Introduction to the order of mass
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    Introduction to the order of mass Introduction to the order of mass Presentation Transcript

              • Introduction to the Order of Mass
        • A Pastoral Resource of the Bishops’ Committee on the Liturgy
    • Introduction
      • Approved in 1997, revised & approved in 2000
      • A pastoral document rather than juridical
      • Designed to assist in the training of ministers
      • Goal of liturgical formation: “…form a holy people…so that they may give thanks to God…and so that they may learn to offer themselves…to make this clear by their…charity toward brothers and sisters who participate with them in the same celebration.”
    • Introduction
      • “ Thus they are to shun any appearance of individualism…”
      • “ Such a vision often challenges the rugged individualism of Americans. Yet any desire to imprint the identity of a particular community upon the liturgy must be tempered…”
      • Liturgical formation of the People of God and the ministers “must above all be spiritual.”
      • Every celebration of Eucharist an assembly of God’s people with bishop/priest
      • A memorial of Christ’s action in Word and Eucharist
      • Everyone assembled has a part in the one action
      • “… on the Lord’s Day…”
      I. The Celebration of Mass
      • Full, active, and conscious participation by all, unique roles
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Full, active, and conscience participation by all, unique roles
      • A reflection of the universal Church
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Full, active, and conscience participation by all, unique roles
      • A reflection of the universal Church
      • Proper preparation for each person who has a role
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Full, active, and conscience participation by all, unique roles
      • A reflection of the universal Church
      • Proper preparation for each person who has a role
      • Formation of liturgical ministers both spiritual and technical
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Full, active, and conscience participation by all, unique roles
      • A reflection of the universal Church
      • Proper preparation for each person who has a role
      • Formation of liturgical ministers both spiritual and technical
      • Verbal and non-verbal components of liturgical ministry
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Full, active, and conscience participation by all, unique roles
      • A reflection of the universal Church
      • Proper preparation for each person who has a role
      • Formation of liturgical ministers both spiritual and technical
      • Verbal and non-verbal components of liturgical ministry
      • Join the rest of the assembly when not performing their particular role
      1. Liturgical Ministers and the Gathered Assembly
      • Christ present in the priest
      • Encourages the participation of others so that “everything is done well”
      • Primary responsibility to offer the “presidential prayers,” chiefly the Eucharistic Prayer
      • Physical posture, eye contact
      • Homily
      • Concelebration
      Priest Celebrant
      • Proclaims the Gospel reading, preaches on occasion, announces the intentions at the General Intercessions
      • Carries the Book of the Gospels before the priest in the entrance procession
      • Prepares the altar, elevates the chalice at the Doxology, and may assist with breaking of the bread and preparation of the chalices
      • Helps in the distribution of Communion, especially the chalice
      • Assists the priest at the chair and the altar, occasionally giving directions to the assembly
      • May incense priest, people, Book of the Gospel
      Deacon
      • “ God speaks to the faithful through them”
      • “ Qualified” persons must be trained
      • Different lectors for each reading
      • Responsorial psalm led by cantor, but occasionally the lector
      • May carry the Book of the Gospels before the priest if no deacon is present
      • All readings proclaimed from the ambo
      Lector
      • Christ is present (“Where two or three…”)
      • Not a random group, but an organized gathering
      • Dialogues have value as communal action
      • Singing an expression of communal awareness
      • Uniformity of posture and gesture
      • Accommodations should be made for persons with special needs
      • Adaptations when children are present, especially if in majority
      Gathered Assembly
      • “… aid the gathered assembly’s full participation…”
      • Role of “psalmist” singled out (responsorial psalm, Alleluia, verses (can be same as cantor)
      • Cantor leads the congregation
      • Organ and other instruments support and encourage participation
      • Choir remains at all times part of the gathered assembly
      • Choir sings alone only occasionally
      • In absence, encouragement of cantor or instrumental music
      Liturgical Musicians
      • assist the priest celebrant in distribution of Communion
      • Difference between ordinary and extraordinary ministers/commissioning or deputation needed
      • Link between ministering at the altar and bringing Eucharist to the sick
      • Ministers approach altar after priest has received Communion
      • Ministers receive Communion from priest not from each other; not in the manner of concelebrants
      • Only priest or deacon prepares Eucharist for reception, including reserve Eucharist in tabernacle
      Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion
      • Purification of vessels: consume remaining Precious Blood; vessels purified by priest, deacon, or instituted acolyte/faculty may be given by bishop to laity
      • Communion to the sick: priest gives pyx to ministers immediately after Communion
      Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion
        • Enhance celebration by taking part in procession and making sure all items necessary for liturgy are available
        • Hold the book for the presiding priest
        • Carry other items. e.g. censer, water pitcher, processional cross
        • Number depends on nature of celebration; a note on Masters of Ceremonies
      Servers
        • St. Paul’s instruction: “welcome one another as Christ has welcomed you…”
        • Welcome, provide with worship aids, help find seats
        • Attention to visitors
        • Assist in special circumstances, e.g. illness
        • May assist with collections
      Ushers
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Gesture and Posture
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Gesture and Posture
      • Words
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Gesture and Posture
      • Words
      • Liturgical Music
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Gesture and Posture
      • Words
      • Liturgical Music
      • Materials and Objects
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Gesture and Posture
      • Words
      • Liturgical Music
      • Materials and Objects
      • Occasional Adaptations
    • The Eucharistic Celebration and Its Symbols
      • Theological Concepts
      • Sanctification of women & men given expression in symbols perceptible by the senses
      • Principle actions: taking, blessing, giving, sending
      • Ritual promulgated as actions of the whole Church
      • Actions should not need to be explained
    • Gestures and Postures
      • Through outward gestures we express inner participation
      • We worship God with our bodies and feelings
      • People are called as members of organic whole, not individuals
      • Actions performed together express unity (e.g. Sign of the Cross)
    • Gestures and Postures
      • Some actions performed by individuals (e.g. priest praying with extended hands
      • Western common understandings: standing to greet risen Lord; sitting to listen; kneeling as gesture of submission and adoration
      • Notes on other gestures: bowing, kissing, genuflecting, striking the breast
    • Words
      • Verbal communication corresponds to text, acoustics, form of celebration, and language
      • Scripture of “exceptional importance”
      • Presidential prayers (Eucharistic prayer of “primary importance”)
      • Common prayers and other texts (e.g. Creed, Lord’s prayer)
    • Words
      • Sung texts: psalm response; acclamations; parts of Eucharistic prayer (e.g. Preface)
      • Invitations and introductions (by priest or deacon)
      • Private prayers (by priest or deacon, inaudible)
    • Liturgical Music
      • Accentuates solemnity of occasion and fosters common faith
      • Closely bound to liturgical texts (not to be altered)
      • Inclusion of styles from every period, culture, region
      • Important factors to consider: quality of composition; ability to express text; ease with which it can be remembered and sung
      • Liturgical music may accompany action (e.g. procession)
    • Liturgical Music
      • Primary source should be Scripture and texts of the liturgy
      • Music provided in Roman Missal; local composition used when suitable
      • Variety of musical form
      • Outside Advent, Lent, Easter Triduum, and Masses for the Dead, instrumental music may be employed
    • Liturgical Music
      • Organ to be accorded “pride of place”; other instruments may be used
      • Not every liturgy celebrated with the same degree of solemnity
      • Liturgical music should reflect nature of season or occasion
    • Liturgical Music
      • Selection of music begins with texts
      • Priority given to parts of Mass rather than hymns, i.e. Responsorial Psalm, Gospel and Eucharistic acclamations, dialogue between priest and people
    • Silence
      • Another form of communication between God and people
      • Both individual and communal aspects
      • Not simply a pause, but a time for hearing, assimilating, and responding
      • When?: during penitential rite, before Opening Prayer, after readings and homily, after Communion
    • Materials and Objects
      • Recognizable as food and drink
      • Free from foreign substance
      Bread and Wine
    • Materials and Objects
      • Should be made of noble metals
      • Distinguishable as used only for liturgy
      • Should not break easily
      • Contained in one vessel and covered
      • Difference between ciboria and chalices
      • Vessels for (generous) washing of hands
      Sacred Vessels
    • Materials and Objects
      • Table of sacrifice and thanksgiving meal
      • Fixed altars made of stone or wood
      • Covered with white cloth
      • Candles placed on or near
      • Only objects for Mass on altar (e.g. not flowers)
      Altar
    • Materials and Objects
      • “ Table of God’s Word”
      • Used exclusively for proclamation of Scriptures (not announcements)
      • Design: elevated, fixed, “noble,” harmonious with altar
      Ambo
    • Materials and Objects
      • Christ present in the presider; chair a sign of his office; positioned where he can be seen; not to resemble a throne
      • Leads the prayers standing at the chair
      • Movement from chair to ambo to altar should signify different parts of Mass
      Chair
    • Materials and Objects
      • Symbol of cost of salvation; should be visible before, during, and after celebration
      • May be carried in procession or fixed; caution not to duplicate crosses
      • Instructions on the covering of crosses (and images) during Lent
      Cross
    • Materials and Objects
      • Communicate God’s presence to us in word
      • Two books of God’s word: Lectionary & Book of the Gospels (use)
      • Other books, e.g. Roman Missal (use)
      • Pamphlets and leaflets never to be used in exercise of liturgical roles
      Books
    • Materials and Objects
      • Serve functions of festal clothing and insignia of function or ministry
      • Alb common to all ministers
      • Chasuble reserved to priest
      • Deacon’s vestments
      • Color appropriate to celebration in U.S.
      Vesture
    • Materials and Objects
      • Ancient sign of respect and honor and prayer
      • Used in amounts sufficient to been seen and smelled
      • Times of use: e.g. beginning, Gospel proclamation, preparation of altar
      Incense
    • Adapting the Celebration to To Particular Circumstances
      • Sunday celebration “preeminent”
      • Local and national feasts and observances to be observed (e.g. January 22 – day of penance for abortion)
      • Celebrations of culturally and ethnically mixed groups deserve attention
      • Notes on liturgies with special groups, e.g. children, the sick
      • Guidelines for receiving Communion: for Catholics; for fellow Christians; for those not receiving Communion; for non-Christians
      • Prayer of the Liturgy of the Hours
      • Guidelines using the Directory for Masses with Children
    • II. Introductory Rites
      • Entrance Procession
      • Everyone able to sing Opening Song
      • Order of Procession: incense, cross & candles, liturgical ministers, deacon or lector with Book of the Gospels, priest
      • Act of reverence at altar
    • II. Introductory Rites
      • Greeting
      • Sign of the Cross and opening dialogue
      • Introduction of the Mass of the day, introduction of visitors
    • II. Introductory Rites
      • Act of Penance
      • Formula from Roman Missal or other version
      • Option of Rite of Sprinkling
      • Gloria: should be sung (not during Advent or Lent)
    • II. Introductory Rites
      • Opening Prayer (Collect)
      • Completes the Introductory Rites
      • May be sung or recited
      • Preceded by moments of silence
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Close relationship between Liturgy of the Word and Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • We have “communion” both with the Word and with the Eucharist
      • Human words must not “obscure” the divine word
      • Call for study of the Introduction to the Lectionary
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Biblical Readings
      • May not be omitted, shortened, or replaced by other texts
      • Preference for the longer version
      • Proclamation of the Gospel is preeminent
      • Prayerful silence, possible brief introduction
      • Option for readings to be sung
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Responsorial Psalm
      • “ All respond” as it is the prayer of the Church
      • Preferred form is responsorial
      • Can be proclaimed when singing is impossible
      • Seasonal psalms permitted in U.S.
      • Songs or hymns not to be used in place of responsorial psalm
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Gospel Acclamation
      • Normally an alleluia except in Lent
      • Accompanied by a Gospel procession
      • Deacon asks for a blessing from priest if he proclaims Gospel
      • All stand during procession
      • If proclamation is not sung, it is omitted
      • Note on the Sequence (Easter and Pentecost are not optional)
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Gospel Reading
      • Distinct from other readings (e.g. proclamation reserved to deacon or priest other than the presiding priest)
      • Never omitted
      • The signs of the cross in preparation
      • Encouragement to sing the “dialogue”
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Homily
      • Integral part of the liturgy, based on texts of Mass or other rites
      • Intended to make application of the Word to daily life
      • Should be carefully prepared and of appropriate length and style
      • Never to be omitted on Sundays or holydays without serious reason
      • Recommended on weekdays
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Homily
      • Reserved to priest or deacon
      • Lay person may preach homily for Masses with Children, though not called a “homily”
      • Homily delivered from ambo or presiding chair
      • Sign of the cross before and after not advised
      • Period of silence follows
      • Dismissal of catechumens
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Profession of Faith
      • Recited by priest and people together on Sundays and solemnities
      • Normal form is the Nicene Creed (Apostles Creed only other option)
      • Profession of faith replaced by renewal of baptismal promises at Easter Vigil (Easter), or Confirmation/Baptism Masses
      • Can be omitted in RCIA rites during Mass
    • III. Liturgy of the Word
      • Prayer of the Faithful (Universal Prayer)
      • Intercessions for all humanity
      • Although intercessions can be concrete, they should “look beyond the concerns of the local congregation and to the needs of the whole Church and the wider world.”
      • The priest directs the prayer from chair, intentions are proposed by deacon or other minister, and the faithful respond in silence or verbal prayer
      • Addressed to the congregation, not to God
      • Carry tone of petition not praise or thanksgiving
      • Option for singing the prayers
      • Those proposing the prayers return to chairs after concluding prayer
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Preparation of the Gifts
      • Gifts of bread and wine presented by the faithful, along with other offerings, e.g. money
      • Preparation of the altar: all things necessary brought from side table by ministers or members of congregation
      • Presentation of the gifts: in procession; “token” gifts discouraged; accompanied by music, sung or instrumental
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Preparation of the Gifts
      • Placing of gifts on altar, usually in silence
      • Mixing of wine and water (function of the deacon)
      • Incensing of gifts an option
      • Washing of hands, ceremonial rather of need
      • Prayer over the offerings
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Eucharistic Prayer
      • Center and summit of the entire celebration
      • Theology of thanksgiving, recollection of salvation history, remembrance of Last Supper, Pascal mystery of the Lord, invocation of the Holy Spirit upon the Church
      • Approved texts for use in U.S.
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Eucharistic Prayer (elements)
      • Dialogue between priest and congregation
      • Preface (a prayer of thanksgiving)
      • Holy, Holy, Holy acclamation
      • Epiclesis (calling upon the Holy Spirit)
      • Institution Narrative and Consecration
      • Memorial acclamation
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Eucharistic Prayer (elements)
      • Anamnesis and offering (memorial)
      • Intercessions
      • Doxology
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Communion Rite
      • culmination of the Eucharist
      • Preparation flows from Eucharistic Prayer directly to Communion (Lord’s prayer; sign of peace; breaking of the bread)
      • Should not be given elaborate musical treatment
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Communion Rite
      • culmination of the Eucharist
      • Preparation flows from Eucharistic Prayer directly to Communion (Lord’s prayer; sign of peace; breaking of the bread)
      • Should not be given elaborate musical treatment
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • The Lord’s Prayer
      • Proper prayer in preparation for Communion
      • When sung, sung by everyone
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • The Sign of Peace
      • In Roman tradition takes place after the Lord’s Prayer
      • Expresses biblical concept of total well-being
      • Acknowledges presence of Christ in our neighbor
      • Priest should remain in the sanctuary
      • No song or commentary should accompany the sign
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Breaking of the Bread
      • Essential characteristic of Christ sharing meals with us
      • Bread should have the appearance of food and easily recognized as broken
      • Faithful should not ordinarily be given Communion from the tabernacle
      • Priest normally the one to break the bread
      • Lamb of God is sung or said during the rite and repeated until the action is completed
      • Extraordinary ministers approach altar after priest has received Communion
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Communion
      • Private preparation of the priest (inaudible)
      • Invitation to Holy Communion
      • Distribution of Holy Communion (desirable to share chalice; Communion procession is the norm
      • Various options for Communion song
      • When deacon is present, he administers the cup to the faithful
      • Extraordinary ministers do not self-communicate
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Communion
      • Receiving in hand or on tongue the prerogative of the communicant
      • Faithful not permitted to take up consecrated bread or sacred chalice themselves and then offer Communion to others
      • One hand should rest on the palm of the other
      • Intinction should not be used as a means of avoiding Communion in the hand
      • Communicant has option not to receive from chalice
      • Sign of reverence before receiving each form
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Communion Song
      • Communion accompanied by a psalm or hymn, simple enough to be sung by all present
      • Begins while the priest is receiving Communion
      • Several songs may be used if necessary; silence or instrumental music also permitted
      • Eucharistic songs composed for adoration not appropriate for Communion songs
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Purification of Vessels
      • Purification should be done reverently, briefly, and inconspicuously
      • May be purified after Mass
      • Done by priest, deacon, or instituted acolyte
      • Pouring of Precious Blood into the ground or sacrarium is prohibited
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Period of Silence/Song of Praise
      • Appropriate following Communion
      • Not to be interrupted by announcements or second collection
      • Song of praise may be used as an alternative or addition to silence
    • IV. Liturgy of the Eucharist
      • Prayer after Communion
      • Brings Communion rite to a close; may be sung or said by the priest
    • V. Concluding Rite
      • Meant to give people a sense of abiding mission.
      • Announcements
      • May precede the concluding rite
      • Should be brief enough for the congregation to remain standing
      • Made from a place other than the ambo
      • Greeting
    • V. Concluding Rite
      • Blessing
      • Refer first and foremost to God
      • Solemn blessing forms encouraged for Sunday use
      • Trinitarian form
      • Dismissal
      • Done by deacon if present
      • Concludes with Alleluia during Easter season
      • Priest and deacons kiss the altar
      • All make profound bow and genuflect when appropriate
      • Procession accompanied by song, instrumental, or silence
    •  
    • Produced by Rev. Craig Forner Archdiocese of San Francisco For Catechetical Use Only Not for Sale or Commercial Purposes