Digital Finance and Interoperability: 20 Country Scan

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CGAP commissioned Glenbrook Partners to conduct a global landscaping of various interoperability arrangements across 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The study was carried out between May to September 2016.

The objective of the project was to collect global evidence about the current range of initiatives to achieve interoperability, and categorize these initiatives based on key interoperability enablers and outcomes. The scan also sought to identify key emerging trends to enable interoperability to achieve financial inclusion.

The information on each country in this report is current as of September 2016. This deck includes a one slide summary per country. A working paper is available at http://www.cgap.org/publications/digital-finance-interoperability-financial-inclusion.

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Digital Finance and Interoperability: 20 Country Scan

  1. 1. 1 Digital Finance and Interoperability: 20 Country Scan As of September 2016
  2. 2. Introduction Bangladesh Brazil Cote d'Ivoire Ecuador Egypt Ghana India Indonesia Jordan Kenya Madagascar Mexico Nigeria Pakistan Peru Philippines Rwanda Sri Lanka Tanzania Thailand 2 CGAP commissioned Glenbrook Partners to conduct a global landscaping of various interoperability arrangements across 20 countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. The study was carried out between May to September 2016. The objective of the project was to collect global evidence about the current range of initiatives to achieve interoperability, and categorize these initiatives based on key interoperability enablers and outcomes. The scan also sought to identify key emerging trends to enable interoperability to achieve financial inclusion. To enable comparison across 20 countries, Glenbrook Partners was asked to summarize the interoperability solutions observed in some countries, which has resulted in summary descriptions of some markets or the interoperability capabilities of some countries. Therefore, the observations from the scan are best used as a source of high level comparison and for global patterns. The country examples are not intended to be a complete source of information about any one particular country’s payment infrastructure. The information on each country in this report is current as of September 2016. Please read the Working Paper Digital Finance Interoperability and Financial Inclusion: A 20 Country Scan for the overall analysis and conclusions of this scan. This powerpoint deck includes a one slide summary per country.
  3. 3. 3 20 Countries Included PERU BRAZIL ECUADOR MEXICO COTE D’IVOIRE GHANA NIGERIA KENYARWANDA JORDAN SRILANKA PAKISTAN INDIA BANGLADESH THAILAND INDONESIA THE PHILIPPINES MADAGASCAR EGYPT TANZANIA
  4. 4. Glenbrook Partners Approach to the Scan 4 To enable comparison among global interoperability initiatives Glenbrook Partners adopted the following approach… • Developed an analytical framework to enable comparison of different interoperability processes, arrangements and outcomes • Conducted a global scan of major domestic interoperability arrangements on 20 target countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America • Gathered qualitative and quantitative information Develop Initial Framework Global Scan Framework Analysis • Conducted a framework analysis by sifting the country level information through the framework • Made comparisons, observations and identified emerging trends • Desk review of all remotely available materials related to interoperability in target countries • Telephonic interviews with development partners and country experts • In depth telephonic interviews with in-country stakeholders that included – • Providers • Regulators • Interoperability switch and scheme providers • In depth telephonic interviews with in-country stakeholders that included – • Providers • Regulators • Interoperability switch and scheme providers • Third Party Solutions TASKSUNDERTAKENMETHODOLOGY
  5. 5. DFS Accounts: : Small value transactional accounts aimed at large portions of the mass market, often oriented towards financial inclusion. These accounts often include tiered- KYC and can be issued by banks or non-banks. The accounts must also be accessible over a digital channel (e.g. phone, agent, cards or merchant network) and be able to transact instantly. A subjective assessment was made of which accounts to include in each market. Use Cases: DFS accounts can serve several specific transaction types or ‘use cases’. The use cases included in this survey are: person to person (P2P), person to business (P2B) including merchant and bill payments, bulk payments including government to person and business to person (G2P and B2P), and cash in and cash out (CICO). In a given market, only some use cases might be interoperable. OTC: financial services are delivered without the provision of DFS Accounts. Many aggregators which process millions of P2P or bill payment transactions do this over-the- counter without the provision of DFS accounts and hence were not included in this scan. Definitions
  6. 6. Arrangements for Interoperability 6 Arrangements that enable use cases to be interoperable can be broadly categorized into three types 1. Multilateral Agreements - Multilateral agreements include three or more providers and a formalized set of shared common rules. 2. Bilateral Agreements - Bilateral agreements exist between two providers who transact directly with each other on agreed terms. Similar to the global voice roaming business, the two parties negotiate directly to set rules, pricing, and other related considerations for interoperability. 3. Third Party Solutions - Independent third parties can also play an important service to the market by facilitating transactions between providers. These third parties do not issue accounts (stores of value) themselves but connect other providers. In some countries, aggregators offer these third party solutions.
  7. 7. 7 Market Analysis Framework, part 1: DFS Accounts outin DFS Accounts Digitally enabled transactions accounts targeting the unbanked segment. Provided by licensed non-banks or by banks (Does not include legacy bank accounts) For each country, the set of providers identified as issuing DFS accounts is listed in the central box.
  8. 8. 8 Transactional Use Cases outin Cash In Cash Out CICO Cash Out at Agents Cash Out at ATMs Cash In at Agents Cash In at ATMs Person to Person Payments P2P DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS Consumer to/from Enterprise Payments Bill Payments Merchant Payments G2P Payments Employer Payments DFS Accounts Digitally enabled transactions accounts targeting the unbanked segment. Provided by licensed non-banks or by banks (Does not include legacy bank accounts) Common use cases that transact into or out of DFS Accounts. Market Analysis Framework, part 2: Use cases
  9. 9. 9 Types of Arrangements that enable interoperable use cases Bilateral Agreement Third Party Solution Multilateral Agreement Usually, more than one arrangement that enables interoperability co-exists Transactional Use Cases outin Cash In Cash Out CICO Cash Out at Agents Cash Out at ATMs Cash In at Agents Cash In at ATMs Person to Person Payments P2P DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS Consumer to/from Enterprise Payments Bill Payments Merchant Payments G2P Payments Employer Payments DFS Accounts Digitally enabled transactions accounts targeting the unbanked segment. Provided by licensed non-banks or by banks (Does not include legacy bank accounts) Common use cases that transact into or out of DFS Accounts. Market Analysis Framework, part 3: arrangements for interoperability
  10. 10. No interoperability; Bkash only allows on-us merchant payments only Interoperable via aggregators Cash-Out from ATMs through bilateral agreement with partner bank Not interoperable No interoperability Agents are non-exclusive No interoperability No interoperability; extensive OTC practices Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs No interoperability Agents are non-exclusive No interoperability No interoperability; extensive OTC practices Bangladesh CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: bKash; SureCash; DBBL’s Rocket P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  11. 11. Mobile money accounts interoperable via companion cards; Card based DFS Accounts are cobranded by VISA or MasterCard Enabled through third parties such as Zanterra; Boleto system allows interoperable bill payments Most DFS Accounts can be used to cash out at ATMs enabled by Banco 24 Horas ATM Network No interoperability; all G2P payments made through National Bank (Caixa) Mobile money providers enable cash-out at partner bank agents via bilateral agreement Interoperable via bilateral agreements and TED Mobile money accounts are not interoperable; Simplified bank accounts are interoperable via TED Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Mobile money providers enable cash-in at partner bank agents via bilateral agreement Interoperable via bilateral agreements and TED Mobile money accounts are not interoperable; Simplified bank accounts are interoperable via TED Brazil CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Zuum; Claro; Oi; Tim; simplified bank accounts; prepaid eWallets (e.g. ContaSuper) P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  12. 12. out Some provider offer companion cards which are accepted at VISA & MasterCard merchants Not interoperable; At a nascent stage; paying school fees is becoming a popular use case Some providers allow cash out at partner bank ATMs, also enabled by third parties. Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Some providers offer through their partnerships with banks, also enabled by third parties. No interoperability among mobile wallets in At a nascent stage; not interoperable Interoperable cash-In facility at ATMs not widely offered Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Some providers offer through their partnerships with banks, also enabled by third parties. No interoperability among mobile wallets Cote d’Ivoire CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Provider: Orange Money; MTN Mobile Money; Flooz, Qash P2PCICO P2BP2PCICO BULK Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  13. 13. Just starting; work in progress Currently used for tax payments; other services being planned Interoperable among some ATMs that are affiliated with @fectivo Service not available Interoperable among retailers and bank agents affiliated with @fectivo Interoperable with cooperativas, mutualistas and banks Interoperability achieved through central bank as single issuer Interoperable among some ATMs that are affiliated with @fectivo Interoperable among retailers and bank agents affiliated with @fectivo Service not available Interoperability achieved through central bank as single issuer Ecuador CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: @fectivo P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  14. 14. Enabled by aggregators such as Fawry; P2M payments using new switch by MasterCard is WIP Enabled by third parties such as Fawry Possible through 123 Network (ATM network) Enabled by banks via ACH and the transfer orders are fed by the Bank or by EBC Mobile Hub to the Mobile platform Agents interoperable via scheme; Non-exclusive agents are also found in the market Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperable but nascent; all DFS Accounts providers expected to join new EBC switch by MasterCard Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Agents interoperable via scheme; Non-exclusive agents are also found in the market Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperable but nascent; all DFS Accounts providers expected to join new EBC switch by MasterCard Egypt CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Vodafone Cash; Flous; Orange Money; PhoneCash P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  15. 15. out Ecobank and Kopo Kopo’s Paywith can accept Tigo Cash and MTN Enabled through aggregators such as Corenett Airtel Money and MTN Mobile money can be withdrawn in partner banks ATMs Not interoperable but agent are non-exclusive by regulation MTN and Airtel Money offer this service with their partner banks No interoperability among mobile wallets in Bulk payment interoperability through aggregators such as Interpay Africa Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Not interoperable but agent are non-exclusive by regulation MTN and Airtel Money offer this service with their partner banks No interoperability among mobile wallets Ghana CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Major provider: Tigo Cash; MTN Mobile Money; Airtel Money P2PCICOBULK P2BP2PCICO Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  16. 16. out Currently enabled via RuPay, IMPS; further interoperability expected via UPI Several third parties e.g. bill desk; soon Bharat Bill Pay System will enable direct interoperability Fully interoperable with all ATMs via National Financial Switch Interoperable via microATMs enabled through AePS/IMPS Wallets and bank accounts are interoperate through IMPS All bank accounts including DFS Accounts, can interoperate through IMPS in Enabled by Aadhaar Payments Bridge and ID Mapper Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Interoperable via microATMs enabled through AePS/IMPS Wallets and bank accounts (BA) are interoperate through IMPS All bank accounts including DFS Accounts*, can interoperate through IMPS India CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Jan Dhan Accounts; Prepaid wallets; Payment Bank accounts P2PCICO P2BP2PCICO BULK Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  17. 17. No interoperability; No aggregators; providers form direct relationship with merchants No interoperability; No aggregators; providers form direct relationship with billers Enabled by bilaterally connecting to ATM networks G2P payments are at a nascent stage. G2P pilot covering 5000 beneficiaries started in 2014 Agents not interoperable via scheme; Non exclusive telco agents found in the market Enabled through bilateral agreements with partner banks and ATM networks Multilateral rule set and commercial agreement among three MMOs Enabled by bilaterally connecting to ATM networks Agents not interoperable via scheme; Non exclusive telco agents found in the market Enabled through bilateral agreements with partner banks and ATM networks Multilateral rule set and commercial agreement among three MMOs Indonesia CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: TCASH, XL Tunai, Dompetku P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  18. 18. Interoperable pilots underway by JoMoPay; major pilots with public transit, also NFC POS payments JoMoPay will be linked to central bank owned bill and utilities payment system, eFawateercom JoMoPay is linking to ATM network to conduct card less transactions for cashing out Interoperable pilots underway by JoMoPay Agents are interoperable via JoMoPay; Agent exclusivity is prohibited Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperable through new JoMoPay switch; providers just coming on board JoMoPay is linking to ATM network; some will be able to support cash in. Agents are interoperable via JoMoPay; Agent exclusivity is prohibited Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperable through new JoMoPay switch; providers just coming on board Jordan CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Zain Cash; Alholoul; Aya; Dinarak P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  19. 19. in out Bill payment interoperability through third parties such as Cellulant Through bilateral relationship, with banks; Kenswitch and PesaPoint ATMs Bulk payment interoperability facilitated through banks and their relationship with MMOs 3G Direct accepts M-Pesa and credit cards; Airtel Money VISA card accepted at VISA merchants Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive M-Pesa connected with 30 banks via Cellulant; bilateral connection also exits Limited interoperability. Equitel makes it possible through bill payment option Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive M-Pesa connected with 30 banks via Cellulant; bilateral connection also exits Limited interoperability. Equitel makes it possible through bill payment option. Prohibitive pricing. Kenya CI at agents CI at ATMs CO at agents DFS Accounts Major provider: M-Pesa; Airtel Money; Equitel; Orange Money P2PCICO Bulk Payments CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments P2BP2PCICO BULK Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  20. 20. No aggregators; not interoperable No aggregators; not interoperable providers form direct relationship with billers No ATM switch; only Orange has ATMs and other services can not cash-out; No interoperability No aggregators; not interoperable Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Through bilateral agreement with partner banks Multilateral rule set and bilateral commercial agreement with three MMOs Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Through bilateral agreement with partner banks; bank account and wallet need to be linked Multilateral rule set and bilateral commercial agreement with three MMOs Madagascar CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Airtel Money; Telma Mvola; Orange Money P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  21. 21. Interoperability enabled through card networks such as PROSA and EGLOBAL Enabled through aggregators Interoperability enabled through card networks such as PROSA and EGLOBAL Bulk payments happening via SPEI but most of the bulk payments happening via ACH Technically interoperable via SPEI but chargeable and not widely used. Aggregators such as Oxxo operate in the market All types of bank accounts* fully interoperable through SPEI All types of bank accounts* fully interoperable through SPEI Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Technically interoperable via SPEI but chargeable and not widely used. Aggregators such as Oxxo operate in the market All types of bank accounts* fully interoperable through SPEI All types of bank accounts* fully interoperable through SPEI Mexico CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Reduced KYC accounts by commercial banks and prepaid issuers P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out *Both reduced KYC accounts and regular accounts Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  22. 22. Enabled by aggregators and NIBBS Enabled by aggregators and NIBBS Cash out at ATMs via NIBBS Enabled by aggregators and NIBBS Nascent “super agent” networks will enable CO at other agents via NIBBS Interoperable through NIBBS; problems of pricing and governance Interoperable through NIBBS; problems of pricing and governance Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Nascent “super agent” networks will enable CI at other agents via NIBBS Interoperable through NIBBS; operation problems; not working well Interoperable through NIBBS; problems of pricing and governance Nigeria CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Banks & non banks but not Telcos: FETS; Etranzact; Pagatech and First Monie P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  23. 23. Closed loop merchant pilots starting; Not interoperable Interoperable via aggregators. 1Link allows bill payments to 22 billers via 1Link ATM Cash out through companion card at 1Link and Mnet ATMs Benazir Income Support Program is using 1Link on a limited basis Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agent are non-exclusive Interoperable through 1Link switch but not extensively used; additional KYC required Interoperable through 1Link switch but not extensively used; extensive OTC practices Interoperable cash-in available at 1Link ATMs for 1Link participants Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agent are partially non-exclusive Interoperable through 1Link switch but not extensively used; additional KYC required Interoperable through 1Link switch but not extensively used; extensive OTC practices Pakistan CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Easypaisa; Jazzcash; Upaisa; UBL Omni; Timepey Mobile Paisa HBL Express P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  24. 24. Work in progress via Bim Government Tax payment via Bim; others being planned Interoperable via ATM networks Work in progress via Bim Any Bim consumer can cash-out at any agent through Bim issuer agent sharing agreement Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperability achieved through Bim Switch; recently launched Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Any Bim consumer can cash-in at any agent through Bim issuer agent sharing agreement Limited interoperability, only between accounts owned by the same person Interoperability achieved through Bim Switch; recently launched Peru CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Large commercial banks; non- bank (EEDE): Gmoney; Tu Dinero Movil P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  25. 25. out Providers offer companion cards which are accepted at MasterCard merchants Enabled by aggregators Bilateral connection with banks and ATM networks Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Money can’t be sent from mobile money wallets to bank accounts Limited interoperability; GCASH–PayMaya interoperability in nascent stage in Enabled by aggregators Bilateral connection with banks and ATM networks Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Bilateral connection with banks and ATM networks Limited interoperability; GCASH–PayMaya interoperability in nascent stage Philippines Legacy to DFS CI at agents CI at ATMs DFS to DFS Bulk Payments DFS to Legacy CO at agents CO at ATMs DFS to DFS Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Provider: Smart Money; PayMaya; GCASH; BanKO; mBank P2PCICO P2BP2PCICO BULK BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  26. 26. Rswitch offer interoperability at POS; MMOs acquire their own merchants; Rswitch may play a role Interoperability facilitated by aggregators such as Pivot: e-sale, MVend Cash out at ATM enabled by connecting to Rswitch mVISA platform enables agent I/O which is used mainly by MFBs; Agents are not exclsuive Bilateral arrangement with banks; Linking of accounts needed Tigo Cash and Airtel Money interoperable via Rswitch Not widely used but Rswitch’s E-Huriro platform may play a role in the future Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs mVISA platform enables agent I/O which is used mainly by MFBs; agents are non-exclusive Bilateral arrangement with banks; Linking of accounts needed Tigo Cash and Airtel Money interoperable via Rswitch Rwanda CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments P2PCICO P2BP2PCICO BULK in out DFS Accounts Providers: Airtel Money; Tigo Cash; MTN Mobile Money Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  27. 27. Not interoperable Enabled by aggregators Cash out at ATM through bilateral arrangement with banks Agents not interoperable via any scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Enabled through bilateral arrangement with banks; Lanka Clear’s CCPS is open only for banks No interoperability among wallets*; All Bank Accounts interoperable via Common Card & Payment Switch Made through direct arrangements between specific provider and paying agency. Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Agents not interoperable via any scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Enabled through bilateral arrangement with banks; Lanka Clear’s CCPS is open only for banks No interoperability among wallets*; All Bank Accounts interoperable via Common Card & Payment Switch Sri Lanka CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments P2PCICO P2BP2PCICO BULK in out DFS Accounts Providers: eZ Cash; mCash *Etisalat & Hutch customers can open eZCash wallet Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  28. 28. Enabled by aggregators such as Selcom Bill payment interoperability through aggregators such as Maxcom Through bilateral relationship, Umoja ATM switch and Selcom Cashpoint ATMs Enabled by aggregators such as Selcom, Maxcom and E-Fulusi Enabled by third parties such as Maxcom, Selcom; agent are non- exclusive Direct bilateral relationship with 4 banks and through Selcom with 35 banks Bilateral agreements among four MMOs – M-Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Ezy Pesa & Airtel Money Only few providers offer cash-in facility at ATMs Enabled by third parties such as Maxcom, Selcom; agent are non- exclusive Direct bilateral relationship with 4 banks and through Selcom with 35 banks Bilateral agreements among four MMOs – M-Pesa, Tigo Pesa, Ezy Pesa & Airtel Money Tanzania CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: Vodacom M-Pesa; Tigo Pesa; Zantel Ezy Pesa Airtel Money; P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  29. 29. Providers offer companion cards which are accepted at MasterCard merchants Not interoperable; No aggregators; providers form direct relationship with billers Bilateral agreement with wallet providers and bank partners; and banks connected to ATM network Banks handle most of the bulk payments through ITMX; wallets don’t offer bulk payments Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Mobile wallets are not allowed to connect to PromptPay; Banks interoperable via bilateral agreement Mobile wallets interoperable via MasterCard switch; Bank accounts will be interoperable via PromptPay Bilateral agreement with wallet providers and bank partners; and banks connected to ATM network Agents not interoperable via scheme; Agents are non-exclusive Mobile wallets are not allowed to connect to PromptPay; Banks interoperable via bilateral agreement Mobile wallets interoperable via MasterCard switch; Bank accounts will be interoperable via PromptPay Thailand CI at agents CI at ATMs Bulk Payments CO at agents CO at ATMs Bill Payments Merchant Payments DFS Accounts Providers: True Money; mPay; Jaew P2PCICO P2PCICO BULK P2B in out Legacy to DFS DFS to DFS DFS to Legacy DFS to DFS BilateralMultilateral Third Party KEY Survey is current as of September 2016
  30. 30. Carol Coye Benson carol@glenbrook.com Elizabeth McQuerry elizabeth@glenbrook.com Allen Weinberg allen@glenbrook.com Shiv Vadivelalagan shiv@glenbrook.com Glenbrook Partners’ team
  31. 31. Advancing financial inclusion to improve the lives of the poor www.cgap.org

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