Gender in value chains June 15, 2012Graham Thiele, Gordon Prain, Anne Rietveld, Holger Kirscht and Sarah Mayanja CRP RTB
SummaryMany value chains complex gender based division of labour • women playing major roles as processors and traders • gender “invisible” for researchers, planners, policy makersValue chain development (VCD)- poor job at handlinggenderWhy do value chains matter?Why does gender matter in VCD?Why are VCD methods gender blind?What should we do?
Value chain Policy makers: local govts. Input provider Farmer Wholesaler Processor Retail Customer Service providers: INIAs, NGOs, Extension services
Why do value chains matter?Improve market Driver of innovationaccess and small process eg poundabilityfarmerslivelihoods Deliver improved nutritional benefits
Value chain development (VCD)“strengthen the relations betweensmallholders and other chainactors, including input providers,buyers, and processors, for thedevelopment of new or increasedvalue adding to existing productlines” Donovan and Stoian
Why does gender matter in VCD?1. Women and men differentiated roles/ demands, if not addressed undermine effectiveness Eg cassava poundability2. Social justice: equal distribution of advantages, assets and benefits between men & women3. Business: gender inequity is missed business opportunity4. RTBs: women key roles in post harvest and processing - bulkiness and perishability
Poundability: who cares? Why does gender matter in VCD? 1. Equitable and inclusive development should include gender, at very least shouldn’t worsen gender inequity 2. Women and men have differentiated roles, and demands which if not properly addressed undermine effectiveness of VCD • Eg poundability of cassava key trait highly preferred by women 3. RTBs: women play key roles in post harvest and processing linked with bulkiness and perishibility
Mechanized gari production:implications for gender equity?
VCD example: Participatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA)Combines collective action & innovation processes among market chain actorsHelps market chain actors express their needs to R&D organizationsFacilitates long-term partnership among farmers, market chain actors and service providers (PPP)
Innovation process replicated and extended in Peru COMO ResearchCreative idea
Toolbox Toolbox • GIZ, RUTA and CATIE have made a major effort to gather some 100 tools that, this way or another, deal with value chain development from a gender perspective (see http://ruta.org/toolbox/Some favourable gender ).linked outcomes
Review of VCD guidelines: ICRAF 2012Methodological guidelineParticipatory Market Chain Approach (PMCA) (Bernet, Thiele & Zschocke 2011) l e al VC Analysis werMaking VC Work Better for the Poor: A Toolbook for Practitioners of y(M4P 2008) d theValue Chain Development for Decent Work lude and Muzira 2009) (HerrValueLinks Manual (GTZ 2008) e c onc W n: “ lind” ova r bGuidelines for rapid appraisals of agrifood chain performance in developmentcountries n Don ende(da Silva asode Souza Filho 2007) J and lly g ba sicaChain-wide learning for inclusive agrifood market development (IIED 2008)Using a value chain approach to design a competitiveness strategy (USAID no date)Participatory Market Chain Analysis for Smallholder Producers (Lundy et al. 2007)The operational guide for the making markets work for the poor (M4P) approach(DFID 2008)
Why are methods gender blind?1. VCD emphasizes exploiting a market opportunity rather than equity or strengthening household livelihoods2. VCD seeks to improve the articulation of VC and sharing of benefits among existing actors not bringing in new actors3. Lack of practical tools and proven experience for gender-responsive VCD4. Few gender specialists have worked on VCD
What should we do?1. Gender overlay on existing methods2. Gender analysis3. Toolkits: gender tools at different stages of VCD • resolve ‘blockages’ and ‘engender’ the chain4. Pursue change jointly across CRPs not piecemeal VC by VC • link with existing initiatives
Wrap up1. Misfit between importance of gender and VCD methods2. Options to improve methods3. Quick fix not enough4. Gender aware VCD specialists – CRPs collaborate to build capacity5. Build on practical experience, real examples and comparative case studies (meta analysis): •role for CRP 2 on value chains?