AQ and GHG Basics- Sonoma State

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Guest lecture for T. Jacobson at Sonoma State University

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AQ and GHG Basics- Sonoma State

  1. 1. Air Quality and GHG Basics What the CEQA are you talking about? Trevor Macenski North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com1
  2. 2. Outline  Air Quality  Regulatory framework  Impact analyses (construction, operational)  Greenhouse Gases (GHGs)  Regulatory framework  Impact analyses (construction, operational) North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com2
  3. 3. Air Quality North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com3
  4. 4. Regulatory Framework  Definition  An air pollutant for which acceptable levels of exposure have been determined and documented (in a criteria document), and for which an ambient air quality standard has been set.  Federal  U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)  Federal Clean Air Act (FCAA) (1970, Amendments 1990)  National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (see handout)  Ozone, PM (10 and 2.5), CO, NO2, SO2, lead,  Primary  Secondary  State Implementation Plans (SIPs) North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com 44
  5. 5. Californias regulatory forays predate the federal/EPA Regulatory Framework regulation, thats why we get special clearance to regulate (with permission) tailpipe  State emissions.  California Air Resources Board (ARB)  California Clean Air Act (CCAA) (1988)  California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS)  Local air district oversight, approving air quality plans, submitting SIPs to EPA, monitoring, area designations, setting emission standards North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com5
  6. 6. Regulatory Framework  Local  35 local air districts  Attain and maintain air quality conditions  Plans  Adoption and enforcement of rules and regulations  Permitting  Inspections  CEQA guide  Thresholds of significance  Analytical methods  Mitigation strategies North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com6
  7. 7. Impact Assessments  Construction-Related  Operation-Related Activities Activities  Off-Road Mobile Sources  Off-Road Mobile Sources (e.g., onsite heavy-duty (e.g., exhaust emissions from equipment) onsite heavy-duty equipment)  On-Road Mobile Sources  On-Road Mobile Sources (e.g., offsite haul truck & (e.g., exhaust emissions from overall generation of trips offsite haul truck & worker and vehicle miles traveled) commute trips)  Area Sources (e.g., onsite  Also note sources including landscape maintenance & fugitive dust and ROG/VOC natural gas usage) from paints and curing asphalt.  Stationary Sources North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com7
  8. 8. Tools of the Trade….  Models  Urban Emissions Model (URBEMIS)  California Emissions Estimator Model (CalEEMod)  California Emissions Factor Models (On- and Off- Road) North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com8
  9. 9. Answer me this…CEQA Appendix G  A) Conflict with or obstruct implementation of the applicable air quality plan  B) Violate any air quality standard or contribute substantially to an existing or projected air quality violation  C) Result in a cumulatively considerable net increase of any Criteria Air Pollutants for which the project region is non-attainment under an CAAQS or NAAQS  D) Expose sensitive receptors to substantial pollutant concentrations North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com9
  10. 10. Now you have an impact…..  Thresholds of significance  Mitigation (on- and off-site)  Fees  Construction (e.g., watering, new equipment fleet)  Operational (e.g., trip reduction)  Modified Activity  Buffer Zones  Proving Reduction effectiveness North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com10
  11. 11. Sample Projects  Bell Village Project- City of Santa Rosa  Chik-Fa-La Project- City of Santa Rosa  Shore Power Project- Port of Oakland  SunPower Solar Project-County of Kings  Elk Grove SOI Expansion- Sacramento LAFCO North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com11
  12. 12. Greenhouse Gases North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com12
  13. 13. GHG, GWP, CO….WTF???  Definition  Any gas that absorbs infrared radiation in the atmosphere : CO2, CH4, N2O  Global Warming Potential (GWP)  Used to normalize GHGs to units of CO2 equivalent (CO2e)  Example: 1 ton CH4 * 21 GWP = 21 tons CO2e North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com13
  14. 14. Regulatory Framework for GHG  Federal  Mandatory GHG reporting rule  National program to cut GHG emissions and improve fuel economy for cars and trucks  Endangerment and cause or contribute findings (2009)  States EPA should regulate and develop standards for emissions of any pollution from any class(es) of new motor vehicles (or engines), which in judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution, which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare  Climate change adaptation North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com14
  15. 15. Regulatory Framework for GHG  State and Local  Executive Order S-03-05  Approved June 1, 2005  Established GHG emissions targets for California:  By 2010, Reduce to 2000 Levels  By 2020, Reduce to 1990 Levels  By 2050, Reduce to 80% below 1990  Oversight by Secretary of CalEPA with other state departments, Climate Action Team  Biennial report on progress, impacts of global warming on California, and mitigation and adaptation plans to combat impacts  No action for implementation to date North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com15
  16. 16. 38501. The Legislature finds and declares all of the following: (a) Global Global Climate Solutions Act warming poses a serious threat to the economic well-being, public health, natural resources, and the environment of California.  Required that GHG emissions be reduced to 1990 levels by 2020  Statewide cap on such emissions to be phased in, starting in 2012  ARB to develop regulations and reporting system to track and monitor emission levels North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com16
  17. 17. So what does this all mean?  Small incremental emissions can be cumulatively considerable….e.g. SJVAPCD  Can’t dance around it you have to assess significance and recommend feasible, enforceable mitigation/alternatives  Absence of State thresholds is not an excuse to avoid determining significance  Highest priority is securing feasible mitigation and/or alternatives to reduce carbon emissions, including offsets North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com17
  18. 18. Sources of Information and Guidance CAPCOA Guidance 08’ & 10’ OPR Guidance 08’ ARB Scoping Plan 08’ Attorney Generals Mit. List 10’ North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com18
  19. 19. I haven’t had a CARB since 2008  Public workshop to discuss CEQA Thresholds of Significance for GHGs (December 2008)  Industrial Projects:  Quantitative standard of 7,000 metric tons CO2e/yr for operational emissions  Performance standard for construction  Residential and Commercial Projects:  Performance standards for construction, energy, water, waste and transportation  Upper limit on project emissions North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com19
  20. 20. ARB’s Scoping Plan  Strategies to achieve reduction includes ARB- recommended GHG reductions for each emissions sector of the state’s GHG inventory  Improved emission standards for light-duty vehicles  Low-Carbon Fuel Standard  Energy efficiency measures in buildings and appliances and the widespread development of combined heat and power systems  Renewable portfolio standard for electricity production  Reapproved in August 2011 North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com20
  21. 21. Climate Change, GHG, CEQA….Oh My!  CEQA Guidelines were revised effective March 10, 2010  Key contents:  Determining significance  Use of existing streamlining tools  Appendix F – Energy Conservation  Appendix G – Checklist  Not there: quantified GHG threshold, vulnerability provisions North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com21
  22. 22. Take it District by District  SCAQMD  SJVAPCD  GHG CEQA Significance Threshold  Basis: Performance based Working Group  All projects that would result in an  Draft Guidance document - Interim increase in GHG emissions would be CEQA GHG Significance Threshold subject to San Joaquin Valley APCD’s (October 2008) Best Performance Standards (BPS)  Significance Threshold (5-Tier  Projects implementing BPS would Approach) be determined to have a less than  Tier 1: Applicable exemptions significant individual and cumulative  Tier 2: GHG emissions within GHG impact on climate change budgets in approved regional plans  Tier 3: GHG emissions incremental increase below, or mitigated to less than the significance screening level  Tier 4: Performance standards  Tier 5: Offsets North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com22
  23. 23. Best Performance Standards  BPS Stationary Source Projects  Most stringent GHG emission reductions technology  Achieved-in-Practice  Pre-quantified GHG emission reductions  BPS Development Projects  Any combination of approved measures  Achieved-In-Practice  Reducing GHG emissions by at least a 29% North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com23
  24. 24. Analytical Tools  Urban Emissions Model (URBEMIS) (http://www.urbemis.com/) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area)  BAAQMD’s GHG Model Add-on (BGM) (All) (http://www.urbemis.com/) (All)  SCAQMD’s CalEEMod (http://www.aqmd.gov/caleemod/download.htm) (All)  ARB On-Road Emission Factors Model (EMFAC 2011) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/modeling.htm)  ARB Off-Road Emission Factors Model (OFFROAD 2007) (http://www.arb.ca.gov/msei/offroad/offroad.htm)  EPA Climate Leaders GHG Inventory Guidance (http://www.epa.gov/climateleaders/resources/inventory- guidance.html) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  California Climate Action Registry (CCAR) General Reporting Protocol (http://www.climateregistry.org/tools/protocols/general-reporting-protocol.html) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  World Resources Institute (WRI) GHG Protocol (http://pdf.wri.org/ghg_protocol_2004.pdf) (On- and Off- Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  ARB Regulation Order (http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/2007/ghg2007/isor.pdf) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect)  ARB/CCAR/ICLEI/TCR Local Government Operations Protocol (http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/protocols/localgov/pubs/final_lgo_protocol_2008-09-25.pdf) (On- and Off-Road Mobile, Area, Stationary, and Indirect North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com24
  25. 25. Sample Projects  Bell Village Project- City of Santa Rosa  Chik-Fa-La Project- City of Santa Rosa  Shore Power Project- Port of Oakland  SunPower Solar Project-County of Kings  Elk Grove SOI Expansion- Sacramento LAFCO North America | Europe | Australia | Asia www.firstcarbonsolutions.com25

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