What Is Collective Intelligence?

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Collective Intelligence is defined very broadly as
groups of individuals doing things collectively that seem intelligent. Identifying classifications and examples of crowdsourcing.

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What Is Collective Intelligence?

  1. 1. What is Collective Intelligence?<br />
  2. 2. Collective Intelligence<br />Is defined very broadly as <br />groups of individuals doing things collectively that seem intelligent. <br />
  3. 3. Collective Intelligence<br />Consists of families, companies, countries, and armies… <br />All are groups of individuals doing things collectively that, at least sometimes, seem intelligent. <br />
  4. 4. Collective Intelligence on the Internet<br />Crowds have done certain intelligent things, like voting in elections, for a long time, <br />However, <br />low cost electronic communication enabled by the Internet now makes it feasible for crowds to do many more things than ever before. <br />
  5. 5. Internet enabled CI<br />Common examples of Internet enabled Collective Intelligence (CI)<br />Google<br />Wikipedia<br />Threadless<br />
  6. 6. Google CI<br />Harnesses collective knowledge of the entire Web <br />Takes judgments made by millions of people as they create links to Web pages <br />Produces intelligent answers to questions typed into the Google search bar. <br />
  7. 7. Wikipedia CI<br />World’s largest encyclopedia with high quality articles created collectively by thousands worldwide<br />Almostno centralized control. <br />Anyonewho wants to can change almost anything<br />Decisions about what changes to keep are made by a loose consensus of volunteerswho care. <br />
  8. 8. Threadless CI<br />Anyone can <br />design a T-shirt<br />submit design to a weekly contest<br />vote for favorite designs. <br />Company<br />selects winning designs from most popular entries<br />puts them into production<br />gives prizes and royalties to winning designers. <br />over 500,000 people design and select T-shirts. <br />
  9. 9. How does CI work?<br />Who is performing the task? <br />Why are they doing it? <br />Why do people take part in the activity? <br />What motivates them to participate? <br />What incentives are at work? <br />What is being accomplished? <br />How is it being done? <br />
  10. 10. Who contributes to CI tasks?<br />Anyone <br />who chooses to do so can participate without being assigned by someone in a position of authority. <br />Anyone who wants to can submit a module for possible inclusion in Linux. <br />Anyone can create a link to a Web page, and each new link becomes part of the database Google uses to serve up answers to searches. <br />Anyone can propose a new article or edit an existing article in Wikipedia. <br />Anyone can submit a T-shirt design to Threadless or vote on the designs that are submitted. <br />
  11. 11. Why participate/contribute to CI?<br />Money<br />Love<br />Glory<br />Avoidance<br />
  12. 12. Why participate/contribute to CI?<br />Money<br />Financial gain in direct payments, salary<br />increased likelihood of future earning<br />enhance professional reputation <br />improve skills<br />
  13. 13. Why participate/contribute to CI?<br />Love <br />intrinsic enjoyment of an activity<br />opportunities to socialize with others<br />Desire to contribute to a cause larger than themselves<br />Studies of Wikipedia have shown that its participants are motivated by all three of these Love variants<br />
  14. 14. Why participate/contribute to CI?<br />Glory<br />recognition from peers<br />Programmers in open source software communities<br />“power seller” on eBay <br />“top reviewer” on Amazon <br />
  15. 15. Why participate/contribute to CI?<br />Avoidance<br />Distraction <br />Procrastination<br />Boredom<br /> Contributing to online collective intelligence can be stress relieving by distracting one from focusing on accomplishing other things they prefer to avoid<br />
  16. 16. What is being done by CI?<br />Create<br />Decide<br />
  17. 17. What is being done by CI?<br />Create: <br />Generate something new<br />piece of software code,<br />blog entry, <br />T-shirt design. <br />
  18. 18. What is being done by CI?<br />Decide <br />evaluate and select alternatives;<br />whether a new module should be included in the next release of Linux, <br />which T-shirt design to manufacture, <br />whether to delete a Wikipedia article. <br />
  19. 19. How is CI being done?<br />Create <br />Collection<br />Contests<br />Collaboration<br />Decide<br />Individual Decisions<br />Group Decisions<br />
  20. 20. How is CI being done?<br />Collection<br />items contributed by members of the crowd are created independently of each other <br />YouTube videos are created mostly independently of each other <br />Digg, a collection of news stories <br />Flickr, a collection of photographs <br />
  21. 21. How is CI being done?<br />Collection  Contests<br />one or several items in the collection are designated as the best entries and receive a prize or other form of recognition. (Threadless)<br />Large amount of money rewarded to team solving problem, providing better solution after an extended period of time<br />
  22. 22. Contests<br />Examples of large money over long time:<br />InnoCentive<br />Netflix<br />IBM’s Innovation Jams<br />TopCoder<br />
  23. 23. Contests<br />InnoCentive<br />companies offer cash rewards, typically totaling in the five or even six figures, to researchers anywhere in the world who can solve challenging scientific problems such as how to synthesize a particular chemical compound. <br />
  24. 24. Contests<br />Netflix Prize<br />$1 million award given for first algorithm that is at least 10 percent better than the one used by Netflix for suggesting to customers which DVDs they will like. <br />
  25. 25. Contests<br />IBM’s Innovation Jams<br />IBM employees, customers and vendors participate in on-line brainstorming sessions to develop ideas for new products and services. <br />Participants and managers then rate ideas that emerge<br />total of $100 million in seed funding is divided up each year among the top ten concepts. <br />
  26. 26. Contests<br />TopCoder<br />independent computer programmers compete to provide the best solutions to customers’ problems<br />
  27. 27. Collaboration<br />members of a Crowd work together to create something, and <br />important dependencies exist between their contributions. <br />
  28. 28. Collaboration<br />Wikipedia as a whole is a Collection of articles<br />each individual Wikipedia article is a collaboration, comprised of contributions submitted by a number of users. <br />additions and editorial changes made by different contributors within a single Wikipedia article are strongly interdependent.<br />
  29. 29. Collaboration<br />Open Source Software Projects<br />Linux, and any other open source software project, require strong interdependencies among the modules submitted by different contributors.<br />
  30. 30. How is CI being done?<br />Group Decision<br />members of the crowd are assembled to generate a decision that holds for the group as a whole. <br />
  31. 31. Group Decisions<br />Voting<br />Implicit<br />Weighted<br />Consensus<br />Averaging<br />Prediction Markets<br />
  32. 32. Group Decisions: Voting<br />Diggusers <br />vote on which news stories are most interesting<br />winning stories displayed prominently on the website. <br />EbbsfleetUnited, a U.K. soccer team, <br />owned by 30,000 members <br />vote over the Internet on issues such as which players should be traded and which should play. <br />Kasparov v. the World, a chess match held in 1999<br />world champion Gary Kasparov played against “the World,” <br />the World’s moves were determined by majority vote over the Internet of anyone who wanted to participate. <br />Kasparov eventually won, but he said it was the hardest game he ever played. <br />
  33. 33. Implicit Voting<br />actions like buying or viewing items are counted as implicit “votes.” <br />iStockPhoto displays photos in order of the number of times each photo has been downloaded<br />YouTube ranks videos by the number of times they have been viewed. <br />
  34. 34. Weighted Voting<br />Google ranks search results, in part, on the basis of how many other sites link to the sites in the list. <br />But Google’s algorithm gives more weight to links from sites that are, themselves, more popular. <br />
  35. 35. Group Decisions: Consensus<br />all, or essentially all, group members agree on the final decision. <br />Examples<br />Wikipedia<br />reCAPTCHA<br />
  36. 36. Consensus: Wikipedia<br />Wikipedia uses consensus to make editing decisions: articles remain unchanged when everyone who cares is satisfied with the current version. <br />
  37. 37. Consensus: reCAPTCHA<br />reCAPTCHA, a Web security utility, deems words correctly transcribed by consensus <br />Two words are displayed on the screen, with users required to type both to gain access to a Web page. <br />One word is a security key /other word previously scanned as part of a project to digitize old books. <br />Words that optical character recognition software finds difficult to read are served up to multiple users. Only after transcriptions provided by multiple users reach a level of consensus, as determined by a statistical algorithm, is that word deemed to have been correctly transcribed. <br />
  38. 38. Group Decisions: Averaging<br />Numbers contributed by the members of the Crowd are averaged. <br />Averaging is commonly used in systems that rely on a point scale for quality rating. <br />
  39. 39. Group Decisions: Averaging<br />Example:<br />users of Amazon rate books or CDs on a five star scale, ratings are averaged to provide an overall score for each item. <br />users of Expedia rate hotels <br />users of Internet Movie Database rate movies<br />Marketocracy runs an investment portfolio selected by averaging stocks and bonds chosen by the 100 most successful investors from over 55,000 who participate on the website. <br />
  40. 40. Group Decisions: Prediction Markets<br />crowds estimate the probability of future events <br />people buy and sell “shares” of predictions about future events. <br />If their predictions are correct, they are rewarded, either with real money or with points that can be redeemed for cash or prizes. <br />
  41. 41. Group Decisions: Prediction Markets<br />Decision consists of estimating a number <br />Crowd has some information about estimating the number (biases and non-independent information are okay) <br />Some people may have (or obtain) much better information than others <br />Continuously updated estimates are useful <br />
  42. 42. Group Decisions: Prediction Markets<br />Google, Microsoft, and Best Buy have all used prediction markets to tap the collective intelligence of people within their organizations.<br />
  43. 43. Individual Decisions<br />Members of a Crowd make decisions that, though informed by crowd input, do not need to be identical for all.<br />Example: individual YouTube users decide for themselves which videos to watch. <br />may be influenced by recommendations or rankings from others, <br />not required to watch the same videos as others.<br />
  44. 44. Individual Decisions: Market<br />Some kind of formal exchange (like money) is involved in the decisions. <br />Each member of the crowd makes an individual decision about what products to buy or sell. <br />Purchasing decisions determine collective demand, which, for its part affects the availability of products and their prices. <br />Quantities and prices of the goods put up for sale by sellers in the crowd influence, but do not bind, purchasing decisions.<br />
  45. 45. Individual Decisions: Market<br />Markets for many kinds of goods and services have existed for millennia, but new technologies will enable new electronic forms of markets. <br />
  46. 46. Individual Decisions: Market<br />Examples: <br />iStockPhoto<br />photographers post their photos for sale on a website<br />editors and others buy the rights to use photos they want. <br />eBay<br />sellers post items they want to sell<br />buyers bid for them. <br />
  47. 47. Individual Decisions: Social Networks<br />Members of a crowd form network of relationships that, depending on the context, might translate into <br />levels of trust, <br />similarity of taste and viewpoints, <br />other common characteristics that might cause individuals to feel an affinity for one another<br />
  48. 48. Individual Decisions: Social Networks<br />Crowd members <br />Assign different weights to individual inputs <br />Based on their relationship with the people who provided them <br />Make individual decisions.<br />
  49. 49. Individual Decisions: Social Networks<br />Examples:<br />YouTube<br />Epinions.com<br />
  50. 50. Individual Decisions: Social Networks<br />Examples:<br />YouTube: <br />Every user associated with a “channel.” <br />Users upload their own videos and/or link to selections of other users’ videos, via a favorites option on channels<br />Users can subscribe to other users’ channels and receive notifications when their favorite channels have been updated. <br />Users thus form social networks that affect their choices of what videos to watch. <br />
  51. 51. Individual Decisions: Social Networks<br />Epinions.com, product review site, <br />users form trust networks with other reviewers.<br />Empirical evidence suggests that users weigh reviews written by members of their trust network more heavily than other reviews, <br />leads to personalized assessments of individual product quality. <br />
  52. 52. Thank you to <br />MIT Center for Collective Intelligence <br />Massachusetts Institute of Technology <br />Cambridge, MA <br /> Harnessing Crowds: Mapping the Genome of Collective Intelligence <br /> by Thomas W. Malone, Robert Laubacher, and ChrysanthosDellarocas<br />

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