo> masc. a flag. vav6 /va.vÎ/ <va.v.Î> masc. 1. whereabouts, 2. news. vav8I /vav.¯i/ <va.v.¯ii> fem. a sowing. vavu& /va.vu~/ <va.vu~> v.intr. to blow. vavu& /va.vu~/ <va.vu~> v.tr. to give a birth to a calf. vavetr /va.ve.tr/ <va.ve.t.r> neut. 1. sowing, 2. planting. vas /vas/ <va.s> masc. a locality. vas /vas/ <va.s> fem. smell. vas8 /va.s¯/ <va.s.¯> neut. 1. a vessel, 2. a utensil. vas8kUs8 /va.s¯.ku.s¯/ <va.s.¯.kuu.s.¯> neut. pl. kitchen utensils. vasna /vas.na/ <va.s.na> fem. 1. desire for worldly happiness, 2. passion. vasvuU& /vas.vu~/ <va.s.vu~> v.tr. to close. vasI /va.si/ <va.sii> adj. stale. vaStv /vas.tv/ <va.st.v> neut. a reality. vaStivk /vas.t.bik/ <va.st.vi.k> adj. real. vaStu /vas.tu/ <va.stu> neut. a ritual performed before occupying a house. vaStupUja /vas.tu. pu.Ôa./ <va.stu.puu.Ôa> fem. a ritual performed before occupying a house. vah /vah/ <va.h> advb. 1. well-done, 2. bravo. vahn /va.hn/ <va.h.n> neut. a vehicle.
  • 192. 192 vaihyat /va.hi.jat/ <va.hi.a.t> adj. 1. hollow, 2. bogus. vaX /vaÆ/ <va.Æ> masc. hair. vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to bend, 2. to roll. vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to repay, 2. to return. vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to sweep. vaXvu& /vaÆ.vu~/ <va.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to change the direction of a vehicle, water etc. vaX&d /va.Ænd/ <va.Æ~.d> masc. a barber. vaXI /va.Æi/ <va.Æii> fem. a nose-ring. vaXo /va.Æo/ <va.Æo> masc. a metallic wire. va&k /va~k/ <va~.k> masc. 1. fault, 2. defect. va&k6o /va~k.Îo/ <va~.k.Îo> masc. dowry given to the bridegroom by the bride side. va&ku& /va~.ku~/ <va~.ku~> adj. 1. crooked, 2. bent, 3. curved. va&ku&cUku& /va~.ku~.cu~.ku~/ <va~.ku~.cuu.ku~> adj. zigzag. va&3u& /va~.g˙u~/ <va~.ghu~> neut. a ravine. va&cn /va~.cn/ <va~.c.n> neut. a reading. va&cvu& /va~c.vu~/ <va~.c.vu~> v.tr. 1. to read, 2. to decipher. va&z8u& /va~Ô˙.¯u~/ <va~.Ôh.¯u~> adj. 1. barren, 2. childless. va&7o /va~.Î˙o/ <va~.Îho> masc. a bachelor on compusion. va&dro /va~d.ro/ <va~.d.ro> masc. a male monkey. va&drI /va~d.ri/ <va~.d.rii> fem. a female monkey. va&dru& /va~d.ru~/ <va~.d.ru~> neut. a monkey. va&0o /va~.d˙o/ <va~.dho> masc. 1. opposition, 2. objection, 3. dispute. va&s /va~s/ <va~.s> masc. a bamboo. va&sl6I /va~.sl.Îi/ <va~.s.l.Îii> fem. a flute. va&sXI /va~s.Æi/ <va~.s.Æii> fem. a flute. va&so /va~.so/ <va~.so> masc. the back. ivk4 /vi.kˇ/ <vi.k.ˇ> adj. 1. tough, 2. difficult. ivkraX /vik.raÆ/ <vi.k.ra.Æ> adj. terrible. ivkLp /vi.kl.p/ <vi.k.lp> masc. an alternative. ivksvu& /vi.ks.vu~/ <vi.k.s.vu~> v.intr. 1. to grow, 2. to develop, 3. to increase. ivkist /vik.sit/ <vi.k.si.t> adj. developed.
  • 193. 193 ivkar /vi.kar/ <vi.ka.r> masc. deterioration. ivkarI /vi.ka.ri/ <vi.ka.rii> adj. apt to change. ivkas /vi.kas/ <vi.ka.s> masc. 1. growth, 2. development. ivk<t /vik.rut/ <vi.kr≤u.t> adj. distorted. ivxep /vik.ßep/ <vi.kße.p> masc. obstruction. iv`vad /vik˙.vad/ <vi.kh.va.d> masc. 1. discord, 2. dispute. iv`U4u& /vi.k˙u.ˇu~/ <vi.khuu.ˇu~> adj. separated and lonely. iv`ervu& /vi.k˙er.vu~/ <vi.khe.r.vu~> v.tr. to scatter. iv~yat /vik˙.jat/ <vi.khja.t> adj. famous. ivgt /vi.gt/ <vi.g.t> fem. 1. past, 2. gone. ivg/h /vi.gr.h/ <vi.gr.h> masc. a battle. iv34n /vi:.g˙.ˇn/ <vi.gh.ˇn> neut. deconstruction. iv3atk /vi.g˙a.tk/ <vi.gha.t.k> adj. destructive. iv#n /vig.n/ <vi.ghn> neut. obstacle. ivcx8 /vi.ck.߯/ <vi.c.kß.¯> adj. 1. intellegent, 2. shrewd. ivcrvu& /vi.cr.vu~/ <vi.c.r.vu~> v.intr. to loiter. ivcar /vi.car/ <vi.ca.r> masc. thought. ivcark /vi.ca.rk/ <vi,ca.r.k> masc. a thinker. ivcar8a /vi.car.¯a/ <vi.ca.r.¯a> fem. 1. thinking, 2. consideration. ivcarvu& /vi.car.vu~/ <vi.ca.r.vu~> v.tr. to think. ivic{a /vi.cit.r/ <vi.ci.tr> adj. strange. ivC2ed /vic.c˙ed/ <vi.cche.d> masc. a cut. ivjy /vi.Ôj/ <vi.Ô.j> masc. victory. ivjatIy /vi.Ôa.ti.j/ <vi.Ôa.tii.j> adj. of different sex, caste, class or race. ivjeta /vi.Ôe.ta/ <vi.Ôe.ta> masc. a victor. ivjog /vi.Ôog/ <vi.Ôo.g> masc. suffering from a separation from the beloved one. iv}aan /vig.nan/ <vi.gna.n> neut. science. iv}aapk /vig.na.pk/ <vi.gna.p.k> adj. 1. declaring, 2. advertising. iv4&b8a /vi.ˇmb.¯a/ <vi.ˇ~.b.¯a> fem. 1. misery, 2. grief, 3. difficulties. iv6&bn /vi.Îam.bn/ <vi.Î~.b.n> neut. mockery.
  • 194. 194 ivtr8 /vit.r¯/ <v> neut. distribution. ivta6vu& /vi.taÎ.vu~/ <vi.ta.Î.vu~> v.tr. to harass. ivday /vi.daj/ <vi.da.j> fem. a departure. ividt /vi.dit/ <v> adj. known. ivduqI /vi.du.ßi/ <vi.du.s°ii> fem. a learned woman. ivdUqk /vi.du.ßk/ <vi.duu.s°.k> masc. a clown. ivde= /vi.deß/ <vi.de.ß> masc. a foreign country. ivde=I /vi.de.ßi/ <vi.de.ßii> adj. foreign. ivdyman /vid.j.man/ <vi.dj.ma.n> adj. 1. existing, 2. present. ivdya /vid.ja/ <vi.dja> fem. knowledge. ivdyapI5 /vid.ja.piˇ˙/ <vi.dja.pii.ˇh> fem. an educational institution. ivdya9IR /vid.jar.t˙i/ <vi.dja.rthii> masc. a male student. ivdya9IRnI /vid.jar.t˙i.ni/ <vi.dja.rthii.nii> fem. a female student. ivdyut /vid.jut/ <vi.dju.t> fem. 1. lightning, 2. electricity. iv±oh /vid.roh/ <vi.dro.h> masc. a mutiny. ivdvta /vid.v.ta/ <vi.dv.ta> fem. knowledge. ivdvan /vid.van/ <vi.dva.n> masc. 1. a learned man, 2. a scholar. iv0va /vid˙.va/ <vi.dh.va> fem. a widow. iv0vaivvah /vid˙.va.vi.vah/ <vi.dh.va.vi.va.h> masc. a widow’s re-marriage. iv0ata /vi.d˙a.ta/ <vi.dha.ta> fem. the creator of the universe. iv0a{aI /vi.d˙at.ri/ <vi.dha.trii> fem. the goddess of destiny. iv0an /vi.d˙an/ <vi.dha.n> neut. a statement. iv0ayk /vi.d˙a.jk/ <vi.dha.j.k> adj. constructive. ivi0 /vi.d˙i/ <vi.dhi> fem. the god of destiny. ivi0 /vi.d˙i/ <vi.dhi> fem. ritual. iv0ur /iv.d˙ur/ <vi.dhu.r> adj. widower. ivny /vi.nj/ <vi.n.j> masc. humbleness. ivnv8I /vi.nv.¯i/ <vi.n.v.¯i> fem. a request. ivn&tI /vi.nn.ti/ <vi.n~.tii> fem. a request. ivna /vi.na/ <vi.na> postp. except. ivna= /vi.naß/ <vi.na.ß> masc. 1. destruction, 2. extinction.
  • 195. 195 ivna=I /vi.na.ßi/ <vi.na.ßii> adj. destructive. ivinmy /vi.ni.maj/ <vi.ni.m.j> masc. 1. exchange, 2. barter. ivnod /vi.nod/ <vi.no.d> masc. joy. ivpi]a /vi:.pt.ti/ <vi.p.tti> fem. 1. a calamity, 2. misery, 3. trouble. ivp9 /vi.pt˙/ <vi.p.th> masc. wrong path. ivprIt /vip.rit/ <vi.p.rii.t> adj. opposite. ivpul /vi.pul/ <vi.pu.l> adj. abundant. ivp/ /vip.r/ <vi.pr> masc. a Brahmin. ivPlv /vip.lv/ <vi.pl.v> masc. a revolt. iv-kt /vi.b˙k.t/ <vi.bh.kt> adj. divided. iv-ikt /vi.b˙k.ti/ <vi.bh.kti> fem. a case. iv-ag /vi.b˙ag/ <vi.bha.g> masc. a section. iv-ajk /vi.b˙a.Ôk/ <vi.bha.Ô.k> adj. dividing. iv-ajn /vi.b˙a.Ôn/ <v> neut. division. iv-ajy /vi.b˙aÔ.j/ <vi.bha.Ôj> adj. divisible. ivi-Nn /vi.b˙in.n/ <vi.bhi.nn> adj. 1. different, 2. separate. iv-Uit /vi.b˙u.ti/ <vi.bhuu.ti> fem. a superman. ivml /vi.ml/ <vi.m.l> adj. pure. ivman /vi.man/ <vi.ma.n> neut. an aircraft. ivmanm9k /vi.man.m.t˙k/ <vi.ma.n.m.th.k> neut. an airport. ivmu` /vi.muk˙/ <vi.mu.kh> neut. unfavorable. ivyavu& /vi.ja.vu~/ <vi.ja.vu~> v.intr. (of beasts) to give birth. ivrmvu& /vi.rm.vu~/ <vi.r.m.vu~> v.intr. to stop. ivrh /vi.rh/ <vi.r.h> masc. separation from dear ones. ivragI /vi.ra.gi/ <vi.ra.gii> adj. a hermit. ivra4 /vi.raˇ/ <vi.ra.ˇ> adj. 1. huge, 2. magnificent. ivram /vi.ram/ <vi.ra.m> masc. 1. rest, 2. pause. ivro0 /vi.rod˙/ <vi.ro.dh> masc. 1. an objection, 2. opposition. ivro0a-as /v.ro.d˙a.b˙as/ <vi.ro.dha.bha.s> masc. mere apparent opposition.
  • 196. 196 ivlx8 /vi.lk.߯/ <vi.l.kß.¯> adj. peculiar. ivly /vi.lj/ <vi.l.j> masc. dissolution. ivlsvu& /vi.ls.vu~/ <vi.l.s.vu~> v.intr. 1. to shine, 2. to glitter. ivlap /vi.lap/ <vi.la.p> masc. lamentation. ivlayt /vi.la.jt/ <vi.la.j.t> neut. England. ivlaytI /vi.la.j.ti/ <vi.la.j.tii> adj. 1. made in England, 2. foreign. ivlavu& /vi.la.vu~/ <vi.la.vu~> v.intr. to wither. ivlas /vi.las/ <vi.la.s> masc. merriment. ivvr8 /viv.r¯/ <vi.v.r.¯> neut. 1. criticism, 2. commentary. ivvad /vi.vad/ <vi.va.d> masc. a controversy. ivvadaSpd /vi.va.da.spd/ <vi.va.da.sp.d> adj. controversial. ivvah /vi.vah/ <vi.va.h> masc. 1. betrothal, 2. marriage. iviv0 /vi.vid˙/ <vi.vi.dh> adj. various. iviv0ta /vi.vid˙.ta/ <vi.vi.dh.ta> fem. variety. ivvek /vi.vek/ <vi.ve.k> masc. politeness. ivveck /vi.ve.ck/ <vi.ve.c.k> masc. a critic. ivvecn /vi.ve.cn/ <vi.ve.c.n> neut. criticism. ivvecna /vi.ve.c.na/ <vi.ve.c.na> fem. interpretation. iv=d /vi.ßd/ <vi.ß.d> adj. clear (argument etc.) iv=aX /vi.ßaÆ/ <vi.ßa.Æ> adj. large. ivi=Q4 /vi.ßiß.t/ <vi.ßi.s°ˇ> adj. peculiar. iv=e /vi.ße/ <vi.ße> postp. about. iv=eq /vi.ßeß/ <vi.ße.s°> adj. additional. iv=eqtŠ /vi.ßeß.th/ <vi.ße.s°.t:> advb. especially. iv=eqta /vi.ßeß.ta/ <vi.ße.s°.ta> fem. difference. iv[aam /vis.ram/ <vi.ßra.m> masc. rest. iv¿leq8 /viß.le.߯/ <vi.ßle.ß.¯> neut. analysis. iv¼ /viß.v/ <vi.ßv> neut. the universe. iv¼as /ivß.vas/ <vi.ßva.s> masc. 1. trust, 2. confidence. iv¼as3at /viß.vas.g˙at/ <vi.ßva.s.gha.t> masc. betrayal. iv¼as3atI /viß.vas.g˙a.ti/ <vi.ßva.s.gha.tii> adj. a betrayer person.
  • 197. 197 ivq /viß/ <vi.s°> neut. poison. ivq0r /viß.d˙r/ <vi.s°.dh.r> masc. a serpent. ivqm /vi.ßm/ <vi.s°.m> adj. unequal. ivqy /vi.ßj/ <vi.s°.j> masc. 1. a perceivable object, 2. subject ivqyaNtr /vi.ßa.jan.tr/ <vi.s°.ja.nt.r> neut. digression. ivqad /vi.ßad/ <vi.s°a.d> masc. 1. dejection, 2. grief. ivqe /vi.ße/ <vi.s°e> postp. about. ivsgR /vi.sr.g/ <vi.s.rg> masc. the sign (:). ivsjRn /vi.sr.Ôn/ <vi.s.rÔ.n> neut. dissolution. ivsamo /vi.sa.mo/ <vi.sa.mo> masc. a halt for resting. ivStrvu& /vis.tr.vu~/ <vi.st.r.vu~> v.intr. to spread out. ivStar /vis.tar/ <vi.sta.r> masc. 1. an area, 2. extension. ivStarpUvRk /vis.tar.pur.vk/ <vi.sta.r.puu.rv.k> adj. 1. at length, 2. in detail. ivStarvu& /vis.tar.vu~/ <vi.sta.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to extend, .2 to expand. ivSfo4 /vis.p˙oˇ/ <vi.spho.ˇ> masc. explosive. ivSmy /vis.mj/ <vi.sm.j> neut. 1. a wonder, 2. a surprise, 3. an astonishment. ivSmr8 /vis.m.r¯/ <vi.sm.r.¯> neut. forgetting. ivhrvu& /vi.hr.vu~/ <vi.h.r.vu~> v.intr. 1. to stroll, 2. to walk for a pleasure. ivhar /vi.har/ <vi.ha.r> masc. 1. a stroll, 2. a leisurely walk. ivhIn /vi.hin/ <vi.hii.n> adj. devoid of. ivhvX /vih.vÆ/ <vi.h.v.Æ> adj. puzzled and upset. vI`rvu& /vi.k˙r.vu~/ <vii.kh.r.vu~> v.intr. to dispersed. vIgt /vi.gt/ <vii.g.t> fem. details. vI2Xvu& /vi.c˙Æ.vu~/ <vii.ch.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to cleanse (utensils etc.) vIjXI /viÔ.Æi/ <vii.Ô.Æii> fem. 1. lightening, 2. electricity. vI8vu& /vi¯.vu~/ <vii.¯.vu~> v.tr. 1. to pick, 2. to pluck. vI8a /vi.¯a/ <vii.¯a> fem. a lute. vInvvu& /vi.nv.vu~/ <vii.n.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to entreat, 2. to request. vIfrvu& /vi.p˙r.vu~/ <vii.ph.r.vu~> v.intr. to become uncontrolled because of anger. vImo /vi.mo/ <vii.mo> masc. insurance.
  • 198. 198 vIr /vir/ <vii.r> adj. brave. vIrta /vir.ta/ <vii.r.ta> fem. bravery. vIyR /vir.j/ <vii.rj> neut. semen. vI=I /vi.ßi/ <vii.ßii> fem. an inn. vI&2I /vi~.c˙i/ <vii~.chii> masc. a scorpian (male). vI&28 /vi~.c˙¯/ <vii~.ch.¯> fem. a scorpian (female). vI&j8o /vi~Ô.¯o/ <vii.Ô.¯o> masc. a fan. vI&4vu& /vi~ˇ,vu~/ <v> v.tr. to wrap.vI&4I /vi~.ˇi/ <vii~.ˇii> fem. an ornamental ring. vI&4o /vi~.ˇo/ <vii~.ˇo> masc. a roll. vI&0vu& /vi~d˙.vu~/ <vii~.dh.vu~> v.tr. 1. to bore, 2. to pierce, 3. to prick. v<x /vruk.ß/ <vr°u.kß> neut. a tree. v<)0 /vrud.d˙/ <vr°u.dhdh> adj. old. v<i)0 /vrud˙.d˙i/ <vr°u.dhdhi> fem. growth. v<q8 /vru.߯/ <vr°u.s°.¯> neut. a testicle. veg /veg/ <ve.g> masc. speed. vegXu& /veg.Æu~/ <ve.g.Æu~> adj. at a distance. vecvu& /vec.vu~/ <ve.c.vu~> v.tr. to sell. veca8 /ve.ca¯/ <ve.ca.¯> neut. sale. ve5vu& /veˇ˙.vu~/ <ve.ˇh.vu~> v.tr. to suffer. ve6fvu& /ve.Îp˙.vu~/ <ve.Î.ph.vu~> v.tr. to waste. ve6vu& /veÎ.vu~/ <ve.Î.vu~> v.tr. to pluck fruits. ve7o /ve.Î˙o/ <ve.Îho> masc. one of the cuts on a finger-joint. ve8I /ve.¯i/ <ve.¯ii> fem. a braid of hair. vetn /ve.tn/ <ve.t.n> neut. salary. vetrvu& /ve.tr.vu~/ <ve.t.r.vu~> v.tr. to cut cloth for tailoring. vetaX /ve.taÆ/ <ve.ta.Æ> masc. a ghost. vedna /ved.na/ <ve.d.na> fem. pain. ve0k /ve.d˙k/ <ve.dh.k> adj. 1. piercing, 2. sharp. ve0vu& /ved˙.vu~/ <vve.dh.vu~> v.tr. 1. to bore, 2. to pierce. ve0=aXa /ved˙.ßa.Æa/ <ve.dh.ßa.Æa> fem. an observatory. vepar /ve.par/ <ve.pa.r> masc. 1. trade, 2. commerce, 3. business. veparI /ve.pa.ri/ <ve.pa.rii> masc. 1. trader, 2. a businessman, 3. a shop- keeper. ver /v´r/ <ve.r> neut. hostality.
  • 199. 199 ver82er8 /ve.r¯.c˙e.r¯/ <ve.r.¯.che.r.¯> advb. scattered. vervu& /ver.vu~/ <ve.r.vu~> v.tr. to scatter. veragI /ve.ra.gi/ <ve.ra.gii> masc. an ascetic. veran /ve.ran/ <ve.ra.n> adj. 1. desolate, 2. uninhabitated. vero /ve.ro/ <ve.ro> masc. 1. a tax, 2. a toll. vel8 /ve.l¯/ <ve.l.¯> neut. a rolling- pin. velo /ve.lo/ <ve.lo> masc. a creeper. vevla: /vev.lai/ <ve.v.la.ii> fem. over- wisdom. veva: /ve.vai/ <ve.va.ii> masc. the father-in-law of one’s son or daughter. veiv=aX /ve.vi.ßaÆ/ <ve.vi.ßa.Æ> neut. betrothal. ve= /veß/ <ve.ß> masc. 1. dress, 2. costume. ve+ya /veß.ja/ <ve.ßja> fem. prostitute. vEkiLpk /vi.kl.pik/ <vi.k.lpi.k> adj. optional. vE}aaink /vig.na.nik/ <vi.gna.ni.k> masc. a scientist. vE}aaink /vig.na.nik/ <vi.gna.ni.k> adj. scientific. vEd /vid/ <vi.d> masc. a doctor. vE0Vy /vi.d˙v.j/ <vi.dh.vj> neut. widowhood. vE=a` /vi.ßak˙/ <vi.ßa.kh> masc. the seventh month of the Vikram year. vEQ8v /viß.¯v/ <vi.s°¯.v> masc. a sect of Hinuism so named. Vyikt /vjk.ti/ <vj.kti> fem. 1. an individual, 2. a person. Vyg/ /vjg.r/ <vj.gr> adj. puzzled. Vyg/ta /vj.gr.ta/ <vj.gra.ta> fem. uneasiness. Vy9a /vj.t˙a/ <vj.tha> fem. pain. Vyi-car /vj.b˙i.car/ <vj.bhi.ca.r> masc. immoral sexual relation. Vyi-carI /vj.b˙i.ca.ri/ <vj.bhi.ca.rii> adj. an immoral man. Vyi-carI8I /vj.b˙i.ca.ri.¯i/ <vj.bhi.ca.rii.¯ii> adj. an immoral woman. Vy9R /vjr.t˙/ <vj.rth> adj. useless. Vyvsay /vjv.saj/ <vj.v.sa.j> masc. activity. VyvS9a /vj.vs.t˙a/ <vj.v.stha> fem. 1. a proper arrengement, 2, a proper management. Vyvhar /vjv.har/ <vj.v.ha.r> masc. a social interaction.
  • 200. 200 Vyvharku=X /vjv.har.ku.ßÆ/ <v.v.ha.r.ku.ß.Æ> adj. 1. practical, 2. good at social interaction. Vyvharu /vjv.ha.ru/ <vj.v.ha.ru> adj. feasible. Vysn /vj.sn/ <vj.s.n> neut. a bad habit. VySt /vjs.t/ <vj.st> adj. dispersed. Vy&g /vj˜.g/ <vj~.g> masc. satirical. Vy&jn /vjµ.Ôn/ <vj~.Ô.n> masc. a consonant. Vyakr8 /vjak.r¯/ <vja.k.r.¯> neut. grammar. Vya~ya /vja.k˙ja/ <vja.khja> fem. definition. Vya~yata /vjak˙.ja.ta/<vja.khja.ta> masc. a lecturer. Vya~yan /vjak˙.jan/ <vja.khja.n> neut. a lecture. Vyaj /vjaÔ/ <vja.Ô> neut. interest (on money). Vyai0 /vja.d˙i/ <vja.dhi> masc. 1. a disease, 2. a sickness. Vyap /vjap/ <vja.p> masc. spreed. Vyapk /vja.pk/ <vja.p.k> adj. widespread. Vyapar /vja.par/ <vja.pa.r> masc. business. Vyayam /vja.jam/ <vja.ja.m> masc. exercise. VyuTpi]a /vjut.pt.ti/ <vju.tp.tti> fem. etymology. v/t /vrt/ <vr.t> neut. a moral or religous vow. = =k /ßk/ <ß.k> masc. 1. doubt, 2. suspicion. =kdar /ßk.dar/ <ß.k.da.r> adj. suspected (person). =km&d /ßk.mnd/ <ß.k.m~.d> adj. suspicious. =kro /ßk.ro/ <ß.k.ro> masc. 1. a hawk, 2. a falcon. =kvu& /ßk.vu~/ <ß.k.ro> v.intr. 1. to be able, 2. to be possible. =kkiryu& /ßk.k.ri.ju~/ <ß.kk.ri.ju~> neut. a sweet potato. =kkl /ßk.kl/ <ß.kk.l> fem. face. =ikt /ßk.ti/ <ß.kti> fem. 1. strength, 2. force. =iktpUjk /ßk.ti.pu.Ôk/ <ß.kti.puu.Ô.k> adj and masc. a worshipper of the goddess. =iktpUja /ßk.ti.pu.Ôa/ <ß.kti/puu.Ôa> fem. worship of the goddess. =ky /ßk.j/ <ß.kj> adj. possible.
  • 201. 201 =kyta /ßk.j.ta/ <ß.kj.ta> fem. possibility. =8 /߯/ <ß.¯> neut. a plat of jute. =8gar /߯.gar/ <ß.¯.ga.r> masc. beauty-aids. =taBdI /ß.tab.di/ <ß.ta.bdii> fem. 1. a century, 2. a centenary. ={au /ßt.ru/ <ß.tru> masc. an enemy. =p9 /ß.pt˙/ <ß.p.th> masc. 1. oath, 2. vow. =b /ßb/ <ß.b> neut. a corpse. =Bd /ßb.d/ <ß.bd> masc. a word. =Bdkoq /ßb.da.koß/ <ß.bd.ko.s°> masc. a dictionary. =mvu& /ßm.vu~/ <ß.m.vu~> v.intr. to be pacified. =ytan /ßj.tan/ <ß.j.ta.n> masc. Satan. =r8 /ß.r¯/ <ß.r.¯> neut. shelter. =r8agit /ßr.¯a.g.ti/ <ß.r.¯a.g.ti> fem. 1. submission, 2. surrender. =r8a9IR /ßr.¯ar.t˙i/ <ß.r.¯a.rthii> adj. and masc. a refugee. =r8a: /ßr.¯ai/ <ß.r.¯a.ii> fem. a musical instrument. =rt /ß.rt/ <ß.r.t> fem. 1. a bet, 2. a condition. =rdI /ßr.di/ <ß.r.dii> fem. cold. =rbt /ßr.bt/ <ß.r.b.t> neut. cold drink. =rm /ß.rm/ <ß.r.m> fem. 1. modesty, .2 shame. =rmavu& /ßr.ma.vu~/ <ß.r.ma.vu~> v.intr. 1. to blush, 2. to crestfallen. =rmaX /ßr.maÆ/ <ß.r.ma.Æ> adj. shy. =raf /ß.rap˙/ <ß.ra.ph> masc. a banker. =rafI /ß.ra.p˙i/ <ß.ra.phii> adj. related to banking. =rab /ß.rab/ <ß.ra.b> masc. 1. wine, 2. liquor. =rabI /ß.ra.bi/ <ß.ra.bii> adj. and masc. a drunkard. =rIf /ß.rip˙/ <ß.ri.ph> adj. respectable. =rIr /ß.rir/ <ß.rii.r> neut. the body. =rIrrcna /ß.rir.rc.na/ <ß.rii.r.r.c.na> fem. anatomy. =rIrs&b&0 /ß.rir.sm.ban.d˙/ <ß.rii.r.s~.b~.dh> masc. sexual relation. =£Aat /ß.ru.at/ <ß.ruu.a.t> fem. a beginning. =S{a /ßß.tr/ <ß.str> neut. a weapon.
  • 202. 202 =S{aik/ya /ßß.tr.kri.ja/ <ß.str.kri.ja> fem. 1. surgery, 2. surgical operation. =hId /ß.hid/ <ß.hii.d> adj. and masc. martyr. =hIdI /ß.hi.di/ <ß.hii.dii> fem. martyrdom. =hen=ah /ß.hen.ßah/ <ß.he.n.ßa.h> masc. an emperor. =her /ß.her/ <ß.he.r> neut. a city. =&ka /ߘ.ka/ <ß~.ka> fem. 1. suspicion, 2. doubt. =&ka=Il /ߘ.ka.ßil/ <ß~.ka.ßi.l> adj. 1. doubting, 2. suspicious. =&kaSpd /ߘ.ka.spd/ <ß~.ka.sp.d> adj. 1. doubtful, 2. uncertain. =&` /ߘk˙/ <ß~.kh> masc. a conch. =ak /ßak/ <ßa.k> neut. edible vegetable. =akaharI /ßa.ka.ha.ri/ <ßa.ka.ha.rii> adj. vegetarian. =a` /ßak˙/ <ßa.kh> fem. 1. credit, 2. reputation. =a`a /ßa.k˙a/ <ßa.kha> fem. a branch. =a8u& /ßa.¯u~/ <ßha.¯u~> adj. wise. =ap /ßap/ <ßa.p> masc. a curse. =aba= /ßa.baß/ <ßa.ba.ß> excl. 1. bravo, 2. well-done. =aiBdk /ßab.dik/ <ßa.bdi.k> adj. verbal. =ayr /ßa.jr/ <ßa.j.r> masc. a poet. =arvu& /ßar.vu~/ <ßa.r.vu~> v.tr. to make a hole. =arIirk /ßa.ri.rik/ <ßa.rii.ri.k> adj. bodily. =al /ßal/ <ßa.l> fem. a shawl. =ask /ßa.ßk/ <ßa.s.k> masc. a ruler. =asn /ßa.sn/ <ßa.s.n> neut. governance. =aS{a /ßas.tr/ <ßa.ßtr> neut. a scripture. =aS{aa9R /ßas.tra.rt˙/ <ßa.stra.rth> masc. interpretation of scriptures. =ahm<g /ßah.mrug/ <ßa.h.mr≤u.g> neut. an ostrich. =ahukar /ßa.hu.kar/ <ßa.hu.ka.r> masc. an honest person. =ahu6I /ßa.hu.Îi/ <ßa.hu.Îii> fem. a porcupine. =aXa /ßa.la/ <ßa.Æa> fem. a school. =a&t /ßa~nt/ <ßa~.t> adj. .1quite, 2. peaceful. i=kar /ßi.kar/ <ßi.ka.r> masc. hunting. i=karI /ßi.ka.ri/ <ßi.ka.rii> masc. a hunter. i=xk /ßik.ßk/ <ßi.kß.k> masc. a male teacher.
  • 203. 203 i=x8 /ßik.߯/ <ßi.kß.¯> neut. 1. education, 2. teaching. i=xa /ßik.ßa/ <ßi.kßa> fem. 1. teaching, 2. education, 3. punishment. i=ixka /ßik.ßi.ka/ <ßi.kßi.ka> fem. a female teacher. i=ixt /ßk.ßit/ <ßi.kßi.t> adj. educated. i=`r /ßi.k˙r/ <ßi.kh.r> neut. a peak. i=`&6 /ßi.k˙¯Î/ <ßi.kh.r> masc. a kind of sweet. i=`a /ßi.k˙a/ <ßi.kha> fem. 1. a tuft, 2. a pigtail, 3. a crest, 3. a flame of a lamp. i=`aw /ßi.k˙a.u/ <ßi.kha.r> adj. learning. i=`am8 /ßi.k˙a.m¯/ <ßi.kha.m.¯> fem. instruction. i=i9l /ßi.t˙il/ <ßi.thi.l> adj. loose. i=ibr /ßi.bir/ <ßi.bi.r> masc. 1. a tent, 2. a camp. i=yaX /ßi.jaÆ/ <ßi.ja.Æ> neut. a fox. i=yaXu& /ßi.ja.Æu~/ <ßi.ja.Æu~> adj. grown or produced in winter. i=yaXo /ßi.ja.Æo/ <ßi.ja.Æo> masc. winter. i=r /ßir/ <ßi.r> neut. the head. i=ra /ßi.ra/ <ßi.ra> fem. a bllod-vessel. i=la /ßi.la/ <ßi.la> fem. a slab of stone. i=Lp /ßil.p/ <ßi.lp> neut. a sculpture. i=Lp=aS{a /ßil.p.ßas.tr/ <ßi.lp.ßa.str> neut. architecture. i=Lp=aS{aI /ßil.p.ßas.tri/ <ßi.lp.ßa.strii> masc. an architect. i=LpI /ßil.pi/ <ßi.lpii> masc. a sculptor. i=vra{aI /ßiv.rat.ri/ <ßi.v.ra.trii> fem. the night of Lord Shiva’s festival. i=i=r /ßi.ßir/ <ßi.ßi.r> fem. the later half of winter. i==u /ßi.ßu/ <ßi.ßu> neut. 1. a child, 2. an infant. i=¿n /ßiß.n/<ßi.ßn> masc. the penis. i=Q4acar /ßiß.ta.car/ <ßi.s°ˇa.ca.r> masc. politeness. i=Qy /ßiß.j/ <ßi.s°j> masc. 1. a male student, 2. a male disciple. i=Qya /ßiß.ja/ <ßi.s°ja> fem. 1. a female student, 2. a female disciple. i=St /ßis.t/ <ßi.st> fem. discipline. i=&g /ßi˜g/ <ßi~.g> fem. a pod. i=&g6u& /ßi˜g.Îu~/ <ßi~.g.Îu~> neut. a horn. =I` /ßik˙/ <ßii.kh> fem. advice. =I` /ßik˙/ <ßii.kh> masc. a community so named. =I`vu& /ßik˙.vu~/ <ßii.kh.vu~> v.tr. to learn.
  • 204. 204 =ItXa /ßit.Æa/ <ßii.t.Æa> fem. smallpox. (honorific) =Iro /ßi.ro/ masc. <ßii.ro> a kind of sweet. =I=I /ßi.ßi/ fem. <ßii.ßii> a small bottle. =I=o /ßi.ßo/ masc. <ßii.ßo> a big bottle. =IXva /ßiÆ.va/ <ßii.Æ.va> masc. pl. a kind of skin disease. =ukn /ßu.kn/ <ßu.k.n> masc. hon. an omen. =uk/var /ßuk.r.var/ <ßu.kr.va.r> masc. Friday. =u)0 /ßud˙.d˙/ <ßu.dhdh> adj. 1. clean, 2. pure. =ui)0 /ßud˙.d˙i/ <ßu.dhdhi> fem. purification. =u- /ßub˙/ <ßu.bh> adj. auspicious. =u-eC2k /ßu.b˙ec.c˙k/ <ßu.bhe.cch.k> adj. a well-wisher. =u-eC2a /ßu.b˙ec.c˙a/ <ßu.bhe.ccha> fem. a well-wishing. =UNy /ßun.j/ <ßuu.nj> neut. 1. zero, 2. nothingness. =UrvIr /ßur.vir/ <ßuu.r.vii.r> masc. a brave person. =UX /ßuÆ/ <ßuu.Æ> fem. dry thorn. =<&gar /ßru˜.gar/ <ßr≤u~.ga.r> masc. 1. decoration, 2. ornamentation. =ekvu& /ßek.vu~/ <ße.k.vu~> v.tr. 1. to bake, 2. to roast. =e5 /ßeˇ˙/ <ße.ˇh> masc. a master. =e5a8I /ße.ˇ˙a.¯i/ <ße.ˇha.¯ii> fem. a mistress. =etr&@ /ßet.rn.Ôi/ <ße.t.r~.Ôii> fem. a carpet. =er6I /ßer.Îi/ <ße.r.Îii> fem. sugar- cane. =erI /ße.ri/ <ße.rii> fem. 1. a lane, 2. a street. =ero /ße.ro/ <ße.ro> masc. a remark. =eq /ßeß/ <ße.s°> adj. residual. =Eil /ßi.li/ <ßi.li> fem. style. =E=v /ßi.ßv/ <ßi.ß.v> neut. childhood. =ok /ßok/ <ßo.k> masc. melancholy. =o` /ßok˙/ <ßo.kh> masc. a hobby. =o0 /ß˙od˙/ <ßo.dh> fem. . search, 2. inquiry. =o-vu& /ßob˙.vu~/ <ßho.bh.vu~> v.intr. to look beautiful. =o-a /ßo.b˙a/ <ßo.bha> fem. 1. beauty, 2. charm. +yam /ßjam/ <ßja.m> adj. black.
  • 205. 205 +yam /ßjam/ <ßja.m> masc. The Lord Krishna. [a)0a /ßrd.d˙a/ <ßr.dhdha> fem. 1. trust, 2. faith, .3 belief. [a)0aXu& /ßrd.d˙a.Æu~/ <ßr.dhdha.Æu~> adj. devotional. [av8 /ßr.v¯/ <ßr.v.¯> neut. an act of hearing. [aav8 /ßra.v¯/ <ßra.v.¯> masc. the tenth month of a Vikram year. [aI /ßri/ <ßrii> masc. an auspicious word used in the beginning of a writing. [aeiQ5 /ßreß.ˇ˙i/ <ßre.s°ˇhi> masc. a great merchant. [aota /ßro.ta/ <ßro.ta> adj. 1. a hearer, 2. a listener. ¿lok /ßlo.ka/ <ßlo.k> masc. a stanza. ¿van /ßva.na/ <ßva.n> masc. a dog. ¿vas /ßva.s/ <ßva.s> masc. breathing. ¿vet /ßve.ta/ <ßve.t> adj. white. q q4kmR /ߡ.kr.m/ <s°.ˇ.k.rm> masc. pl. the six duties of Brahmins. q4ko8 /ߡ.ko¯/ <s°.t.ko.¯> masc. hexagonal. q4pd /ߡ.pd/ <s°.t.p.d> adj. six footed. q6d=Rn /ßÎ.dr.ßn/ <s°. [.d.rß.n> neut. pl. the six different systems of Vedic philosophy. qiQ4 /ßß.ˇi/ <s°.s°ˇi> adj. sixty. s s: /si/ <s.ii> masc. a tailor skmRk /s.kr.mk/ <s.k.rm.k> adj. a transitive verb. skX /s.kÆ/ <s.k.Æ> adj. fortunate. sk&jo /s.kµ.Ôo/ <s.k~.Ôo> masc. 1. a gripping machine, 2. a grip. sik/y/sk.ri.j/ <s.kri.j> adj. active. s`8u& /sk˙.¯u~/ <s.kh.¯u~> adj. 1. quiet, 2. tranquil. s`X6`X /s.k˙Æ.Î.k˙Æ/ <s.kh.Æ.Î.kh.Æ> adj. loose. s`avt /s.k˙a.vt/ <s.kha.v.t> fem. donation. s`I /s.k˙i/ <s.khi> fem. a female friend. s`ed /s.k˙ed/ <s.khe.d> advb. sadly. s~t /sk˙.t/ <s.kht> adj. hard. s~ta: /sk˙.ta.i/ <s.khta.ii> fem. hardness.
  • 206. 206 sg6 /s.gÎ/ <s.g.Î> masc. 1. foot- prints etc. 2. traces. sgp8 /sg.p¯/ <s.g.Î> neut. relation. sg-aR /s.gr.b˙a/ <s.g.rbha> fem. pregnant. sgv6 /sg.vÎ/ <s.g.v.Î> fem. 1. provision, 2. comfort. sgIr /s.gir/ <s.gii.r> adj. minor (age) sgu8 /s.gu¯/ adj. <s.gu.¯> 1. attributes, 2. qualities. sgu&vhalu& /s.gu~.v.ha.lu~/ <s.gu~.v.ha.lu~> neut. relative. sgu&s&b&0I /s.gu.sm.bn.d˙i/ <s.gu~.s~.b~.dhii> neut. relatives etc. sgo{a /s.got.r/ <s.go.tr> adj. having a common ancestor. s3n /s.g˙n/ <s.gh.n> adj. 1. dense, 2. solid. s3Xu& /sg˙.Æu~/ <s.gh.Æu~> adj. entire. sic{a /s.cit.r/ <s.ci.tr> adj. illustrated. sco4 /s.coˇ/ <s.co.ˇ> adj. unfailing. sCca: /sc.cai/ <s.cca.ii> fem. honesty. sjnI /sÔ.ni/ <s.Ô.nii> fem. a female friend. sjvu& /sÔ.vu~/ <s.Ô.vu~> v.tr. to put on clothes, ornaments. sja /s.Ôa/ <s.Ôa> fem. punishment. sjatIy /s.Ôa.ti.j/ <s.Ôa.tii.j> adj. of the same sex. sjav4 /s.Ôa.vˇ/ <s.Ôa.v.ˇ> fem. decoration. s@v /s.Ôiv/ <s.Ôii.v> adj. animate. s@vn /s.Ôi.vn/ <s.Ôii.v.n> adj. living. sjj /sÔ.Ô/ <s.ÔÔ> adj. equipped. sjjn /sÔ.Ôn/ <s.ÔÔ.n> masc. a gentleman. s4Ik /s.ˇik/ <s.ˇii.k> adj. with commentary. s4oi6yo /s.ˇo.Îi.jo/ <s.ˇo.Îi.jo> masc. a speculator. s4os4 /s.ˇo.sˇ/ <s.ˇo.s.ˇ> advb. repeatedly. s44o /sˇ.ˇo/ <s.ˇˇo> masc. a risky transaction in forward market. s6k /s.Îk/ <s.Î.k> adj. wonderstruck. s6k /s.Îk/ <s.Î.k> fem. a well- built road. s6vu& /sÎ.vu~/ <s.Î.vu~> v.intr. to rot. s6s5 /sÎ.sˇ˙/ <s.Î.s.ˇh> adj. sixty seven.
  • 207. 207 s6s6a4 /sÎ.s.Îaˇ/ <s.Î.s.Îa.ˇ> advb. non-stop. s6o /s.Îo/ <s.Îo> masc. 1. rot, .2 moral degeneration. s7 /sÎ˙/ <s.Îh> masc. a ship’s sail. s8ko /s¯.ko/ <s.¯.ko> masc. a shooting pain. stt /s.tt/ <s.t.t> advb. non-stop. stam8I /s.ta.m.¯i/ <s.ta.m.¯ii> fem. 1. harassment, 2. teasing. stej /s.teÔ/ <s.te.Ô> adj. shining brightly. sTkmR /st.kr.m/ <s.tk.rm> neut. a benevolent work. sTkar /st.kar/ <s.tka.r> masc. 1. welcome, 2. reception. sTkarvu& /st.kar.vu~/ <s.ta.r.vu~> v.tr. to welcome. s]ar /st.tr/ <s.tt.r> adj. seventeen. s]aa /st.ta/ <s.tta> fem. 1. authority, 2. power. s]aavar /st.ta.var/ <s.tta.va.r> adj. 1. officially, 2. authentic. s]aa8u& /st.ta.¯u~/ <s.tta.¯u~> adj. ninety seven. s]aavn /st.ta.vn/ <s.tta.v.n> adj. fifty seven. s]aavIs /st.ta.vis/ <s.tta.vi.s> adj. twenty seven. s]v /st.v/ <s.tv> neut. essence. sTpuruq /st.pu.ruß/ <s> masc. a virtuous man. sTy /st.j/ <s.tj> neut. truth. sTy /st.j/ <s.tj> adj. true. sTyvadI /s.tjva.di/ <s.tj.va.dii> adj. truthful. sTyag/h /s.tja.grh/ <s.tja.gr.h> masc. insistence on truth or righteousness. sTyana= /s.tja.naß/ <s.tja.na.ß> neut. annihilation. sTs&g /st.s˜g/ <s.ts~.g> masc. company of saints. sd&tr /s.dn.tr/ <s.d~.t.r> advb. absolutely. sda /s.da/ <s.da> advb. always. sdakaX /s.da.kaÆ/ <s.da.ka.Æ> advb. forever. sdacr8 /s.da.c.r¯/ <s.da.c.r.¯> neut. moral conduct. sdacar /s.da.car/ <s.da.ca.r> masc. a moral conduct. sdI /s.di/ <s.dii> fem. a century. sdgt /sd.gt/ <sd.g.t> adj. having attained salvation.
  • 208. 208 sdgit /sd.g.ti/ <sd.g.ti> fem. salvation. sdgu8 /sd.gu¯/ <sd.gu.¯> masc. a virtue. sdg<hS9 /sd.gru.hs.t˙/ <sd.gr≤u.h.sth> masc. a gentleman. sdbui)0 /sd.bud.d˙i/ <sd.bu.dhdhi> fem. constructive understanding. sd-agI /sd.b˙a.gi/ <sd.bha.gii> adj. fortunate. sd-aGy /sd.b˙a.gj/ <sd.bha.gj> neut. good fortunate. sd-av /sd.b˙av/ <sd.bha.v> masc. constructive sentiment. sdv<i]a /sd.vrut.ti/ <sd.vru≤.tti> fem. constructive intention. s)0r /sd˙.d˙r/ <s.dhdh.r> adj. wealthy. snm /s.nm/ <s.n.m> fem. a sweetheart. snsna4I /sn.s.na.ˇi/ <s.n.s.na.ˇii> fem. 1. a widespread feeling of dismay, 2. a thrill. snatn /s.na.tn/ <s.na.t.n> adj. eternal. snepat /s.ne.pat/ <s.ne.pa.t> masc. delirious fever. sNman /sn.man/ <s.nma.n> neut. 1. reception, 2. honor. sNmagR /sn.marg/ <s.nma.rg> masc. a moral path. siNm{a /sn.mit.r/ <s.nmi.tr> masc. a virtuous friend. sp6avvu& /sp.Îav.vu~/ <s.p.Îa.v.vu~> v.tr. to entrap. spnu& /sp.nu~/ <s.p.nu~> neut. a dream. sprmu& /s.pr.mu~/ <s.p.r.mu~> adj. auspicious. spa4 /s.paˇ/ <s.pa.ˇ> adj. flat. spa4ab&0 /s.pa.ˇa.bnd˙/ <s.pa.ˇa.b~.dh> advb. 1. at once, 2. promptly. spa4I /s.pa.ˇi/ <s.pa.ˇii> fem. surface. spUcu& /s.pu.cu~./ <s.puu.cu~> adj. entire. spUt /s.put/ <s.puu.t> masc. a virtuous son. sPtko8 /sp.t.kø¯/ <s.pt.ko.¯> masc. a heptagon. sPtah /sp.tah/ <s.pta.h> neut. a week. sp/ma8 /s.pr.ma¯/ <s.pr.ma.¯> adj. with proof. sp/ma8 /s.pr.ma¯/ <s.pr.ma.¯> advb. proportion. sp/em /s.prem/ <s.pre.m> advb. lovingly.
  • 209. 209 sfr /s.p˙r/ <s.ph.r> fem. 1. a travel, 2. a journey. sfrjn /s.p˙r.Ôn/ <s.ph.r.Ô.n> neut. an apple. sfX /s.p˙Æ/ <s.ph.Æ> adj. 1. fruitful, 2. successful. sfa: /s.p˙a.i/ <s.pha.ii> fem. cleanliness. sfac4 /s.p˙a.cˇ/ <s.pha.c.ˇ> advb. totally used up. sfaXu& /s.p˙a.Æu~/ <s.pha.Æu~> adj. stunned. sfed /s.p˙ed/ <s.phe.d> adj. white. sbk /s.bk/ <s.b.k> masc. a moral. sb6ko /s.bÎ.ko/ <s.b.Î.ko> masc. a sound made when eating a liquid food with hand. sb6vu& /s.bÎ.vu~/ <s.b.Î.vu~> v.intr. to suffer for a long time. sbX /s.bÆ/ <s.b.Æ> adj. strong. s-r /s.b˙r/ <s.bh.r> adj. plenty. s-a /s.b˙a/ <s.bha> fem. a meeting. s-asd /s.p˙a.sad/ <s.bha.s.d> masc. a member (of an association or organization). s_y /sb˙.j/ <s.bhj> masc. a member (of an association or organization). s_y /sb˙.j/ <s.bhj> adj. polite. sm /sm/ <s.m> masc. an oath. smx /s.mk.ß/ <s.m.kß> advb. in the presence of. smg/ /s.mg.r/ <s.m.gr> adj. 1. whole, 2. entire. smcors /sm.co.rs/ <s.m.co.r.s> masc. a square. smj /s.mÔ/ <s.m.Ô> fem. understanding. smj8 /s.m.Ô¯/ <s.m.Ô.¯> fem. understanding. smj8u& /s.mÔ.¯u~/ <s.m.Ô.¯u~> adj. wide. smjvu& /s.mÔ.vu~/ <s.m.Ô.vu~> v.intr. 1. to understand, 2. to comprehend. smju /sm.Ôu/ <s.m.Ôu> adj. wise. smjUtI /sm.Ôu.ti/ <s.m.Ôu.tii> fem. 1. understanding, 2. compromise. smtl /sm.tl/ <s.m.t.l> neut. an even surface. smtula /sm.tu.la/ <s.m.tu.la> fem. balance. smtol /sm.tol/ <s.m.to.l> adj. of equal weight. smd=IR /sm.dr.ßi/ <s.m.d.rßii> adj. impartial.
  • 210. 210 sm±iQ4 /sm.drß.ˇi/ <s.m.dr.s°ˇi> adj. impartial. sm-av /sm.b˙av/ <s.m.bha.v> masc. impartiality. smy /s.mj/ <s.m.j> masc. time. smysUck /s.mj.su.ck/ <s.m.j.suu.c.k> adj. sharp- minded. smysUckta /s.mj.su.ck.ta/ <s.m.j.suu.c.k.ta> fem. presence of mind. smrvu& /s.mr.vu~/ <s.m.r.vu~> v.tr. to remember someone or something with devotion. sm£p /sm.rup/ <s.m.ruu.p> adj. 1. of the same form, 2. similar. sm9R /s.mr.t˙/ <s.m.rth> adj. powerful. smpR8 /s.mr.p¯/ <s.m.rp.¯> neut. 1. an offering, 2. a surrendering, 3. dedication. smpRvu& /s.mr.p.vu~/ <s.m.rp.vu~> v.tr. to offer, 2. to dedicate, .3 to surrender. smvySk /sm.v.js.k/ <s.m.v.j.sk> adj. of the same age. sm=er /sm.ßer/ <s.m.ße.r> fem. a sword. smSt /s/ms.t/ <s.m.st> adj. 1. entire, 2. whole. smSya /s.ms.ja/ <s.m.sja> fem. 1. a riddle, 2. a puzzle. smagm /s.ma.gm/ <s.ma.g.m> masc. 1. an act of meeting, 2. union. smacar /s.ma.car/ <s.ma.ca.r> masc. news. smacarp{a /s.ma.car.pt.r/ <s.ma.ca.r.p.tr> neut. a newspaper. smaj /s.maÔ/ <s.ma.Ô> masc. 1. society, 2. an association. smajvad /s.maÔ.vad/ <s.ma.Ô.va.d> masc. socialism. smaj=aS{a /s.maÔ.ßaß.tr/ <s.ma.Ô.ßa.ßtr> neut. sociology. smaj=aS{aI /s/maÔ.ßaß.tri/ <s.ma.Ô.ßa.ßtrii> masc. a sociologist. sma0an /s/ma/d˙an/ <s.ma.dha.n> neut. 1. compromise, 2 settlement. smai0 /s.ma.d˙i/ <s.ma.dhi> fem. 1. deep meditation, 2. a death of an ascetic, 3. a shrine, etc. constructed over the spot where an ascetic’s corpse is buried. sman /s.man/ <s.ma.n> adj. 1. similar, 2. equal. smanta /s.man.ta/ <s.ma.n.ta> fem. 1. similarity, 2. equality. smapn /s.ma.pn/ <s.ma.p.n> neut. an act of completion.
  • 211. 211 smaPt /s.map.t/ <s.ma.pt> adj. 1. completed, 2. finished. smarvu& /s.mar.vu~/ <s.ma.r.vu~> v.tr. to repair. smar&- /s.ma.rm.b˙/ <s.ma.r~.bh> masc. a grand celebration. smave= /s.ma.veß/ <s.ma.ve.ß> masc. 1. accomodation, 2. inclusion. smas /s.mas/ <s.ma.s> masc. a compound. sma&tr /s.ma~n.tr/ <s.ma~.t.r> adj. parallel. simit /s.mi.ti/ <s.mi.ti> fem. a committee. smIkr8 /s.mi.k.r¯/ <s.mii.k.r.¯> neut. equation. smIxa /s.mik.ßa/ <s.mi.kßa> fem. criticism. smIp /s.mip/ <s.mii.p> adj. 1. near, 2. close. smIpta /s.mip.ta/ <s.mii.p.ta> fem. 1. nearness, 2. proximity. smIsa&j /s.mi.sa~Ô/ <s.mii.sa~.Ô> fem. the dusk. smUict /s.mu.cit/ <s.muu.ci.t> adj. proper. smuCcy /s.muc.c.j/ <s.muu.cc.j> masc. a collection. smUday /s.mu.daj/ <s.muu.da.j> masc. a group. smu± /s.mud.r/ <s.mu.dr> masc. an ocean. sm<)0 /sm.rud˙.d˙/ <s.mr≤.dhdh> adj. prosperious. sm<i)0 /sm.rud˙.d˙i/ <s.mr≤.dhdhi> fem. prosperity. sme4vu& /s.meˇ.vu~/ <s.me.ˇ.vu~> v.tr. to wind up. smov6u& /s.mo.v.Îu~/ <s.mo.v.Îu~> adj. equal. srk8u& /s.rk.¯u~/ <s.r.k.¯u~> adj. slippery. srkvu& /s.rk.vu~/ <s.r.k.vu~> v.intr. 1. to slip, 2. to slide. srkar /sr.kar/ <s.r.ka.r> fem. government. srkarI /sr.ka.ri/ <s.r.ka.rii> adj. governmental. srko /sr.ko/ <s.r.ko> masc. vinegar. sr`am8I /sr.k˙am.¯i/ <s.r.kha.m.¯ii> fem. comparision. sr`avvu& /sr.k˙av.vu~/ <s.r.kha.v.vu~> v.tr. to compare. sr`u& /sr.k˙u~/ <s.r.khu~> adj. equal. srgvo /sr.g.vo/ <s.r.g.vo> masc. a tree or its fruit like stick that can be used as vegetable. sr3s /sr.g˙s/ <s.r.gh.s> neut. a procession.
  • 212. 212 srdar /sr.dar/ <s.r.da.r> masc. 1. leader, 2. chief. srdarI /sr.da.ri/ <s.r.da.rii> fem. leadership. srnamu& /sr.na.mu~/ <s.r.na.mu~> neut. address. srp&c /sr.pµc/ <s.r.p~.c> masc. the president of a village assembly. srpav /sr.pav/ <s.r.pa.v> masc. 1. a gift, 2. an award. sr-r /sr.b˙r/ <s.r.bh.r> adj. 1. neither more nor less, 2. equal. sr-ra /sr.b˙.ra/ <s.r.bh.ra> fem. hospitality. srmu`TyarI /sr.muk˙.tja.ri/ <s.r.mu.kh.tja.rii> fem. dictactorship. srmu`Tyar=ahI /sr.muk˙.tjar.ßa.hi/ <s.r.mu.kh.tja.r.ßa.hii> fem. dictatorship. srvaXo /sr.va.Æo/ <s.r.va.Æo> masc. 1. addition, 2. total. srvEyu& /sr.vi.ju~/ <s.r.vi.ju~> neut. a balance-sheet. sri=yu& /s.r.ßi.ju~/ <s.r.ßi.ju~> neut. rapeseed oil. srs /s.rs/ <s.r.s> adj. good. srsaman /sr.sa.man/ <s.r.sa.ma.n> masc. household things. srhd /sr.hd/ <s.r.h.d> fem. 1. frontier, 2. border. srX /s.rÆ/ <s.r.Æ> adj. easy. srXta /s.rÆ.ta/ <s.r.Æ.ta> fem. simplicity. sravvu& /s.rav.vu~/ <s.ra.v.vu~> v.tr. to offer food and other things om the death anniversary of a relative. srera= /s.re.raß/ <s.re.ra.ß> fem. average. srera= /s.re.raß/ <s.re.ra.ß> advb. on an average. sroj /s.roÔ/ <s.ro.Ô> neut. lotus. sroijnI /s.ro.Ôi.ni/ <s.ro.Ôi.nii> fem. lotus plant. srovr /s.ro.vr/ <s.ro.v.r> neut. lake. sjRk /sr.Ôk/ <s.rÔ.k> masc. creator. sjRn /sr.Ôn/ <s.rÔ.n> neut. creation. sjRnaTmk /sr.Ô.nat.mk/ <s.rÔ.na.tm.k> adj. creative. sjRvu& /srÔ.vu~/ <s.rÔ.vu~> v.tr. to create. svR /sr.v/ <s.rv> adj. all. AvRkalIn /sr.v.ka.lin/ <s.rva.ka.lii.n> adj. eternal.
  • 213. 213 svRg/ahI /sr.v.gra.hi/ <s.rva,gra.hii> adj. comprehensive. svR}a /sr.vg.n/ <s.rva.gn> adj. omniscient. svR{a /sr.vt.r/ <s.rva.tr> advb. everywhere. svRna= /sr.v.naß/ <s.rv.na.ß> masc. total destruction. svRnam /sr.v.nam/ <s.rv.na.m> neut. pronoun. svR-xI /sr.v.b˙k.ßi/ <s.rv.bh.kßii> adj. omnivorous. svRmaNy /sr.v.man.j/ <s.rv.ma.nj> adj. accepted by all. svRVyapk /sr.v.vja.pk/ <s.rv.vja.p.k> adj. omnipresent. svR=iktman /sr.v.ßk.ti.man/ <s.rv.ß.kti.ma.n> adj. omnipotent. svaRnumt /sr.va.nu.mt/ <s.rva.nu.m.t> adj. unnimous. svaRnumit /sr.va.nu.m.ti/ <s.rva.nu.m.ti> fem. unanimity. svoRCc /sr.vo.cc/ <s.rvo.cj> adj. highest. sla4 /s.laˇ/ <s.la.ˇ> masc. stone- mason. slam /s.lam/ <s.la.m> fem. salutation. slamt /s.la.mt/ <s.la.m.t> adj. free from fear. slamtI /s.la.m.ti/ <s.la.m.tii> fem, safety. slah /s.lah/ <s.la.h> fem. advice. slahkar /s.lah.kar/ <s.la.h.ka.r> adj. advisor. sv8R /s.vr.¯/ <s.v.r¯> adj. higher caste people. svlt /sv.lt/ <s.v.l.t> fem. convenience. svXu& /sv.Æu~/ <s.v.Æu~> adj. clockwise. sva /s.va/ <s.va> adj. one and a quarter. svayu& /s.va.ju~/<s.va.ju~> adj. superior. svar /s.var/ <s.va.r> fem. morning. svarI /s.va.ri/ <s.va.rii> fem. a passenger. sval /s.val/ <s.va.l> masc. 1. question, 2. inquiry. sivny /s.vi.nj/ <s.vi.n.j> adj. 1. courteous, 2. modest. siv=eq /s.vi.ßeß/ <s.vi.ße.s°> adj. peculiar. sivStr /s.vis.tr/ <s.vi.st.r> adj. 1. detailed, 2. extensive.
  • 214. 214 sveXa /s.ve.Æa/ <s.ve.Æa> advb. in time. s=kt /s.ßk.t/ <s.ß.kt> adj. strong. ssro /ss.ro/ <s.s.ro> masc. father- in-law. sslu& /ss.lu~/ <s.s.lu~> neut. 1. rabbit, 2. hare. sStu& /ss.tu~/ <s.stu~> adj. cheap. sSneh /s.sneh/ <s.sne.h> adj. with love. sh /sh/ <s.h> advb. with. shkar /sh.kar/ <s.h.ka.r> masc. co- operation. shkarI /sh.ka.ri/ <s.h.ka.rii> adj. co-operative. shj /s.hÔ/ <s.h.Ô> adj. 1. innate, 2. natural. shjan&d /sh.Ôa.nnd/ <s.h.Ôa.n~.d> masc. bliss natural to the soul. shn /s.hn/ <s.h.n> neut. suffering. sh-agI /sh.b˙a.gi/ <s.h.bha.gii> adj. partner. shmt /sh.mt/ <s.h.m.t> adj. agreeing with. shmit /sh.m.ti/ <s.h.m.ti> fem. agreement. shyog /sh.jog/ <s.h.jo.g> masc. co- operation. shi=x8 /sh.ßik.߯/ <s.h.ßi.kß.¯> neut. co-education. shsa /sh.sa/ <s.h.sa> advb. suddenly. shanu-av /s.ha.nu.b˙av/ <s.ha.nu.bha.v> masc. sympathy. shanu-Uit /s.ha.nu.b˙u.ti/ <s.ha.nu.bhuu.ti> fem. sympathy. shay /s.haj/ <s.ha.j> fem. help. sihyr /s.hi.jr/ <s.hi.j.r> fem. female friend (of a female) sihyaru& /s.hi.ja.ru~/ <s.hi.ja.ru~> adj. jointly owned. sihQ8u /s.hiß.¯u/ <s.hi.s°¯u> adj. tolerant. sihQ8uta /s.hiß.¯u.ta/ <s.hi.s°¯u.ta> fem. tolerance. shI /s.hi/ <s.hii> fem. signature. shej /s.heÔ/ <s.he.Ô> adj. a little. shetuk /s.he.tuk/ <s.he.t.k> adj. intentional. shel /s.hel/ <s.he.l> fem. a pleasure- trip. shelu& /s.he.lu~/ <s.he.lu~> adj. easy. shodr /s.ho.dr/ <s.ho.d.r> adj. brother (born of the same mother).
  • 215. 215 s¬ /sh.j/ <s.hj> adj. endurable. sX /sÆ/ <s.Æ> fem. wrinkle (on bed shit etc.) sXgvu& /s.Æg.vu~/ <s.Æ.g.vu~> v.intr. to burn. sXvXvu& /sÆ.vÆ.vu~/ <s.Æ.v.Æ.vu~> v.intr. to move slowly. sX&g /s.Ƙg/ <s.Æ~.g> adj. unbroken. siXyo /s.Æi.jo/ <s.Æi.jo> masc. rod or bar (of metal). sXI /s.Æi/ <s.Æii> fem. a thin round stick. sXe`m /s.Æe.k˙m/ <s.Æe.kh.m> fem. cold. s&k4 /s˜.kˇ/ <s~.k.ˇ> neut. misery. s&k6am8 /s˜k.Îa.m¯/ <s~.k.Îa.m.¯> fem. crowdedness. s&kln /s˜.k.ln/ <s~.k.l.n> neut. collection. s&kLp /s˜.kl.p/ <s~.k.lp> masc. determination. s&kLp=ikt /s˜.kl.p.ßk.ti/ <s~.k.lp.ß.kti> fem. will-power. s&kXavu& /s˜k.Æa.vu~/ <s~.k.Æa.vu~> v.intr. to be associated with. s&kuict /s˜.ku.cit/ <s~.ku.ci.t> adj. narrow (minded). s&kul /s˜.kul/ <s~.ku.l> adj. complex. s&ket /s˜.ket/ <s~.ke.t> masc. 1. sign, 2. gesture. s&kelvu& /s˜.kel.vu~/ <s~.ke.l.vu~> v.intr. to wind up. s&koc /s˜.koc/ <s~.ko.c> masc. contraction. s&kocvu& /s˜.koc.vu~/ <s~.ko.c.vu~> v.intr. to contract. s&korvu& /s˜.kor.vu~/ <s.ko.r.vu~> v.tr. to ignite. s&ixPt /s˜.kßip.t/ <s~.kßi.pt> adj. abridged. s&~ya /s˜.k˙ja/ <s~.khja> fem. 1. number, 2. figure. s&~yab&0 /s˜.k˙ja.bnd˙/ <s~.khja.b~.dh> adj. numerous. s&g /s˜g/ <s~.g> masc. association. s&g5n /s˜.g.ˇ˙n/ <s~.g.ˇh.n> neut. 1. association, 2. organization. s&gm /s˜.gm/ <s~.g.m> masc. meeting. s&ga9 /s˜.gat˙/ <s~.ga.th> masc. company (in travel). s&gIt /s˜.git/ <s~.gii.t> neut. music. s&gIn /s˜.gin/ <s~.gii.n> adj. 1. solid, 2. durable.
  • 216. 216 s&gemrmr /s˜.ge.mr.mr/ <s~.ge.m.r.m.r> masc. marble. s&g/h /s˜.grh/ <s~.gr.h> masc. 1. collection, 2. hoard. s&g/h`or /s˜.grh.k˙or/ <s~.gr.h.kho.r> adj. hoarder. s&g/h`orI /s˜.grh.k˙o.ri/ <s~.gr.h.kho.rii> fem. hoarding. s&g/hvu& /s˜.grh.vu~/ <s~.gr.h.vu~> v.tr. to collect. s&g/hS9an /s˜.grh.st˙an/ <s~.gr.h.stha.n> neut. museum. s&3 /s˜.g/ <s~.gh> masc. 1. group of pilgrims, 2. association, 3. union. s&3rvu& /s˜.gr.vu~/ <s~.gh.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to collect, 2. to hoard. s&3qR /sm.g˙rß/ <s~.gh.rs°> masc. 1. clash, 2. conflict. s&calk /sµ.ca.lk/ <s~.ca.l.k> masc. manager (male). s&cailka /sµ.ca.li.ka/ <s~.ca.li.ka> fem. manager (female). s&caln /sµ.ca.ln/ <s~.ca.l.n> neut. management. s&co /sµ.co/ <s~.co> masc. machine. s&jog /sµ.Ôog/ <s~.Ôo.g> masc. meeting. s&}aa /s˜.gna/ <s~.gna> fem. sign. s&}aavack /s˜.gna.va.ck/ <s.gna.va.c.k> adj. proper noun. s&6as /s¯.Îas/ <s~.Îa.s> neut. latrine. s&6ovvu& /s¯.Îov.vu~/ <s~.Îo,v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to involve, 2. to implicate. s&t /snt/ <s~.t> masc. saint. s&tva8I /snt.va.¯i/ <s~.t.va.¯i> fem. teaching of saints. s&tru /snt.ru~/ <s~.t.ru> neut. orange. s&takUk6I /sn.ta.kuk.Îi/ <s~.ta.ku.k.Îii> fem. a game of hide and seek. s&ta6vu& /sn.taÎ.vu~/ <s~.ta.Î.vu~> v.tr. to hide. s&tan /sn.tan/ <s~.ta.n> neut. offspring. s&tap /sn.tap/ <s~.ta.p> masc. 1. distress, 3. misery. s&tavu& /sn.ta.vu~/ <s~.ta.vu~> v.intr. to hide (oneself). s&tuln /sn.tu.ln/ <s~.tu.l.n> neut. balance. s&toq /sn.toß/ <s~.to.s°> masc. satisfaction. s&toqkark /sn.toß.ka.rk/ <s~.to.s°.ka.r.k> adj. satisfactory. s&toqI /sn.to.ßi/ <s~.to.s°ii> adj. having happy disposition. s&d-R /sn.drb˙/ <s~.d.rbh> masc. 1. context, 2. reference.
  • 217. 217 s&idG0 /sn.dig.d˙/ <s~.di.gdh> adj. doubtful. s&de= /sn.deß/ <s~.de.ß> masc. message. s&de=vahk /sn.deß.va.hk/ <s~.de.ß.va.h.k> adj. 1. messenger, 2. courier. s&deh /sn.deh/ <s~.de.h> masc. 1. doubt, 2. suspicion. s&i0 /sn.d˙i/ <s~.dhi> fem. 1. a joint, 2. conjunction, 3. treaty, 4. euphonic coalition of sounds (in grammar). s&i0kaX /sn.d˙i.kaÆ/ <s~.dhi.ka.Æ> masc. period of transition. s&)ya /sn.d˙ja/ <s~.dhja> fem. 1. evening, 2. evening prayer. s&inpat /sn.ni.pat/ <s~.ni.pa.t> masc. delirium. s&inQ5 /sn.niߡ˙/ <s~.ni.s°ˇh> adj. 1. honest, 2. devoted. s&inQ5a /sn.niß.ˇ˙a/ <s~.ni.s°ˇha> fem. 1. honesty, 2. devotion. s&Nyas /sm.njas/ <s~.nja.s> masc. asceticism. s&NyasI /sm.ja.si/ <s~.nja.sii> masc. hermit. s&p /smp/ <s~.p> masc. unity. s&pi]a /sm.p.tti/ <s~.p.tti> fem. wealth. s&pkR /sm.prk/ <s~.p.rk> masc. contact. s&padk /sm.pa.dk/ <s~.pa.d.k> masc. editor. s&padkIy /sm.pa.d.ki.j/ <s~.pa.d.kii.j> adj. editorial. s&padn /sm.pa.dn/ <s~.pa.d.n> neut. 1. editing, .2 acquiring. s&pU8R /sm.pur.¯/ <s~.puu.r¯> adj. 1. entire, 2. whole. s&p/day /sm.pr.daj/ <s~.pr.da.j> masc. 1. a religious sect, 2. a cult. s&b&0 /sm.bn.d˙/ <s~.b~.dh> masc. relation. s&b&0I /sm.bn.d˙i/ <s~.b~.dhii> adj. 1. related, 2. relative. s&bo0vu& /sm.bod˙.vu~/ <s~.bo.dh.vu~> v.tr. to address. s&-v /sm.b˙v/ <s~.bh.v> masc. likelihood. s&-Xavvu& /smb˙.Æav.vu~/ <s~.bh.Æa.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to make someone hear, 2. to speak in insulting manner. s&-arvu& /sm.b˙ar.vu~/ <s~.bha.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to remember, 2. to recollect. s&-avna /sm.b˙av.na/ <s~.bha.v.na> fem. probability. s&-aX /sm.b˙aÆ/ <s~.bha.Æ> fem. care.
  • 218. 218 s&-og /sm.b˙og/ <s~.bho.g> masc. sexual intercourse. s&mt /sm.mt/ <s~.m.t> adj. agreed. s&mit /sm.m.ti/ <s~.m.ti> fem. 1. approval, 2. agreement. s&meln /sm.me.ln/ <s~.me.l.n> neut. gathering. s&ym /si~.jm/ <s~.j.m> masc. 1. restraint, 2. control. s&yukt /sm.juk.t/ <s~.ju.kt> adj. 1. joined, 2. united. s&yog /sm.jog/ <s~.jo.g> masc. 1. union, 2. meeting. s&yojk /sm.jo.Ôk/ <s~.jo.Ô.k> adj. uniting. s&yojk /sm.jo.Ôk/ <s~.jo.Ô.k> masc. organizer. s&yojn /sm.jo.Ôn/ <s~.jo.Ô.n> neut. the act of joining. s&rxk /sm.rk.ßk/ <s~.r.kß.k> adj. protector. s&rx8 /sm.rk.߯/ <s~.r.kß.¯> neut. protection. s&vt /sm.vt/ <s~.v.t> masc. the Vikram era that begun in 56 B.C. s&vTsrI /sm.vt.s.ri/ <s~.v.ts.rii> fem. death anniversary. s&vnn /sm.v.nn/ <s~.v.n.n> neut. 1. wooing, 2. courting. s&vad /sm.vad/ <s~.va.d> masc. conversation. s&vaidta /sm.va.di.ta/ <s~.va.di.ta> fem. harmony. s&vadI /sm.va.di/ <s~.va.dii> adj. harmonious. s&vedn /sm.ve.dn/ <s~.ve.d.n> neut. sensation. s&=y /sm.ßj/ <s~.ß.j> masc. suspicion. s&=o0k /sm.ßo.d˙k/ <s~.ßo.dh.k> adj. researcher. s&=o0n /sm.ßo.d˙n/ <s~.ßo.dh.n> neut. 1. research, 2. purification. s&=oi0t /sm.ßo.d˙it/ <s~.ßo.dhi.t> adj. 1. purified, 2. searched out. s&sgR /sm.srg/ <s~.s.rg> masc. 1. contact, 2. association. s&sar /sm.sar/ <s~.sa.r> masc. 1. the universe, 2. the world. s&sarI /sm.sa.ri/ <s~.sa.rii> adj. worldly. s&Skar /sm.skar/ <s~.ska.r> masc. purification. s&SkarIta /sm.sa.ri.ta/ <s~.ska.rii.ta> fem. civility. s&Sk<t /sm.skut/ <s~.skr≤.t> fem. Sanskrit language. s&Sk<it /sm.skru.ti/ <s~.skr≤.ti> fem. civilization.
  • 219. 219 s&S9a /sß.t˙a/ <s~.stha> fem. institution. s&S9apk /sm.st˙a.pk/ <s~.stha.p.k> adj. founder. s&har /sm.har/ <s~.ha.r> masc. destruction. sakr /sa.kr/ <sa.k.r> fem. suger. saxr /sak.ßr/ <sa.kß.r> adj. 1. literate, 2. learned. saxat /sak.ßat/ <sa.kßa.t> advb. in physical presence. saxaTkar /sak.ßat.kar/ <sa.kßa.tka.r> masc. 1. devine realization, 2. spiritual perception. saxI /sak.ßi/ <sa.kßii> fem. testimony. saxI /sak.ßi/ <sa.kßii> masc. eye- witness. sag /sag/ <sa.g> masc. 1. teak-tree, 2. teak-wood. sagr /sa.gr/ <sa.g.r> masc. ocean. sacvvu& /sa.cv.vu~/ <sa.c.v.vu~> v.tr. . to take care of, 2. to preserve. sacu& /sa.cu~/ <sa.cu~> adj. 1. true, 2. right. saju& /sa.Ôu~/ <sa.Ôu~> adj. healthy. sa4u& /sa.ˇu~/ <sa.ˇu~> neut. bargain. sa4e /sa.ˇe/ <sa.ˇe> postp. in exchange. sa6{aIs /sa.Ît.ris/ <sa.Î.trii.s> adj. thirty-seven. sa6lo /saÎ.lo/ <sa.Î.lo> masc. sari. sa6I /sa.Îi/ <sa.Îii> fem. sari. sa6asatI /sa.Îa.sa.ti/ <sa.Îa.sa.tii> fem. malicious influence of Saturn that remains over a period of seven years. sa7u /sa.Î˙u/ <sa.Îhu> masc. husband of wife’s sister. sa8sI /sa¯.si/ <sa.¯.sii> fem. pair of pincers. sat /sat/ <sa.t> adj. seven. satTy /sa.tt.j/ <sa.t.tj> neut. continuity. satm /sa.tm/ <sa.t.m> fem. seventh day of a lunar fortnight. satmu& /sat.mu~/ <sa.t.mu~> adj. seventh. sa9 /sat˙/ <sa.th> masc. company. sa9X /sa.t˙Æ/ <sa.th.Æ> fem. thigh. sai9yo /sa.t˙i.jo/ <sa.ˇhi.jo> masc. auspicious figure of Swastik. sa9I /sa.t˙i/ <sa.kßii> masc. companion. sa9Idar /sa.t˙i.dar/ <sa.thii.da.r> masc. companion. sad /sad/ <sa.d> masc. 1. voice, 2. shout.
  • 220. 220 sadgI /sad.gi/ <sa.d.gii> fem. simplicity. sadr /sa.dr/ <sa.d.r> advb. respectfully. sada: /sa.da.i/ <sa.da.ii> fem. simplicity. sadu& /sa.du~/ <sa.du~> adj. 1. simple, .2 plain. sa0k /sa.d˙k/ <sa.dh.k> masc. spiritual discipline. sa0n /sa.d˙n/ <sa.dh.n> neut. 1. tool, .2 instrument. sa0ns&pNn /sa.d˙n.sam.pn.n/ <sa.dh.n.s~.p.nn> adj. possessing sufficient resources. sa0na /sad˙.na/ <sa.dh.na> fem. spiritual practice. sa0vu& /sad˙.vu~/ <sa.dh.vu~> v.tr. to undergo a spiritual practice. sa0ar8 /sa.d˙a.r¯/ <sa.dha.r.¯> adj. 1. ordinary, 2. common. sa0u /sa.d˙u/ <sa.dhu> adj. good. sa0u /sa.d˙u/ <sa.dhu> masc. 1. ascetic, 2. hermit. sa)vI /sad˙.vi/ <sa.dhvii> fem. 1. a female ascetic, 2. a female hermit. san /san/ <sa.n> fem. . sign, 2. sense. sanukUX /sa.nu.kuÆ/ <sa.nu.kuu.Æ> adj. favorable. sap /sap/ <sa.p> masc. a male serpent. sap8 /sa.p¯/ <sa.p.¯> fem. a female serpent. sapex /sa.pek.ß/ <sa.pe.kß> adj. relative. sapoilyu& /sa.po.li.ju~/ <sa.po.li.ju~> neut. young serpent. saPtaihk /sap.ta.hik/ <sa.pta.hi.k> adj. weekly. saf /sap˙/ <sa.ph> adj. clean. safsUf /sap˙.sup˙/ <sa.ph.suu.ph> adj. cleaning. safo /sa.p˙o/ <sa.pho> masc. a kind of turban. sabdu& /sab.du~/ <sa.b.du~> adj. alert. sabr /sa.br/ <sa.b.r> neut. stag. saibtI /sa.bi.ti/ <sa.bi.tii> fem. proof. sabu /sa.bu/ <sa.bu> masc. soap. sa-ar /sa.b˙ar/ <sa.bha.r> adj. thankful. sa-ar /sa.b˙ar/ <sa.bha.r> advb. gratefully. samg/I /sa.mg.ri/ <sa.m.grii> fem. materials. sam4u& /sam.ˇu~/ <sa.m.ˇu~> adj. collected.
  • 221. 221 samno /sam.no/ <sa.m.no> masc. resistance. samiyk /sa.m.jik/ <sa.m.ji.k> neut. periodical. sam(yR /sa.mr.t˙j/ <sa.m.rthj> neut. capability. sama@k /sa.ma.Ôik/ <sa.ma.Ôii.k> adj. social. saman /sa.man/ <sa.ma.n> masc. luggage. samaNy /sa.ma.nj/ <sa.ma.nj> adj. general. samaNytŠ /sa.ma.nj.th/ <sa.ma.nj.t:> advb. usually. samudaiyk /sa.mu.da.jik/ <sa.mu.da.ji.k> adj. collective. samUihk /sa.mu.hik/ <sa.muu.hi.k> adj. collective. same /sa.me/ <sa.me> postp. in front of. samEyu& /sa.mi.ju~/ <sa.mi.ju~> neut. procession going to receive a dignitary. saMy /sam.j/ <sa.mj> neut. similitude. sam/ajy /sam.raÔ.j/ <sa.mra,Ôj> neut. empire. sayujy /sa.juÔ.j/ <sa.ju.Ôj> neut. merging together. sar /sar/ <sa.r> masc. 1. essence, 2. gist, 3. summary. sarvar /sar.var/ <sa.r.va.r> fem. 1. nursing, 2. attendance. sars /sa.rs/ <sa.ra.s> neut. crane. sar&gI /sa.r˜.gi/ <sa.r~.gii> fem. stringed musical instument. sarasarI /sa.ra.sa.ri/ <sa.ra.sa.rii> fem. cordial relations. sara&= /sa.ra~mß/ <sa.ra~.ß> masc. 1. essence, 2. gist. saru& /sa.ru~/ <sa.ru~> adj. good. sa9Rk /sar.t˙k/ <sa.rth.k> adj. successful. savRjink /sar.v.Ô.nik/ <sa.rv.Ô.ni.k> adj. public. savRi{ak /sar.v.trik/ <sa.rv.tri.k> adj. ubiquitous. savR-Om /sar.v.b˙um/ <sa.rv.bhu.m> adj. sovereign. sal /sal/ <sa.l> neut. year. sal-r /sal.b˙r/ <sa.l.bh.r> advb. through out the year. salvu& /sal.vu~/ <sa.l.vu~> v.intr. to feel a pricking pain. salosal /sa.lo.sal/ <sa.lo.sa.l> advb. every year. saLlo /sal.lo/ <sa.llo> masc. sari. sav /sav/ <sa.v> advb. completely.
  • 222. 222 savku& /sav.ku~/ <sa.v.ku~> adj. of a step-relation. savcet /sav.cet/ <sa.v.ce.t> adj. cautious. savcetI /sav.ce.ti/ <sa.v.ce.tii> fem. caution. savj /sa.vÔ/ <sa.v.Ô> masc. lion. savr8I /sa.vr.¯i/ <sa.v.r.¯ii> fem. a small broom. savr8o /sa.vr.¯o/ <sa.v.r.¯o> masc. a big broom. sasiryu& /sa.sr.(i)ju~/ <sa.s.ri.ju~> adj. a relative of father-in-law. sasrI /sas.ri/ <sa.s.rii> fem. home or family of father-in-law. sasu /sa.su/ <sa.su> fem. mother-in-law. sahijk /sah.Ôik/ <sa.h.Ôi.k> adj. 1. natural, 2. instinctive. sahs /sa.hs/ <sa.h.s> neut. 1. adventure, 2. enterprise. sahisk /sah.sik/ <sa.h.si.k> adj. adventurous. saihTy /sa.hit.j/ <sa.hi.tj> neut. literature. saihiTyk /sa.hit.jik/ <sa.hi.tji.k> adj. literary. saheb /sa.heb/ <sa.he.b> masc. 1. master, 2. boss, 3. reputed person. saheba /sa.he.ba/ <sa.he.ba> fem. respectable woman. sahebI /sa.he.bi/ <sa.he.bii> fem. prosperity. sahelI /sa.he.li/ <sa.he.lii> fem. a female friend. saXavelI /sa.Æa.ve.li/ <sa.Æa.ve.lii> fem. wife of wife’s brother. saXI /sa.Æi/ <sa.Æii> fem. wife’s sister. saXo /sa.Æo/ <sa.Æo> masc. wife’s brother. sa&k6u& /sa~k.Îu~/ <sa~.k.Îu~> adj. narrow. sa&kX /sa~.kÆ/ <sa~.k.Æ> fem. chain. sa&kXvu& /sa~.kÆ.vu~/ <sa~.k.Æ.vu~> v.tr. to link to gether. sa&kXI /sa~k.Æi/ <sa~.k.Æii> fem. necklace. sa&kXu& /sa~k.Æu~/ <sa~.k.Æu~> neut. anklet. sa&`vu& /sa~k˙.vu~/ <sa~.kh.vu~> v.tr. to endure. sa&j /sa~Ô/ <sa~.Ô> fem. evening. sa&5o /sa~.ˇ˙o/ <sa~.ˇho> masc. stalk of sugar cane. sa&0vu& /sa~d˙.vu~/ <sa~.dh.vu~> v.tr. 1. to sew, 2. to join, 3. to solder. sa&0o /sa~.d˙o/ <sa~.dho> masc. joint. sa&p/t /sa~m.prt/ <sa~.pr.t> adj. contemporary.
  • 223. 223 sa&p/daiyk /sa~p.r.da.jik/ <sa~.pr.da.ji.k> adj. sectarian. sa&belu& /sa~.be.lu~/ <sa~.be.lu~> neut. a wooden pestle. sa&-Xvu& /sa~.b˙Æ.vu~/ <sa~.bh.Æ.vu~> v.tr. 1. to hear, 2. to listen. sa&sairk /sa~.sa.rik/ <sa~.sa.ri.k> adj. mundane. sa&Skairk /sa~ns.ka.rik/ <sa~.sa.ka.ri.k> adj. pertaining to culture. sa&Sk<itk /sa~s.kru.tik/ <sa~.skr≤.ti.k> adj. cultural. iskko /sik.ko/ <si.kko> masc. 1. seal, 2. stamp, 3. coin. istm /si.tm/ <si.t.m> masc. tyranny. istar /si.tar/ <si.ta.r> fem. a musical instrument. istaro /si.ta.ro/ <si.ta.ro> masc. star. is]aer /sit.ter/ <si.tte.r> adj. seventy. isTyoter /sit.jo.tr/ <si.tjo.te.r> adj. seventy seven. isTya=I /sit.ja.ßi/ <si.tja.ßii> adj. eighty seven. is)0aNt /sid˙.d˙an.t/ <si.dhdha.nt> masc. 1. principle, 2. doctrine, 3. theorem. ispa: /si.pai/ <si.pa.ii> masc. soldier. isfars /si.p˙a.rs/ <si.pha.r.s> fem. recommendation. islk /si.lk/ <si.l.k> fem. amount remaining after expenditure. islislab&0 /sil.si.la.bnd˙/ <si.l.si.la.b~.dh> adj. in orderly manner. isla: /si.la.i/ <si.la.ii> fem. sewing. isv6am8 /siv.Îa.m¯/ <si.v.Îa.m.¯> fem. wages for sewing. isskarvu& /sis.kar.vu~/ <si.s.ka.r.vu~> v.intr. to hiss. isskaro /sis.ka.ro/ <si.s.ka.ro> masc. hissing sound. isso4I /si.so.ˇi/ <si.so.ˇii> fem. whistle. is&cvu& /siµc.vu~/ <si~.c.vu~> v.tr. 1. to sprinkle, 2. to water (plant and etc.). is&dUr /sin.dur/ <si~.du.r> neut. vermilion. is&0v /sin.d˙v/ <si~.dh.v> neut. rock- salt. is&0I /sin.d˙i/ <si~.dhii> fem. a community so named. is&0I /sin.d˙i/ <si~.dhii> fem. Sindhi language. is&h /simh/ <si~.h> masc. lion. is&h8 /sim.h¯/ <si~.h.¯> fem. lioness.
  • 224. 224 is&hasn /sim.ha.sn/ <si~.ha.s.n> neut. throne. sIzvvu& /si.Ô˙v.vu~/ <sii.Ôh.v.vu~> v.tr. to cook by moderate heat. sIzvu& /siÔ˙.vu~/ <sii.Ôh.vu~> v.intr. to be cooked by moderate heat. sI4I /si.ˇi/ <sii.ˇii> fem. a whistle. sI6I /si.Îi/ <sii.Îii> fem. 1. ladder, 2. staircase. sI0u& /si.d˙u~/ <sii.dhu~> adj. straight. sIm /sim/ <sii.m> fem. land on the border of a village. sIm&t /si.mnt/ <sii.m~.t> neut. a ritual performed at the time of the first pregnancy of a woman. sIma /si.ma/ <sii.ma> fem. 1. border, 2. boundary. sIimt /si.mit/ <sii.mi.t> adj. limited. sIv8 /si.v¯/ <sii.v.¯> neut. sewing. sIvvu& /siv.vu~/ <sii.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to sew, 2. to stitch. sI&ca: /siµ.cai/ <sii~.ca.ii> fem. irrigation. sukan /su.kan/ <su.ka.n> neut. helm. sukanI /su.ka.ni/ <su.ka.nii> masc. helmsman. sukavu& /su.ka.vu~/ <su.ka.vu~> v.intr. to become dry. su` /suk˙/ <su.kh> neut. happiness. su`6 /su.k˙Î/ <su.kh.Î> neut. sandalwood. su`6I /su.k˙.Îi/ <su.kh.Îii> fem. a kind of sweet. su`I /su.k˙i/ <su.khii> adj. 1. happy, 2. well-to-do. sugm /su.gm/ <su.g.m> adj. easy. sug&0 /su:.gnd˙/ <su.g~.dh> fem. fragrance. su36 /su.g˙Î/ <suu.gh.Î> adj. neat and clean. su6taXIs /suÎ.ta.lis/ <su.Î.ta.Æii.s> adj. forty seven. su6oX /su.ÎoÆ/ <su.Îo.Æ> adj. handsome. sutraw /sut.ra.u/ <su.t.ra.u~> adj. made of cotton yarn. sud /sud/ <su.d> fem. bright half of a lunar month. su0rvu& /su.d˙r.vu~/ <su.dh.r.vu~> v.intr. t o improve. su0ra: /sud˙.ra.i/ <su.dh.ra.ii> fem. municipality. su0a /su.d˙a/ <su.dha> fem. nectar. su0arvu&/su.d˙ar.vu~/ <su.dha.r.vu~> v.tr. to improve.
  • 225. 225 su0aro /su.d˙a.ro/ <su.dha.ro> masc. improvement. su0I /su.d˙i/ <su.dhii> postp. 1. up to, 2 until. sunav8I /su.na.v.¯i/ <su.na.v.¯ii> fem. hearing of a case in a court. supa{a /su.pat.r/ <su.pa.tr> adj. deserving. sup/is)0 /su.pr.sid˙.d˙/ <su.pr.si.dhdh> adj. 1. renowned, 2. well-known. subo0 /su.bod˙/ <su.bo.dh> adj. easy to understand. sumn /su.mn/ <su,m.n> neut. flower. surixt /su.rk.ßit/ <su.r.kßi.t> adj. safe. surIlu& /su.ri.lu~/ <su.rii.lu~> adj. 1. well- tuned, 2. melodious. suruic /su.ru.ci/ <su.ru.ci> adj. refined taste. sure` /su.rek˙/ <su.re.kh> adj. proportionate. sul- /su.lb˙/ <su.l.bh> adj. easily available. sule`n /su.le.k˙n/ <su.le.kh.n> neut. good handwriting. suleh /su.leh/ <su.le.h> fem. peace. sulehnamu& /su.leh.na.mu~/ <su.le.h.na.mu~> neut. peace treaty. suvaky /su.vak.j/ <su.va.kj> neut. a maxim. suvav6 /su.va.vÎ/ <su.va.v.Î> fem. childbirth. suvas /su.vas/ <su.va.s> fem. fragrance. suiv~yat /su.vik˙.jat/ <su.vi.khja.t> adj. well-known. suividt /su.vi.dit/ <su.vi.di.t> adj. well-known. suiv0a /su.vi.d˙a/ <su.vi.dha> fem. convenience. sui=ixt /su.ßik.ßit/ <su.ßi.kßi.t> adj. well-educated. su=Il /su.ßil/ <su.ßi.l> adj. of a good character. su=o-n /su.ßo.b˙n/ <su.ßo.bh.n> neut. decoration. su=oi-t /ßu.ßo.b˙it/ <su.ßo.bhi.t> adj. well-decorated. susjj /su.sÔ.Ô/ <su.s.ÔÔ> adj. well- equipped. susva4o /sus.va.ˇo/ <su.s.va.ˇo> masc. a wind-blow. sus&gt /su.s˜.gt/ <su.s~.g.t> adj. 1. consistent. suSt /sus.t/ <su.st> adj. lazy.
  • 226. 226 suStI /sus.ti/ <su.stii> fem. laziness. su&dr /sun.dr/ <su~.d.r> adj. beautiful. suvaXu& /su.wa.Æu~/ <su.va.Æu~> adj. smooth. sUkvvu& /su.kv.vu~/ <suu.k.v.vu~> v.tr. to dry. sUku& /su.ku~/ <su.ku~> adj. dry. sUåm /suk.ßm/ <suu.kßm> adj. minute. sUg /sug/ <suu.g> fem. nausea. sUck /su.ck/ <suu.c.k> adj. 1. suggestive, 2. indicative. sUcn /su.cn/ <suu.c.n> neut. 1. suggestion, 2. indication. sUcvvu& /su.cv.vu~/ <suu.c.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to indicate,2 to suggest. sUic /su.ci/ <suu.ci> fem. list. sUict /su.cit/ <suu.ci.t> adj. 1. suggested, 2. indicated. sUjvu& /suÔ.vu~/ <suu.Ô.vu~> v.intr. 1. to swell, 2. to be swollen. sUz /suÔ˙/ <suu.Ôh> fem. deeper understanding. sUtk /su.tk/ <suu.t.k> neut. ceremonial untouchablility observed after a death of a family member. sUmsam /sum.sam/ <suu.m.sa.m> adj. utterly silent. sUr /sur/ <suu.r> masc. musical tune. sUrj /su.rÔ/ <suu.r.Ô> masc. the sun. sUr8 /su.r¯/ <suu.r.¯> neut. a name of an edible root. sUyR /sur.j/ <suu.rj> masc. the sun. sUyRg/h8 /sur.j.gr.h¯/ <suu.rj.gr.h.¯> neut. solar eclipse. sUyRmu`I /sur.j.mu.k˙i/ <suu.rj.mu.khii> neut. sun-flower. sUyaRSt /sur.jas.t/ <suu.rja.st> masc. sunset. sUyoRdy /sur.jo.dj/ <suu.rjo.d.j> masc. sunrise. sUvr /su.vr/ <suu.v.r> neut. pig. sUvu& /su.vu~/ <suu.vu~> v.intr. to sleep. sU&3vu& /su˜g.vu~/ <suu~.gh.vu~> v.tr. to smell. sU&5 /su~ˇ˙/ <suu~.ˇh> fem. dry ginger. sU&7 /su~Î˙/ <suu~.Îh> fem. trunk. s<iQ4 /sruß.ˇi/ <sr≤.s°ˇi> fem. the universe. sena /se.na/ <se.na> fem. army. sevk /se.vk/ <se.v.k> masc. servant. seva /se.va/ <se.va> fem. service.
  • 227. 227 sevacakrI /se.va.cak.ri/ <se.va.ca.k.rii> fem. nursing. se&k6o /s´~k.Îo/ <se~.k.Îo> masc. a hundred. se&9I /s´~.t˙i/ <se~.thii> fem. line formed by the parting of hair on two sides. sE)0aiNtk /si.d˙an.tik/ <si.dhdha.nti.k> adj. theoretical. sEink /si.nik/ <si.ni.k> masc. soldier. sENy /si.nj/ <si.nj> neut. army. so /sø/ <so> adj. hundred. sogn /so.gn/ <so.g.n> masc. an oath. sogat /so.gat/ <so.ga.t> fem. gift. sojo /so.Ôo/ <so.Ôo> masc. swelling. so4I /so.ˇi/ <so.ˇii> fem. a cane. so6 /soÎ/ <so.Î> fem. a side of the body. so6m /so.Îm/ <so.Î.m> fem. fragrance. sodagr /so.da.gr/ <so.da.g.r> masc. a merchant doing large scale business. sodo /so.do/ <so.do> masc. trade. sonamhor /so.na.m.hor/ <so.na.m.ho.r> fem. guinea. sonu& /so.nu~/ <so.nu~> neut. gold. sonerI /so.ne.ri/ <so.ne.rii> adj. golden. soparI /so.pa.ri/ <so.pa.rii> fem. betel nut. sobt /so.bt/ <so.b.t> fem. company. somvar /som.var/ <so.m.va.r> masc. Monday. soml /so.ml/ <so.m.l> masc. extreme poisonous object. soy /soj/ <so.j> fem. a needle. soyo /so.jo/ <so.jo> masc. a large and thick needle. sohag /so.hag/ <so.ha.g> masc. well- adorned. soham8u& /so.ha.m.¯u~/ <so.ha.m.¯u~> adj. good-looking. soX /soÆ/ <so.Æ> adj. sixteen. so&3varI /sø~˜g.va.ri/ <so~.gh.va.rii> fem. cheapness. so&pvu& /sø~p.vu~/ <so~.p.vu~> v.tr. 1. to hand over. 2. to entrust. sO /su/ <su> adj. all. sOjNy /su.Ôn.j/ <su.Ô.nj> neut. gentlemanliness. sO-aGy /su.b˙ag.j/ <su.bha.gj> neut. good fortune. sOr- /su.rb˙/ <su.r.bh> neut. fragrance.
  • 228. 228 sO&dyR /su~.dr.j/ <su~.d.rj> neut. beauty. S`ln /sk˙.ln/ <skh.l.n> neut. 1. an error, 2. a mistake. Stn /stn/ <st.n> masc. female breast. Str /str/ <st.r> neut. a layer. Stvn /st.vn/ <st.v.n> neut. praise. Stuit /stu.ti/ <stu.ti> fem. praise. StuTy /stut.j/ <stu.tj> adj. praiseworthy. Sto{a /stot.r/ <sto.tr> neut. a hymn of praise. S{aI /stri/ <strii> fem. a woman. S{aE8 /stri.¯/ <stri.¯> adj. womanly. S9pit /st˙.p.ti/ <sth.p.ti> masc. an architect. S9X /st˙Æ/ <sth.Æ> neut. 1. a place, 2. a location. S9aink /st˙a.nik/ <stha.ni.k> adj. local. S9apk /st˙a.pk/ <stha.p.k> adj. founder. S9apTy /st˙a.pt.j/ <stha.p.tj> neut. 1. sculpture, 2. architecture. S9ayI /st˙a.ji/ <stha.jii> adj. stable. S9avr /st˙a.vr/ <stha.v.r> adj. immovable. iS9it /st˙i.ti/ <sthi.ti> fem. a condition. iS9r /st˙ir/ <sthi.r> adj. immovable. Snatk /sna.tk/ <sna.t.k> masc. graduate. Snan /snan/ <sna.n> neut. a bath. Snayu /sne.h/ <sna.ju> masc. a muscle. Sneh /sneh/ <s> masc. 1. love, 2. affection. Sp0aR /spr.d˙a/ <sne.h> fem. competition. Sp=R /spr.ß/ <sp.rß> masc. touch. SpQ4 /spß.ˇ/ <sp.s°ˇ> adj. 1. clear, 2. plain. Sf4Ik /sp˙.ˇik/ <sph.ˇii.k> masc. crystal. Smr8 /sm.r¯/ <sm.r.¯> neut. recollection. Smrvu& /smr.vu~/ <sm.r.vu~> v.tr. to remember. Sm=an /ßm.ßan/ <sm.ßa.n> neut. funeral place. Smark /sma.rk/ <sma.r.k> neut. 1. a monument, 2. a memorial. iSmt /smit/ <smi.t> neut. smile. Sm<it /smru.ti/ <smr≤.ti> fem. Hindu scriptures.
  • 229. 229 Sm<it /smru.ti/ <smr≤.ti> fem. memory. Sv. /sv/ <sv.> adj. a short form of SvgRS9, deceased. SvgRS9 /svr.gs.t˙/ <sv.rg.sth> adj. deceased. SvC2 /svc.c˙/ <sv.cch> adj. clean. Svjn /sv.Ôn/ <sv.Ô.n> masc. a relative. Svt&{a /sv.tn.tr/ <sv.t~.tr> adj. free. Svt&{ata /sv.tn.tr.ta/ <sv.t~.tr.ta> fem. freedom. Svde= /sv.deß/ <sv.de.ß> masc. 1. motherland, 2. native land. Svde=ai-man /sv.de.ßa.b˙i.man/ <sv.de.ßa.bhi.ma.n> neut. patriotism. Svde=ai-manI /sv.de.ßa.b˙i.ma.ni/ <sv.de.ßa.bhi.ma.nii> neut. patriotic. Svde=I /sv.de.ßi/ <sv.de.ßii> adj. of one’s own country. SvPn /svp.n/ <sve.pn> neut. a dream. Sv-av /sv.b˙av/ <sv.bha.v> masc. nature. Svman /sv.man/ <sv.ma.n> neut. self-respect. Svr /svr/ <sv.r> masc. voice. Svraj /sv.raÔ/ <sv.ra.Ô> neut. self- government. Sv£p /sv.rup/ <sv.ruu.p> neut. 1. shape, 2. form. SvgR /svr.g/ <sv.rg> neut. heaven. SvgRvasI /svr.g.va.si/ <sv.rg.va.sii> adj. deceased. SvgRS9 /svr.g.st˙/ <sv.rg.sth> adj. deceased. SvgIRy /svr.gi.j/ <sv.rgii.j> adj. deceased. SvamI /sva.mi/ <sva.mii> masc. 1. husband, 2. lord, 3. master, 4. owner. Sva9R /svar.t˙/ <sva.rth> masc. self- interest. SvaS(y /svas.t˙j/ <sva.sthj> neut. health. SvIkar /svi.kar/ <svii.ka.r> masc. 1. recognition, 2. acceptance. SvIkayR /svi.kar.j/ <svii.ka.rj> adj. acceptable. H hk /hk/ <h.k> masc. 1. right, 2. claim. hkar /h.kar/ <h.ka.r> masc. affirmation.
  • 230. 230 hkIkt /h.ki.kt/ <h.kii.k.t> fem. a fact. hkIm /h.kim/ <h.kii.m> masc. a physician. hcmcvu& /hc.mc.vu~/ <h.c.m.c.vu~> v.intr. to become unsteady. hj /hÔ/ <hÔ> fem. pilgrimage to Mecca. hjam /h.Ôam/ <h.Ôa.m> masc. a barber. hjar /h.Ôar/ <h.Ôa.r> adj. thousand. h@ /h.Ôi/ <h.Ôii> advb. 1. yet, .2 even now. hju /h.Ôu/ <h.Ôu> advb. 1. yet, 2. even now. h5 /hˇ˙/ <h.ˇh> fem. stubbornness. h5vu& /hˇ˙.vu~/ <h.ˇh.vu~> v.intr. to move away. h6kva /h.Îk.va/ <h.Î.k.va> masc. rabies. h6tal /hÎ.tal/ <h.Î.ta.l> fem. a strike. hD0Ut /hÎ.d˙ut/ <h.Î.dhuu.t> adj. insulted or condemned everywhere. h6pcI /hÎ.p.ci/ <h.Î.p.cii> fem. the chin. h6selvu& /hÎ.sel.vu~/ <h.Î.se.l.vu~> v.tr. to push away. h8vu& /h¯.vu~/ <h.¯.vu~> v.tr. to kill. hta= /h.taß/ <h.t.aß> adj. disappointed. hTya /ht.ja/ <h.tja> fem. 1. an assassination, 2. a massacre. hTyaro /ht.ja.ro/ <h.tja.ro> masc. an assassin. hi9yar /h.t˙i.jar/ <h.ˇhi.ja.r> neut. a weapon. h9eXI /h.t˙e.Æi/ <h.ˇhe.Æii> fem. palm. h9o4I /h.t˙o.ˇi/ <h.ˇho.ˇii> fem. skill. h9o6I /h.t˙o.Îi/ <h> fem. a hammer. hd /hd/ <h.d> fem. boundary. hm8a& /hm.¯a~/ <h.m.¯a~> advb. 1. now, 2. presently. hmddIR /hm.dr.di/ <h.m.d.rdi> fem. sympathy. hmal /h.mal/ <h.ma.l> masc. a porter. hme= /h.meß/ <h.me.ß> advb. always. hyat /h.jat/ <h.ja.t> adj. living. hrkt /hr.kt/ <h.r.k.t> fem. obstruction. hr` /h.rk˙/ <h.r.kh> masc. joy. hrigj /hr.giÔ/ <h.r.gi.Ô> advb. 1. (not) at all, 2. (not) ever.
  • 231. 231 hr36I /hr.g˙.Îi/ <h.r.gh.Îii> advb. every moment. hr8 /h.r¯/ <h.r.¯> neut. a deer. hrtu&frtu& /hr.tu~.p˙r.tu~/ <h.r.tu~.ph.r.tu~> adj. healthy. hrs /h.rs/ <h.r.s> masc. piles. hra@ /h.ra.Ôi/ <h.ra.Ôii> fem. auction. hram`or /h.ram.k˙or/ <h.ra.m.kho.r> adj. wicked. hrayu& /h.ra.ju~/ <h.ra.ju~> adj. 1. ownerless (cattles etc.), 2. strayed. hir /h.ri/ <h.rii> masc. Lord Vishnu. hiryaXI /h.ri.ja.Æi/ <h.ri.ja.Æii> fem. greenery. hirhr /h.ri.hr/ <h.ri.h.r> masc. Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva. hrIf /h.ri˙p/ <h.rii.ph> masc. competitor. hrIfa: /h.ri.p˙a.i/ <h.ri.pha.ii> fem. competition. hrek /h.rek/ <h.re.k> advb. 1. each, 2. every one. hroX /h.roÆ/ <h.ro.Æ> fem. a row. hlka: /hl.kai/ <hl.ka.ii> fem. meanness. hlku& /hl.ku~/ <h.l.ku~> adj. light. hlncln /h.ln.c.ln/ <h.l.n.c.l.n> fem. movement. hlvo /hl.vo/ <h.l.vo> masc. a sweet. hlavvu& /h.lav.vu~/ <h.la.v.vu~> v.tr. 1. to stir 2. to shake. hlesu& /h.le.su~/ <h.le.su~> neut. an oar. hvn /h.vn/ <h.v.n> neut. a ceremonial sacrifice. hva /h.va/ <h.va> fem. air. hvaman /h.va.man/ <h.va.ma.n> neut. 1. climate, 2. weather. hvaldar /h.val.dar/ <h.va.l.da.r> masc. a police constable. hvalo /h.va.lo/ <h.va.lo> masc. 1. possession, 2. reference. hve /h.ve/ <h.ve> advb. now. hve9I /h.ve.t˙i/ <h.ve.thii> advb. 1. henceforth, 2. now onward, 3. hereafter. hvelI /h.ve.li/ <h.ve.lii> fem. 1. a big, majestic building, 2. a Vaishnava temple. h=e /h.ße/ <h.ße> advb. 1. never mind, 2. let it be, 3. it does not matter (to me). hsvu& /hs.vu~/ <h.s.vu~> v.intr. to laugh. hsam8u& /h.sa.m.¯u~/ <h.sa.m.¯u~> adj. that which provokes laughter.
  • 232. 232 hStkXa /hs.t.k.Æa/ <h.st.k.Æa> fem. handicraft. hStxep /hs.t.kßep/ <h.st.kße.p> masc. undue interference. St0Unn /hs.t.d˙u.nn/ <h.st.dhuu.n.n> neut. a hand- shake. hStp/t /hs.t.prt/ <h.st.pr.t> fem. manuscript. hStmeXap /hs.t.me.Æap/ <h.st.pr.t> masc. the act of joining hands of bride and bridegroom in a marriage ceremony. hStaxr /hs.ta.kßr/ <h.sta.kß.r> masc. 1. hand writing, 2. signature.. hX /hÆ/ <h.Æ> neut. a plough. hXdr /hÆ.dr/ <h.Æ.d.r> fem. turmeric. hXvu& /hÆ.vu~/ <h.Æ.vu~> adj. light. hXve /hÆ.ve/ <h.Æ.ve> advb. slowly. hXve9I /hÆ.ve.t˙i/ <h.Æ.ve.thi> advb. 1. slowly, 2. gently. h&karvu& /h˜.kar.vu~/ <h~.ka.r.vu~> v.tr. 1. to drive, 2. to sail. h&gamI /h˜.ga.mi/ <h~.ga.mii> adj. temporary. h&me= /hm.meß/ <h~.me.ß> advb. always. h&me=a& /hm.meß/ <h~.me.ßa~> advb. always. h&s /hms/ <h~.s> masc. swan. ha /ha/ <ha> advb. yes. hak /hak/ <ha.k> fem. a shout. hajr /ha.Ôr/ <ha.Ô.r> adj. present. hajrjvabI /ha.Ôr.Ô.va.bi/ <ha.Ô.r.Ô.va.bii> adj. quick-witted. hajrI /haÔ.ri/ <ha.Ô.rii> fem. presence. ha6ku& /haÎ.ku~/ <ha.Î.ku~> neut. a bone. ha6vEd /haÎ.vid/ <ha.Î.vi.d> masc. a bone-setter. ha6marI /haÎ.ma.ri/ <ha.[a.ma.rii> fem. difficulties. ha6oha6 /ha.Îo.haÎ/ <ha.Îo.ha.Î> advb. 1. up to the bone, 2. affecting very deeply. ha9 /hat˙/ <ha.th> masc. hand. ha9k6I /hat˙.k.Îi/ <ha.th.k.Îii> fem. handcuffs. ha9calakI /hat˙.ca.la.ki/ <ha.th.ca.la.kii> fem. jugglery. ha98I /hat˙.¯i/ <ha.th.¯ii> fem. female elephant. ha9I /ha.t˙i/ <ha.thii> masc. elephant. ha9o /ha.t˙o/ <ha.tho> masc. handle. ha9oha9 /ha.t˙o.hat˙/ <ha.tho.ha.th> advb. a handle.
  • 233. 233 ha na /ha na/ <ha na> fem. hesitation. hain /ha.ni/ <ha.ni> fem. damage. hainktaR /ha.ni.kr.ta/ <ha.ni.k.rta> adj. damaging. har /har/ <ha.r> masc. 1. garland, 2. necklace. har /har/ <ha.r> fem. defeat. harvu& /har.vu~/ <ha.r.vu~> v.intr. to be defeated. hal /hal/ <ha.l> masc. 1. condition, 2. circumstances. halk6olk /halk.Îo.lk/ <ha.l.k.Îo.l.k> advb. unsteady. halcal /hal.cal/ <ha.l.ca.l> masc. condition. halt /ha.lt/ <ha.l.t> fem. 1. condition, 2. circumstances. halvu& /hal.vu~/ <ha.l.vu~> v.intr. to move. ha= /haß/ <ha.ß> interjection. shows a sense of ease or gratification. haSy /has.j/ <ha.sj> neut. smile. haSyaSpd /has.ja.pd/ <ha.sja.sp.d> adj. rediculous. hahakr /ha.ha.kar/ <ha.ha.ka.r> masc. widespread feeling of sorrow or terror. ha&kvu& /ha~k.vu~/ <ha~.k.vu~> v.tr. to drive. ha&ja /ha~.Ôa/ <ha~.Ôa> masc. pl. the joints of the body. ha&f /ha~p˙/ <ha~.ph> fem. panting. ha&fvu& /ha~p˙.vu~/ <ha~.ph.vu~> v.intr. to pant for breath. ha&isyo /ha~s.(i)jo/ <ha~.si.jo> masc. a margin. ha&sI /ha~.si/ <ha~.sii> fem. 1. a jest, 2. a joking. ihckaru& /hic.ka.ru~/ <hi.c.ka.ru~> neut. cowardly. ihjravu& /hiÔ.ra.vu~/ <hi.Ô.ra.vu~> v.intr. to languish in someone’s memory. iht /hit/ <hi.t> neut. welfare. ihteC2u /hi.tec.c˙u/ <hi.te.cchu> adj. and masc. a wel-wisher. ihna /hi.na/ <hi.na> fem. myrtle. ihm /him/ <hi.m> masc. frost. ihlcal /hil.cal/ <hi.l.ca.l> fem. 1. movement, 2. activities. ihsab /hi.sab/ <hi.sa.b> masc. 1. account, .2 calculation. ihsabnI= /hi.sab.niß/ <hi.ha.b.nii.ß> masc. accountant. ihSso /his.so/ <hi.sso> masc. a share. ih&g /hi˜.g/ <hi~.g> fem. asafetida.
  • 234. 234 ih&mt /him.mt/ <hi~.m.t> fem. courage. ih&sk /him.sk/ <hi~.s.k> adj. violent. ih&sa /him.sa/ <hi~.sa> fem. violence. hIj6o /hiÔ.Îo/ <hii.Ô.Îo> masc. eunuch. hIbkvu& /hi.bk.vu~/ <hii.b.k.vu~> v.intr. to sob. hIbku& /hib.ku~/ <hii.b.ku~> neut. a sob. hIro /hi.ro/ <hii.ro> masc. diamond. hI&cvu& /hi~c.vu~/ <hii~.c.vu~> v.intr. to swing (oneself). hukm /hu.km/ <huu.k.m> masc. an order. hukko /huk.ko/ <hu.kko> masc. a smoking pipe. humlo /hum.lo/ <hu.m.lo> masc. an attack. huLl6 /hul.lÎ/ <hu.ll.Î> neut. a riot. hu& /hu~/ <hu~> pron. I, first person singular. hUko /hu.ko/ <huu.ko> masc. a smoking pipe. hU&i6yam8 /hu~.Îi.ja.m¯/ <huu~.Îi.ja.m.¯> neut. rate of exchange. hU&6I /hu~¯.Îi/ <huu~.Îii> fem. a bill of exchange. hU&f /hu~p˙/ <huu~.ph> fem. warmth. ®dy /r.dj/ <hr.d.j> neut. heart. ®dy±avk /r.dj.dra.vk/ <hr.d.j.dra.v.k> adj. stronly affecting to the heart. ®dypirvtRn /r.dj.p.ri.vr.tn/ <hr.d.j.p.ri.v.rt.n> neut. a change of heart. ®dy=UNy /r.dj.ßun.j/ <hr.d.j.ßu.nj> adj. feelingless. het /het/ <he.t> neut. 1. affection, 2. love. hetu /he.tu/ <he.tu> masc. 1. motive, 2. intention. herangit /he.ran,g.ti/ <he.ra.n.g.ti> fem. 1. trouble, 2. difficulty. helI /he.li/ <he.lii> fem. heavy rain. hevainyt /he.va.ni.jt/ <he.va.ni.j.t> fem. 1. brutality, 2. cruelty. heval /he.val/ <h> masc. an account. heisyt /hes.jt/ <he.si.j.t> fem. capacity. hoj /hiÔ/ <ho.Ô> masc. a water reservoir. hojrI /hoÔ.ri/ <ho.Ô.rii> fem. stomach. ho5 /hoˇ˙/ <ho.ˇh> masc. a lip. ho6I /ho.Îi/ <ho.Îii> fem. a boat.
  • 235. 235 ho¥o /hod.do/ <ho.ddo> masc. 1. a rank. 2. a position. honhar /hon.har/ <ho.n.ha.r> adj. promising. honart /ho.na.rt/ <ho.na.r.t> fem. a big accident. hom /hom/ <ho.m> masc. a ceremonial sacrifice. holo /ho.lo/ <ho.lo> masc. a doveline bird. hovu& /ho.vu~/ <ho.vu~> v.intr. 1. to be, 2. to take place. hoi=yar /ho.ßi.jar/ <ho.ßi.ja.r> adj. 1. clever, 2. brillient. hoi=yarI /ho.ßi.ja.ri/ <ho.ßi.ja.rii> fem. 1. cleverness, 2. intelligence. hoha /ho.ha/ <ho.ha> fem. uproar. hoXI /ho.Æi/ <ho.Æii> fem. the Holi festival. x x8 /k߯/ <kß.¯> fem. .a moment. xit /kß.ti/ <kß.ti> fem. 1. loss, 2. injury. xi{ay /kßt.ri.j/ <kß.tri.j> masc. a community so named. xma /kß.ma/ <kß.ma> fem. .forgiveness. xmapa{a /kß.ma.pat.r/ <kß/ma.pa.tr> adj. forgivable. xy /kß.j/ <kß.j> masc. .tuberculosis. xar /kßar/ <kßa.r> adj. 1. saltiest, 2. saline. ixitj /kßi.tiÔ/ <kßi.ti.Ô> fem. the horizon. xe{a /kßet.r/ <kße.tr> neut. a place. xe{afX /kßet.r.p˙Æ/ <kße.tr.ph.Æ> neut. area xo- /kßob˙/ <kßo.bh> masc. hesitation arising from bashfulness. }a }aait /gnja.ti/ <gna.ti> fem. a caste. }aan /gnan/ <gna.n> neut. knowledge. }aanI /gna.ni/ <gna.nii> adj. intelligent.
  • 236. 236 A Brief Outline of Gujarati Parts-of-Speech Babu Suthar bsuthar@sas.upenn.edu (Work in progress) Department of South Asia Studies University Of Pennsylvania 820 Williams Hall 36th and Spruce Philadelphia PA 19104
  • 237. 237 Content 1. Introduction 2. Open class 2.1. Nouns 2.2. Adjective 2.3. Verbs 2.4. Adverbs 3. Closed class 3.1. Pronouns and other Pro-Forms 3.2. Noun adjuncts 3.2.1. Role markers 3.2.1.1 Case markers 3.2.1.2 Postpositions 3.2.2. Quantifiers 3.3. Verb adjuncts 3.3.1. Auxiliaries 3.3.1.1. Simple auxiliaries 3.3.1.2. Modal auxiliaries 3.4. Connectives 3.4.1. Coordinating connectives 3.4.2. Subordinating connectives 3.4.3. Correlative connectives 3.4.4. Adversative connectives 3.4.5. Explicative connectives 3.4.6. Causal connectives 3.5. Other closed classes 3.5.1. Emphasis markers 3.5.2. Interjections 3.5.3. Negators 3.5.4. Politeness markers 3.5.5. Tag-marks 4. Conclusion
  • 238. 238 1. Introduction Gujarati words can be divided into: (1) Open class and (2) Closed class. Open class consists of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, while closed class consists of pronouns and other pro-forms, noun adjuncts, verb adjuncts, conjunctions and others. 2. Open Class 2.1 Nouns Nouns have the following properties: • gender, • number • case. Genders are three: masculine, feminine and neuter. All three genders are marked and unmarked. Masculine is marked with -Ao, feminine with -:, and neuter is marked with Ýw&. Examples: Nouns with unmarked gender Masculine -a: b˙ai 'brother' sap sap 'serpent' ha9 hat˙ 'hand' pvRt prvt 'mountain' ivcar vicar 'thought' Feminine bhen bhen 'sister' -e&s b˙´~s 'buffalo' Aa&` ø~k˙ 'eye' vel vel 'creeper' pX pÆ 'moment' Neuter =rIr ßrir 'body' nak nak 'nose' fUl p˙ul 'flower' man man 'respect' mn mn 'organ of desire' Nouns with marked gender Masculine
  • 239. 239 2okro c˙okr.o 'boy' kUtro kutr.o 'dog (male)' 36o g˙Îo 'pot' Aa&bo ø~bo 'mango tree' p9ro pt˙r.o 'stone' Feminine 2okrI c˙okr.i 'girl' kUtrI kutr.i 'dog (female)' ndI nd.i 'river' za6I j˙aÎ.i 'bush' Aa&gXI ø~gÆ.i 'finger' Neuter 2okru& c˙okr.u~ 'child' kUtru& kutr.u~ 'dog' taXu& taÆ.u~ 'lock' mo7u& mø~Î˙.u~ 'mouth' ka8u& ka¯.u~ 'whole' Gujarati has many nouns that end in ÝAo and Ý:, but they are not masculine or feminine respectively. Most traditional grammars treat them as exception. In fact, they are not. The ÝAo and Ý: of these nouns are not gender markers, they are the indivisible part of their stem, and therefore it is wrong to treate them as gender markers and then list them as exceptions. Consider 3o and pa8I, for example. Traditional grammars analyzed them as follow: Ë. 3o g˙.o stem-Gender marker. 'a kind of reptile' Ì. pa8I pa¯.i stem-Gender marker 'water' As Ë and Ì show, they treat ÝAo and Ý: as gender markers, which is not a correct analysis. The correct analysis is given bellow in Í and Î:
  • 240. 240 Í. 3o g˙o.∅ stem-Gender marker 'a kind of reptile' Î. pa8I pa¯i-∅ stem-Gender marker 'water' This analysis shows that 3o and pa8I are nouns with unmarked gender and their -Ao and -: are not the gender markers. Numbers are two: singular and plural. Singular is unmarked, while plural is marked with ÝAo. Examples: Singular Plural 2okro c˙okr.o 2okraAo c˙okra.o 'boys' 2okrI c˙okr.i 2okrIAo c˙okr.i.o 'girls' idvs divs idvso divs.o 'days' ma8s ma¯s ma8so ma¯s.o 'men' Case markers are ∅ (nominative), -e (agentive/ergative), -∅ or -ne (accusative/ absolutive), -ne (dative/experiencer), -thi or -e (instrumental), -nu~ (genitive), and -ma~ (locative). Consider the following paradigm: Nominative 2okro c˙okrro.∅ Agentive/Ergative 2okraAe c˙okra.e Accusative/Absolutive 2okro c˙okrro.∅ 2okrane c˙okrra.ne Dative/Experiencer 2okrane c˙okra.ne Locative 2okrama& c˙okra.ma~ Genitive case inflects for gender and number as the following paradigm shows: Singular Plural Masculine 2okrano 2okrana c˙okra.no c˙okra.no Feminine 2okranI 2okranI c˙okra.ni c˙okra.ni
  • 241. 241 Neuter 2okranu& 2okrana& c˙okra.nu~ c˙okra.na~ 2.2 Adjectives Gujarati adjectives fall into two categories: (1) variable and (2) invariable. Variable adjectives vary in terms of the gender and number of the nouns they modify, whereas the invariable adjectives do not vary. Consider the examples of saru& and su&dr, variable and invariable adjectives respectively. É. saro 2okro sar-o c˙okr-o good-MSASC.SG boy-MASC.SG. 'a good boy' Ê. sarI 2okrI sar-i c˙okr-i good-FEM.SG boy-FEM.SG. 'a good girl' Ë. saru& 2okru& sar-u~ c˙okr-u~ good-NEUT.SG boy-NEUT.SG. 'a good child' Ì. sara 2okraAo sar-a c˙okr-a-o good-MSASC.PL boy-MASC.PL. 'good boys' Í. sarI 2okrIAo sar-i c˙okr-i-o good-FEM. boy-FEM.PL. 'a good girl' Î. sara& 2okra&Ao sar-a~ c˙okr-a~-o good-NEUT.PL. boy-NEUT.PL. 'a good child' In É - Î the adjective saru& varies in terms of the gender of the noun it modifies. For example, in É, the noun is masculine and singular therefore the adjective saru& agrees with the noun in masculine and singular. In Ê the noun is feminine and singular and therefore the adjective is also feminine and singular and so on. In Í, however, the noun is feminine and plural the adjective does not show a plural marker. We can say that adjectives in Gujarati remain unaffected in number when the noun they modify is feminine and plural. Now consider the example of su&dr an invariable adjective:
  • 242. 242 Ï. su&dr 2okro sundar chhokr-o beautiful boy-MASC.SG. 'a beautiful boy' Ð. su&dr 2okrI sunder chhokr-i beautiful boy-FEM.SG. 'a beautiful girl' Ñ. su&dr 2okru& beautiful chhokr-uN beautiful boy-NEUT.SG. 'a beautiful child' ÉÈ. su&dr 2okraAo sundar chhokr-a-o good boy-MASC.PL. 'beautiful boys' ÉÉ. su&dr 2okrIAo sunder chhokr-i-o beautiful boy-FEM.PL. 'a beautiful girl' ÉÊ. su&dr 2okra&Ao sundar chhokr-aN-o beautiful boy-NEUT.PL. 'beautiful child' In Ï - ÉÊ, su&dr is an invariable adjective and therefore it does not agree with the noun it modifies. 2.3 Verbs Gujarati verbs (non-inflected) have the following structure: verb stem + infinitive. Example: É. hsvu& hs-vu~ verb stem + infinitive 'to laugh' Ê. r6vu& rÎ-vu~ verb stem + infinitive
  • 243. 243 'to cry' A verb root may be intransitive, transitive or double transitive. It may be also simple or causative. É and Ê are the examples of intransitive root. Ë - Ì and Í- Î are the examples of transitive and double transitive roots respectively. Ë. kapvu& kap-vu~ verb stem + infinitive 'to cut' Ì. pIvu& pi-vu~ verb stem + infinitive 'to drink' Í. Aapvu& ap-vu~ verb stem + infinitive 'to give' Î. moklvu& mokl-vu~ verb stem + infinitive 'to send' É to Î are also the examples of simple verbs, while ÏÝ Ð bellow are the examples of causative verbs. These are the verbs that are derived from simple verbs. Ï. hsavvu& hs.av.-vu~ verb stem +CAUS1+ INFINITIVE 'to make someone laugh' Ð. hsav6avvu& has.av.Îav-vu~ verb stem + CAUS1 + CAUS2 + INFINITIVE 'to make someone laugh through some another person' Gujarati inflected verbs have the following pattern: verb stem + inflectional material. Inflectional material may consists of various features such as tense, person, gender and number. Following table summaries some of the major inflections for the verb hsvu&Š Present (verb stem + tense, person, number) Singular Plural
  • 244. 244 First Person hsu& hsIAe hs.u~ hsi.ie Second Person hse hso hs.e hs.o Third Person hse hse hs.e hs.e Future (verb stem + tense, person, number) Singular Plural First Person hsI= hsI=u& hs.iß hs.ißu~ Second Person hs=e hs=o hs.ße hs.ßo Third Person hs=e hs=e hs.ße hs.ße Past Progressive (verb stem + progressive marker + gender, number) Singular Plural Masculine hsto hsta hs.t.o hs.t.a Feminine hstI hstI hs.t.i hs.t.i Neuter hstu& hsta& hs.t.u~ hs.t.a~ Past Perfective (verb stem + perfective + gender, number) Singular Plural Masculine hSyo hSya hs.y.o hs.y.a Feminine hsI HsI hs.y.i hs.y.i
  • 245. 245 Neuter hSyu& hSya& hs.y.u~ hs.y.a~ Past Plu-perfective (verb stem + pluperfect marker + gender and number) Singular Plural Masculine hselo hsela hs.el.o hs.el.a Feminine hselI hselI hs.el.i hs.el.i Neuter hselu& hsela& hs.el.u~ hs.el.a~ Verbs also inflect for imperative (present and future), desiderative, obligatory, conditional, and infinitive constructions. Examples: Imperative Present Second Person Singular Plural/Hon. rm rm rmo rm.o 'play' `av k˙av `aAo k˙ao 'eat' Third Person rmje (future) Desiderative rmvu& Obligatory rmvanu& Conditional rmt Infinitive rmvu& Excluding desiderative, all verb forms inflect for gender and number. However, conditional verb forms inflect optionally. 2.4 Adverbs Like adjective, adverbs are also variable and non-variable in Gujarati. Variable adverbs agree with the noun with which the verb agrees. There are various types of adverbs. Some of them are adverb of time, adverb of place, adverb of manner, adverb of order,
  • 246. 246 adverb of quantity, adverb of doubt, adverb of frequency, adverb of negative and connecting adverbs. Time Aaje aje 'today' kale kale 'tomorrow' prmidvse prm divse 'day after or day before tomorrow.' svare svare 'in morning' bpore bpore 'at noon, in the afternoon' sa&je... sa~je 'in evening' etc. Place AhI& hi~ 'here' Tya& tya~ 'there' n@k9I njik.t˙i 'from near' pase pase 'near' dUr9I dur.t˙i 'from a distance' etc. Manner Aem ´~m 'in that way' jem j´~m ‘as’ tem t´~m ‘in that manner’ jem tem j´~m t´~m ’by hook or crook' f4af4 p˙ˇap˙ˇ ‘one after the other’ 06a06 d˙ÎaÎ˙Î ‘one after the other’ Acank cank ‘accidently’ AekaAek ekaek ‘suddenly’ Order phelu& phelu~ ‘first, before’ p2I9I pc˙it˙i ‘later, after’ Aa`re ak˙re ‘finally, at last’ Agaw9I gaut˙i ‘in advance’ badma& badma~ ‘afterward’
  • 247. 247 A&te nte ‘finally, at the end’ Quantity 08u& g˙¯u~ ‘plenty, much, many’ 9o6u& t˙oÎu~ ‘small, less’ pUrtu& pur.tu~ ‘sufficient’ brobr brobr ‘equal’ 4ko4k ˇkoŠk ‘full’ Doubt kdac kdac ‘perhaps’ kdaict kdacit ‘hardly’ mo4e -age moˇe b˙age ‘mostly’ 38u&`ru& g˙¯u~k˙ru~ ‘mainly’ kyarek kjarek ‘sometime’ Frequency roj roj ‘everyday’ kyarek kjarek ‘sometime’ Avarnvar varnvar ‘frequently’ var&var varmvar ‘repeatdly’ Negative ma ma ‘not’ (colloquial) na na ‘not’ nhI& nhi~ ‘not’ Connecting p8 p¯ ‘but’ pir8ame pri¯ame ‘as a result, consequently’ v0uma& vd˙uma~ ‘in addition’ joke jo ke ‘however’ tdwpra&t tdupra~t ‘morover’ 3. Closed class 3.1 Pronouns and other Pro-forms Personal Pronouns
  • 248. 248 Gujarati personal pronouns differentiate three persons (first, second and third) and two numbers (singular, plural). They have also inclusive and exclusive contrast in third person plural. In addition, their second person plural form is also used as honorific. Following table summarize regular and agentive pronouns: Singular Plural Fist Person hu& Ame (Exclusive) Aap8e (Inclusive) Second Person tu& tme Third Person te teAo Personal pronouns take various cases, which include nominative, ergative, accusative/ dative, genitive and locative and instrumental. From these genitive forms distinguish among three genders and two numbers. Following table summaries their forms: 1st .sg 1st .pl 2nd .sg 2nd .pl 3rd .sg 3rd .pl ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Nominative hu& Ame tu& tme te teAo Aap8e Ergative me& Ame te& tme te8e teAoAe Aap8e tem8e Accusative mne Amne tne tmne tene teAone Aap8ne temne Locative marama& Amarama& tarama& tmarama& tenama& teAonama& Aap8ama& temnama& Instrumental mara9I Amara9I tara9I tmara9I tena9I teAo9I Aap8a9I temna9I Genitive Masc. maro Amaro taro tmaro teno teAono Aap8o temno Fem. marI AmarI tarI tmarI tenI teAonI Aap8I temnI Neut. maru& Amaru& taru& tmaru& tenu& teAonu& Aap8u& temnu& Non-personal Pronouns
  • 249. 249 Gujarati non-personal pronouns include demonstrative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, relative pronouns, indefinite pronouns and reflexive pronouns. Demonstrative Pronouns Aa, pelu& and te / Ae are the demonstrative pronouns. From these pelu& is variable. Aa is the near demonstrative pronoun, pelu& is the far demonstrative pronoun, while te / Ae are deictic pronouns. Interrogative Pronouns Interrogative pronouns are =u& and ko8. From these =u& is variable. We use =u& to ask question about non-human things, while ko8 to ask question about humans. Relative Pronouns Relative pronouns are je......te. These pronouns are used to connect two sentences. Indefinite Pronouns ko:, ka&:/ k&: and k=u& are the Indefinite pronouns. ko: used for human, while k&:k/ ka&:k and k=u&k are used for non-human. From these pronouns, k=u& is variable. Reflexive Pronouns pote is the Reflexive pronoun. In addition to these, Gujarati has also distributive pronouns (je je, te te, ko8 ko8, =u& =u& etc.), reciprocal pronouns (prSprSpr, ANyoNy, Arsprs), indefinite pronouns (Amuktmuk, fla8u&7I&k8u&, k&:k etc.). Non-personal pronouns also inflect for ergative, accusative/dative, locative, genitive and instrumental cases. 3.2 Noun adjuncts 3.2.1 Role markers Case markers and postpositions are the role markers in Gujarati. 3.2.1.1 Case markers Gujarati nouns distinguish seven types of cases: subjective, ergative, objective/dative, agential, ablative, genitive, locative and vocative. From these, genitive inflects for gender and number of the noun it takes. Following table summarizes the case markers: Nominative 2okro 2okro AaVyo. -∅ Ergative 2okraAe 2okraAe kerI kapI. -Ae Objective 2okrane rme=e 2okrane mayoR. -ne Dative 2okrane rme=e 2okrane kerI AapI. -ne Experiencer 2okrane 2okrane p(9r vaGyo. -ne Ablative bgIca9I maru& 3r bgIca9I 9o6ek j dUr 2e. -9I Instrumental rme=9I rme=9I bhu& kam 9tu& n9I. -9I Genitive 2okrano 2okrano kagX -no, -nI, -nu&, etc. 2okraAono kagX etc. Locative 3re rme= ATyare 3re j h=e. -Ae bgIcama& rme= ATyare bgIcama& h=e. -ma& Vocative he 2okra he 2okra, AhI& Aav. -∅ 3.2.1.2 Postpositions Gujarati postpositions fall in two classes: invariant and variant. The variant postpositions agree with noun in gender and number. Examples:
  • 250. 250 Invariant postpositions: trf, bad, lgI, pEkI, v6e, vgr... Variant postpositions: jevo, sr`o... 3.2.2 Quantifiers Quantifiers are the words that refers to quantity. Following are some of the Gujarati quantifiers: 1. È %, Í%, Î%..... 2. É/Ì, É/Ê, Ë/Ì... 3. É,Ê, Ë, Ì, Í... 4. Aek, be, {a8, car, pa&c.... 5. Aekad, beAek, {a8ek, carek, pa&cek 6. pa, A60u&, po8u&, do7u&, bm8u&... 7. b0u&, 9o6u&, 9o6&uk, ke4lu&k, pUrtu&, ApUrtu&, v0are... ... 3.3 Verb adjuncts 3.3.1 Auxiliaries 3.3.1.1 Simple auxiliaries Gujarati has two auxiliaries: 2- and ho-. Of these, 2- is used in present tense, while ho- is used in past tense and future tense. 2Ý and hoÝ both differentiate three person and two number in present tense and future tense, while hoÝ differentiates three gender and two numbers only in past tense. Consider the following tables: 2Ý Present tense Singular Plural First Person 2u& 2IAe Second Person 2e 2o Third Person 2e 2e hoÝ Future tense Singular Plural First Person ho:= ho:=u& Second Person h=e h=o Third Person h=e h=e hoÝ Past tense Singular Plural Masculine hto hta
  • 251. 251 Feminine htI htI Neuter htu& hta& 3.3.1.2 Modal auxiliaries Modal auxiliaries are the verbs that are used as auxiliaries. Such verbs are small in number and they occur with many restrictions. One such restriction is on the combination of the verbs. We can not combine all the modal auxiliary verbs with all the non-modal auxiliary verbs. In such verbal sequences, the first verb takes some linking element while the second verb takes inflectional material. Examples: Verb Modal Example verb `a: levu& me& kerI `a: lI0I. na`vu& na`vu& me& je khevu& htu& te khI na~yu& kapI ka7vu& me& kerI kapI ka7I. sm@ jvu& hu& AemnI vat sm@ gyo. s&-XavI devu& me& Aemne be vat s&-XavI dI0I. wtrI jvu& hu& f4af4 pg9Iya& wtrI gyo. -rI ra`vu& saru& 9yu& ke me& pa8I -rI ra~yu&. nhI& to Aap8e =u& krt? hsI p6vu& te jor jor9I hsI p6yo. bolI w5vu& te AekaAek bolI w5yo. ka7I mUkvu& me& rme=ne Aoifsma&9I ka8I mUkyo. 3.4 Connectives 3.4.1 Coordinating connectives Gujarati distinguishes between conjunctive (Ane) and disjunctive (ke, A9va). In disjunctive it distinguishes between inclusive (ke) and exclusive (A9va). Examples: Conjunctive sentences: É. rme= Ane mhe= kale 3er j=e. Ê. mne lal Ane lIlo r&g gme 2e. Ë. rme= Aav=e Ane mIna j=e. Disjunctive sentences: Ì. marI sa9e ko8 Aav=e? mIna ke lIla? (mIna Aav=e / lIla Aav=e / mIna Ane lIla bNne Aav=e.) Í. marI sa9e mIna A9va lIla Aav=e. (mIna Aav=e / lIla Aav=e / *mIna Ane lIla bNne Aav=e.) 3.4.2 Subordinating connective Subordinating conjunction is ke. Examples: É. te8e k¬u& ke hu& AavI=. Ê. rme=ne khejo ke Ae kale mare 3er Aave. Ë. mne htu& j ke Aek be idvsma& mne tav Aav=e. 3.4.3 Correlative connectives je ...te is a correlative connective, which decline for all the cases. Consider the following table: Nominative je...te Ergative je8e...te8e
  • 252. 252 Dative jene...tene Genitive jenu&...tenu& Locative jema&...tema&, jenama&...tenama& Instrumental jena9I....tena9I Correlative also inflects for comparative to express size, quantity, etc.: Examples. jev6u&...tev6u&. (size) je4lu&..te4lu& (quantity) jem...tem (manner) jya&...Tya& (place) 3.4.4 Adversative connectives p8 and prNtu are adversative conjunctions. prNtu is more formal than p8. Examples: É. hu& ca nhI&, p8 kofI pI=. Ê. tme gme Tya& jav. p8 Aa 2okrane AhI& mUkta jav. Ë. rme=ne khejo ke -le kam kre. p8 tibyt p8 jaXve. 3.4.5 Explicative connectives ke and Ae4le are the explicative conjunctions. Examples: É. hu& Ae4lo b0o 9akI gyelo ke na pu2o vat. Ê. lIla Ae4le lIla. AenI vat 9ay? 3.4.6 Causal connective kemke/ kar8ke is a causal connective. Examples: É. hu& kale Skule n hto gyo kemke/ kar8 ke marI tibyt sarI n htI. Ê. mare `Ub va&cvu& p6=e kem ke / kar8 ke mare kale pirxa 2e. 3.5 Other Closed classes 3.5.1 Emphasis marker Gujarati distinguishes between two types of emphasis markers: (1) inclusive and (2) exclusive. Inclusive marker is y / p8 and exclusive marker is j : Examples: Inclusive É. lIla y/p8 kale sa&je rsro4lI `a=e. Ê. lIla kale sa&je y/p8 rsro4lI `a=e. Ë. lIla kale sa&je rsro4lI y/p8 `a=e. Exclusive É. lIla j kale sa&je rsro4lI `a=e. Ê. lIla kale sa&je j rsro4lI `a=e. Ë. lIla kale sa&je rsro4lI j `a=e. Ì. lIla kale sa&je rs ro4lI `a=e j. Besides there are also sentential emphasis word `ru&, that agree with object > subject. Examples: Í. rme= AaVyo `ro? Î. rme=e cop6I va&cI `rI? 3.5.2 Interjections Gujarati has two types of interjections: primary (which do not have any lexical meaning) and secondary (which have some lexical meaning associated with them). Ahha, Aho, Aoho, A0000, h&A are the examples of primary interjections while vah, =aba=, ALya, etc. are the
  • 253. 253 examples of secondary interjections. In terms of function, they can be divided into expressive, conative and phatic types. Expressive interjections can be further divided into emotive and cognitive interjections. Following is a rough and very preliminary classification of the Gujarati interjections: Expressive interjections: Emotive 1. hay, hay hay, hay re, bapre, ma re, Ao... Express pain 2. Aoho, Aha, A000, Ahha... Exclamatory 3. h4, 2I, 24, 9U, i0k... Express hate. Cognitive 4. vah, =aba=, Aaha, 0Ny... Express joy Conative 5. Ao, ALya, AlI.... Address terms (informal). 6. hay, hlo, Express greeting. 7. Aav, Aavo, p0aro Express reception (informal sg. informal plural and honorific, formal respectively). 8. Aavje, Aavjo Express good-bye. 9. cal / calo Tyare Express parting Phatic 10. h&, =u& Express question. 11. h&A, ha,... Express permission. 12. W&hu& Expresses negation. 3.5.3 Negators na, nhI&, n and n9I are the negators in Gujarati. We use negators to prohibit an action and also to negate a sentence or a phrase. Examples: Prohibitative Negation É. tme kerI na `ata. Ê. tme bIju b0u& j `ajo, p8 kerI nhI& `ata. Ë. tme kerI n `aAo to saru&. Sentential/Phrasal negation É. p/½Š rme= AaVyo? jvabŠ na. (Ramesh did not come.) Ê. rme= rmto n9I. (Ramesh may be doing something else.) Ë, rme= rm=e nhI&. (Ramesh will not play. He will do something else). Ì. rme= Aavu& na kre. (Ramesh would not do such thing. Some another person must have done it). Í. rme= pakI kerI n laVyo. (Ramesh brought a mango but it was not ripe.) 3.5.4 Politeness marker @ is the politeness marker that is used with verb and nouns. Examples: É. kagXno jvab AapvanI k<pa kr=o@. Ê. bapu@ bhar gam gya 2e. kale Aav=e. 3.5.5 Tag-marks Gujarati has two types of tag-marks:(1) Sentence initial tag-marks, and (2) Sentence final tag-marks. Examples: Sentence Initial tag-marks
  • 254. 254 É. to tme kyare pa2a Aav=o? Ê. te tme kyare Amdavad jvana? Ë. to to tu& Aa nokrI krvano `ro, kem? Ì. Tyare to t u& 3er jvano Aemke? Sentence Final tag-marks Í. tme ca pI=o ke? Î. Aa cop6I lw& ke? Ï. jra Aa kagX va&cI btav to. Ð. me& Aa4lu& kam to kyuRne? 4. Conclusion This is a very brief outline of the Gujarati parts-of-speech I have prepared for the Beginning Gujarati and Intermediate Gujarati class. I am more concerned with specifying general properties of these parts of speech and listing sample words belonging to them.
  • 255. 255 Gujarati Numerals Gujarati has three types of numerals: cardinals, ordinals, and fractions. Cardinal 1 1 †å‘ 2 2 ËÜå 3 3 µÜ±Ü 4 4 œÜÜÓ 5 5 ÆÜÜØœÜ 6 6 “ 7 7 ôÜÜ´Ü 8 8 †Ü« 9 9 ÃÜíÜ 10 10 ¹ôÜ 11 11 †ÝÄÜÑÜÜÓ 12 12 ËÜÜÓ 13 13 ´ÜåÓ 14 14 œÜÜæ¹ 15 15 ÆÜØ¹Ó 16 16 ôÜÜåì 17 17 ôܶÜÓ 18 18 †°ÜÓ 19 19 †ÜåÄÜݱÜôÜ 20 20 íÜßôÜ 21 21 †å‘íÜßôÜ 22 22 ËÜÜíÜßôÜ 23 23 ´ÜåíÜßôÜ 24 24 œÜÜåíÜßôÜ 25 25 ÆÜœœÜßôÜ 26 26 “ííÜßôÜ 27 27 ôܶÜÜíÜßôÜ 28 28 †¬ÜíÜßôÜ 29 29 †ÜåÄܱܵÜßôÜ 30 30 µÜßôÜ 31 31 †å‘µÜßôÜ 32 32 ËܵÜßôÜ 33 33 ´ÜåµÜßôÜ 34 34 œÜÜåµÜßôÜ 35 35 ÆÜÜصÜßôÜ 36 36 “µÜßôÜ 37 37 ôÜܲµÜßôÜ 38 38 †Ü²µÜßôÜ 39 39 †ÜåÄܱܜÜÜêÜßôÜ 40 40 œÜÜêÜßôÜ 41 41 †å‘´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 42 42 ËÜå´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 43 43 ´Üå´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 44 44 œÜàÏÜÜêÜßôÜ 45 45 ÝÆÜô´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 46 46 “å´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 47 47 ôÜ಴ÜÜêÜßôÜ 48 48 †²´ÜÜêÜßôÜ 49 49 †ÜåÄܱÜÆÜœÜÜôÜ 50 50 ÆÜœÜÜôÜ 51 51 †å‘ÜíÜÃÜ 52 52 ËÜÜíÜÃÜ 53 53 µÜåÆÜÃÜ 54 54 œÜÜåÆÜÃÜ 55 55 ÆÜØœÜÜíÜÃÜ 56 56 “ÆÆÜÃÜ 57 57 ôܶÜÜíÜÃÜ 58 58 †¬ÜíÜÃÜ 59 59 †ÜåÄܱÜôÜ܇« 60 60 ôÜ܇« 61 61 †å‘ôÜ« 62 62 ËÜÜôÜ« 63 63 µÜåôÜ«
  • 256. 256 64 64 œÜÜåôÜ« 65 65 ÆÜÜØôÜ« 66 66 “ÜôÜ« 67 67 ôܲôÜ« 68 68 †²ôÜ« 69 69 †ÄܱÜÜåôÜ߶ÜåÓ 70 70 ÝôܶÜåÓ 71 71 ‡‘Üå´ÜåÓ 72 72 ËÜÜå´ÜåÓ 73 73 ´ÜÜÇ´ÜåÓ 74 74 œÜàÏÜÜå´ÜåÓ 75 75 ÆÜØœÜÜå´ÜåÓ 76 76 “Üå´ÜåÓ 77 77 ÝôܶÜÜå´ÜåÓ 78 78 ‡«ÖÑÜÜå´ÜåÓ 79 79 †ÄܱÑÜ܆åïÜß 80 80 †åïÜß 81 81 †åÑÜÜïÜß 82 82 ËÑÜÜïÜß 83 83 ´ÑÜÜïÜß 84 84 œÜÜåÑÜÜÚïÜß 85 85 ÆÜØœÜÜïÜß 86 86 “ÖÑÜÜïÜß 87 87 ôÜ´ÑÜÜïÜß 88 88 †«ÖÑÜÜïÜß 89 89 ÃÜíÑÜÜïÜß 90 90 ÃÜåíÜàØ 91 91 †å‘ܱÜàØ 92 92 ËÜܱÜàØ 93 93 µÜܱÜàØ 94 94 œÜÜåÓܱÜàØ 95 95 ÆÜØœÜܱÜàØ 96 96 “ÅÜàØ 97 97 ôܶÜܱÜàØ 98 98 †¬Ü±ÜàØ 99 99 ÃÜííÜܱÜàØ 100 100 ôÜÜå In counting 100 is †å‘ ôÜÜå, 200 is ËÜôÜÜå, 300 is µÜ±Ü ôÜÜå, 400 is œÜÜÓ ôÜÜå and so on. Similarly, 1000 is ÷¡Ó, which is once again †å‘ ÷¡Ó, ËÜå ÷¡Ó, µÜ±Ü ÷¡Ó and so on. One hundred thousand is called êÜÜƒÜ in Gujarati. There is no concept of million in Gujarati. We describe it as ¹ôÜ êÜ܃Ü. One hundred êÜÜƒÜ is called ‘ÓÜå² and one hundred ‘ÓÜå² is called †ËÜè. Remember: In Gujarati each number symbol has its own name. They are †å‘²Üå, ËÜÄܲÜå, ´ÜÄܲÜå, œÜÜåÄܲÜå, ÆÜÜ؜ܲÜå, “ÄܲÜå, ôÜܴܲÜå, †Ü«²Üå, ÃÜíܲÜå and ÏÜß²àØ for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 0 respectively. Ordinals: The ordinals for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are ÆÜ÷åêÜàØ, ËÜßèàØ, µÜßèà, œÜÜå³ÜàØ, “¬àØ, respectively. For rest of the numbers, we use –ÏÜàØ. Examples: ÆÜÜØœÜÏÜàØ, ôÜÜ´ÜÏÜàØ, †ÜÜ«ÏÜàØ, ÃÜíÜÏÜàØ ¹ôÜÏÜàØ and so on. The ordinals must agree with noun in gender. Example: ÆÜ÷åêÜÜå “Üå‘ÓÜå first boy ÆÜ÷åêÜß “Üå‘Óß second boy
  • 257. 257 ÆÜ÷åêÜàØ “Üå‘ÓàØ third boy Fractions: Following is the list of the fractions: ¼ ÆÜÜ ½ †²ÁÜàØ ¾ ÆÜÜå±ÜàØ 1¼ ôÜíÜÜ 1 ½ ¹Üå° 1 ¾ ÆÜÜå±ÜÜ ËÜå 2 ¼ ôÜíÜÜ ËÜå 2 ½ †°ß 2 ¾ ÆÜÜå±ÜÜ µÜ±Ü … ... … ... ... ...

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