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ESP 179- Winter 2013 Hydrology and Water Quality January 22, 2012 Instructor: Trevor Macenski
Email Questions EIR Assignment Only Review a Draft Environmental Impact Report It is ok if it’s a joint EIR/EIS document Thresholds Matrix Two EIR’s Same Project Different Locations Compare and Contrast Matrix Worksheet-Kevin to provide ISMND Assignment- Group Project 8-10 4 project choices Presentation Changing Thresholds Question
Lecture Outline Review CEQA Checklist Questions Federal Clean Water Act CA’s Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act RWQCBs 303d List Flood Hazards Impact Analysis Approach Groundwater and WSA’s Sample Discussion and Analysis Extra Credit- Reminder
Hydrology and Water Quality Appendix G Checklist: Hydrology and Water Quality Water Quality Standards and Waste Discharge Requirements Groundwater: supply, recharge, concept of “net deficit”, Alter drainage patterns and result in erosion or siltation Alter drainage an result in flooding Exceed capacity of drainage systems Degrade water quality Place housing within 100 year flood hazard Structures that would impede flood flows Levee or Dam failure Inundation by seiche, tsunami, or mudflow
Appendix G: Checklist Questions Projects that discharge waste/storm water Projects that are using groundwater: Residential/Commercial/ Industrial/ Energy Projects that have large cut and fill. Redirecting water.
Projects that have largecut and fill. Redirectingwater.Projects that haveincrease impervioussurfaces.
Water Quality Standards Pursuant to the Federal Clean Water Act, water quality standards are "provisions of State or Federal law which consist of a designated use or uses for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria for such waters based upon such uses. Water quality standards are to protect the public health or welfare, enhance the quality of water and serve the purposes of the Act."
Federal Clean Water Act The Clean Water Act (CWA)is the major federal legislation governing water quality. The objective of the CWA is “to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters.” Important applicable sections of the Act are as follows: Section 301 prohibits the discharge of any pollutant by any person, except as in compliance with Sections 302, 306, 307, 318, 402, and 404 of the CWA. Sections 303 and 304 provide for water-quality standards, criteria, and guidelines.
Federal Clean Water Act Section 401 requires an activity which may result in a discharge to “waters of the United States” to obtain certification from the State. Certification is provided by the RWQCB. Section 402 establishes the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) a permitting system for the discharge of any pollutant (except for dredge or fill material) into waters of the United States. This permit program is administered by the RWQCB. Section 404 establishes a permit program for the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the United States. This permit program is administered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE)
CA’s Porter-Cologne Water QualityControl Act Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act (California Water Code Section 13000, et seq.) provides the basis for water quality regulation within California. The Act requires a “Report of Waste Discharge” to land or surface waters that may impair a beneficial use of surface or groundwater of the State. In practice, these requirements are typically integrated with the NPDES permitting process.
CA’s Porter-Cologne Water QualityControl Act The State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) and the various RWQCBs throughout the State Water Quality Control Plans (Basin Plans). These plans establish water quality standards for particular bodies of water. California water quality standards are composed of three parts: the designation of beneficial uses of water water quality objectives to protect those uses implementation programs designed to achieve and maintain compliance with the water quality objectives. The RWQCB implements management plans to modify and adopt standards under provisions set forth in section 303(c) of the Federal CWA and California Water Code (Division 7, Section 13240). Under Section 303(d) of the 1972 CWA, the State is required to develop a list of waters with segments that do not meet water quality standards.
RWQCBs The Porter-Cologne Water Quality Control Act took effect on January 1, 1970. It combined the State Water Rights Board and the State Water Resources Control Board and created the nine Regional Water Boards: Region 1: North Coastal RWQCB Region 2: SF RWQCB Region 3: Central Coastal RWQCB Region 4: LA REWQCB Region 5: Central Valley RWQCB Region 6: Lahontan RWQCB Region 7: Colorado River RWQCB Region 8: Santa Ana RWQCB Region 9: SD RWQCB
303 (d) List and TDML’s Total Maximum Daily Loads A total maximum daily load (TMDL) refers to the amount of a specific pollutant a river, stream, or lake can assimilate and still meet federal water quality standards as provided in the CWA. The SWQCB’s 303(d) list is an EPA approved list of impaired water bodies in the State of California (2008-2010). The list includes a priority schedule for the development of TMDLs for each contaminant or “stressor” impacting the water body. The major source of pathogens are typically: septic wastewater treatment systems runoff from new urban development
National Flood Insurance Program The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) administers the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) FEMA issues flood insurance rate maps for communities participating in the NFIP. These maps delineate flood hazard zones for each project site. Executive Order 11988 (Floodplain Management) addresses floodplain issues related to public safety, conservation, and economics. It requires: Avoidance of incompatible floodplain development; Consistency with the standards and criteria of the NFIP; and Restoration and preservation of the natural and beneficial floodplain values.
Inundation Hazards Seiche- (saysh): a series of standing waves (sloshing action) of an enclosed body or partially enclosed body of water caused by earthquake shaking. Seiche action can affect harbors, bays, lakes, rivers, and canals. Tsunami- (soo-NAH-mee): a Japanese word that means harbor wave; a sea wave of local or distant origin that results from large-scale seafloor displacements associated with large earthquakes, major submarine slides, or exploding volcanic islands. Typically generated by seismic or volcanic activity or by underwater landslides, a tsunami consists of a series of high-energy waves that radiate outward like pond ripples from the area in which the generating event occurred. Folsom Dam- Video
Hydrology Precipitation Mean annual rainfall Drainage Manuals- City and County Specific 100-year storm event Soils Soil classification- NRCS Soil Surveys Hydrologic Soil Group Infiltration SCS runoff curve numbers Topography Surveying line elevations
Hydraulics Analysis Capture it: Do you have enough capacity? Retention Basin= Hold and release Detention Basin= Holds for evaporation and percolation Stormwater Cells= Percolation Urban Stormwater System Infrastructure capacity- StormCAD Discharge it: Does the river or stream have enough capacity? Pre and Post Project Flow modeling: HEC-RAS Modeling
Groundwater and RechargeAnalysis Groundwater Recharge? Large land development projects Large areas of impervious surfaces Recharge wells? Geotechnical Study Stormwater or Infrastructure Study Urban Water Management Plan High recharge area? Impaired water basin?
Groundwater Use and WSA’s Vineyard Area Citizens (4 Approaches) 1) Applicable to multi-phased projects requiring procurement of additional supply for each phase. EIR to indicate whether there likely would be a rough regional balance between water supply and demand by analyzing competing long-term water demands within the applicable region (e.g., the relevant water agency zone) and the potential effect of such competing demands on the project’s ability to obtain sufficient water.Example: Conversion from Agricultural Use to Residential Use
Groundwater and WSA’s Cont. 2) The second approach is to demonstrate a “reasonable likelihood” that water will be available for the project from an identified source “by other means.” Such a demonstration could be supported by: A description of infrastructure proposed to connect the water supply to the project The scheduled timing for constructing such infrastructure a funding mechanism that is in place for the infrastructure construction And evidence that available supply will not be allocated to other competing development. Evidence of contractual or other rights to water supply would also support a demonstration that an identified source is reasonably likely to be availableExample: Prison Expansion, planned infrastructure.
Groundwater and WSA’s Cont. 3) The third possible approach to CEQA compliance could be used in circumstances where it is not possible to demonstrate a reasonable likelihood that water from identified sources will be sufficient. In such circumstances, the EIR must identify: Potential sources of water The environmental impacts of relying on those sources The likelihood the identified sources will be available. Additionally, the EIR must disclose any uncertainty regarding the supply, and where uncertainty exists, identify possible replacement sources or alternatives to use of the anticipated water, discuss their environmental consequences, and identify mitigation measures to minimize each adverse impact.Example: Basin in overdraft. Now what? Water right acquisition?
Groundwater and WSA’s Cont. 4) The Court also indicated that a fourth approach would be for the EIR to incorporate or rely on an existing urban water management plan (UWMP) provided the UWMP accounted for the expected new demand of the development project at issue Urban water suppliers are required to prepare and periodically update UWMPs Must :describe and project estimated past, present, and future water sources, supply, and demand for at least a 20-year Vineyard Area Citizens makes it clear that in relying upon the information in the UWMP, or for that matter in relying upon any evidence in other outside documents, the drafter of a CEQA water supply analysis must be careful to properly reference, summarize, or otherwise guide the reader to the relevant information in that document.Example: Basin in overdraft. General Plan EIR?
Significant Hydrology Impacts What are a few types of projects? Oil and Natural Gas Wells- Hydraulic Fracturing Concentrated Solar Thermal Sand and Gravel Mining Large Industrial/Residential Developments Many many more.