Informe #UE augment pobresa infantil a Europa


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Informe #UE augment pobresa infantil a Europa

  1. 1. EUROPEAN COMMISSION MEMO Brussels, 28 September 2012Employment and Social Situation Quarterly Review:frequently asked questions(see also IP/12/1037)Which data are analysed?The EU Employment and Social Situation Quarterly Review analyses data from a widecombination of information sources, including Eurostat statistics, reports and survey datafrom the Commission services, national and sectoral statistics, articles from respectedpress sources and contributions from public and private employment services.Additionally, the latest issue of the Review, covering the second quarter of 2012, takes acloser look at the labour markets and social situation in Belgium, Cyprus, the CzechRepublic, France, Italy, Lithuania, Luxembourg and Poland. It also reports on thesupplementary indicators to unemployment and the measures taken by the MemberStates to support companies and employees affected by restructuring. Finally, annexed tothe regular analysis of sectoral trends, there is a focus on the tourism and hotel,restaurant and café sector.What is the current labour market situation and outlook?In the second quarter of 2012 employment remained broadly stable compared with theprevious quarter both in the EU and the euro area, after three consecutive quarters ofdecline, while GDP recorded a minor contraction in the second quarter of 2012 (-0.1 %quarter-on-quarter in the EU, -0.2 % in the euro area). The fall in economic activity stemsmainly from further decline in domestic demand. Economic activity and employmentdeclined further in Spain and Portugal. Greece, Bulgaria and Cyprus have seen fastdeclines in employment too (see Chart 1). MEMO/12/720
  2. 2. Chart 1: Employment change in 2012 Q2 (yearly change, 000’s persons) and quarterlychange (%, quarter-on-quarter) in the EU and Member StatesSource: Eurostat, National Accounts, data seasonally adjusted for quarter-on-quarter, 2012 Q2 quarter-on-quarter change not available for Greece, Ireland, Lithuania and Romania.Employment remains subdued in comparison with 2011, at least compared to the firstsemester of 2011 when it was still rising: in the EU employment went down by 0.2 % overthe year to the second quarter of 2012 – in the euro area it even declined by 0.6 % -while EU GDP was 0.3 % down compared to the second quarter of 2011. All types ofemployment (whether permanent, temporary or self-employment) are suffering from theweak labour demand, with the notable exception of part-time employment. The EU hasbeen in a recession or at the verge of it since late 2011 and the overall economicsentiment at its lowest level in three years. In this context, not surprisingly, job-findingprospects remain poor compared to pre-crisis years.How have unemployment and long-term unemploymentdeveloped?The continuous increase in unemployment in the EU over the last 16 months to July 2012put over 2.6 million more people out of work compared to March 2011 (+11.6 %).Long-term unemployment accounts for 4.5 % of the active population (up by0.4 percentage points over the year) at EU level and grew in the majority of MemberStates, reaching in some cases a historically high level (see Chart 2), although the speedof the increase is gradually declining. Long-term unemployment is, however, expected tocontinue to grow, owing to the recent surge in the number of recently unemployed peopleand poor macro-economic prospects. Long-term unemployment may lead todiscouragement and withdrawal from the labour market. 2
  3. 3. Chart 2: Long-term unemployment rates for EU, Euro Area and in the Member States in2011 Q1 and 2012 Q1Source: Eurostat, LFS, data non-seasonally adjustedNew figures for 2011 shed light on the broader impact of the crisis on labour marketconditions. Beside the unemployed, there were some 8.6 million underemployed part-timeworkers. In 2011, the EUs potential additional labour force was estimated at 10.9 millionpeople.How is the financial situation of households?Gross household disposable income declined in two-thirds of EU countries between 2009and 2011 (see Chart 3), which explains why the share of the EU population reporting theirhouseholds are experiencing financial distress remains historically high, having generallyedged up further over recent months. Over the last year Italy has recorded a particularlysharp rise in overall financial distress followed by Greece, Ireland, Cyprus, Portugal andSpain. Among households withi the lowest income bracket, the share of peopleexperiencing financial distress has increased further in a majority of Member States.However, richer households, relatively less affected so far, were over the last quarter alsomore numerous to report having to draw on their savings. Citizens of the countriesaffected by the steepest income declines are also generally more likely to have negativeperceptions of their social situation. 3
  4. 4. Chart 3: Change in gross household disposable income in the first and second phases ofthe crisis, in %Source: Eurostat, LFS.Note: Lithuania and Malta are missing; * = data is only available until 2010.What is the child poverty situation?Child poverty is becoming an issue for a growing number of households. It results fromthe conjunction of insufficient earnings from parental work and inadequate support tohouseholds with children. The size and effectiveness of social expenditure dedicated tochildren varies a lot across the EU (see Chart 4), pointing to potential scope forimprovements in spending to tackle child poverty. In Finland, Hungary and Austria, familyand child benefits reduce the risk of poverty of children by 50% or more, against 40% inGermany which spends a similar share of GDP on this type of benefits (around 3.2%). InSpain and Greece, the very low poverty reduction effect (below 5%) of child benefits ismainly due to the low level of spending. Disincentives embedded in the tax and benefitsystem, and the lack of affordable childcare, also contribute to child poverty as theyhamper parents labour market participation, including that of second earners and lonemothers. 4
  5. 5. Chart 4: Poverty reduction effect of family and child benefits for children aged 0-17Source: EU-SILC UDB 2010, Ireland and Cyprus not available.What are the recent trends in labour costs and productivity ?Labour productivity growth in the EU continued to weaken during the second quarter of2012, with sharp falls in Italy, Hungary and the United Kingdom. Nominal wage growthstrengthened in some Member States, especially the United Kingdom and Finland, while itremained subdued in others such as Spain and negative in Slovenia. Greece continues itspath of sharp decreases in nominal labour cost that started in the second quarter of 2010.Nominal unit labour cost developments differed somewhat across Member States with theUnited Kingdom posting strong growth, while Spain saw another decline. The real unitlabour cost, which was falling in the EU over 2010-11, has regained upward momentum insome Member States, in the UK in particular.What are the developments with regards to restructuring?As restructuring is a permanent characteristic of economic development, Member Statesare increasingly putting in place a range of instruments to support companies andemployees affected by restructuring, as reflected in a recently published Eurofounddatabase.What is the situation in the tourism and hotel, restaurant and cafésector?The tourism and the hotel, restaurant and café sector generates roughly 3.5 % of the EUGDP, and employs more than 11 million people, accounting for 5 % of the total labourforce. Employment in the tourism industry held up fairly well through the crisis, whencompared to staggering falls in its value added. It is however unclear if jobs can continueto be kept unless demand and output recover quickly.Full version of the Quarterly EU Labour Market Review, September 2012: 5