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EduComm Asia January 2013
 

EduComm Asia January 2013

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Newsletter of CEMCA, Vol 17 Issue 1

Newsletter of CEMCA, Vol 17 Issue 1

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    EduComm Asia January 2013 EduComm Asia January 2013 Document Transcript

    • Vol. 17 No. 1 January 2013 A Newsletter of the Commonwealth Educational Media for Asia From Director’s Desk In this issue emphasize CEMCA’s emerging role in theGuest Column 2 context of its current Three Year Plan (2012- 15). Dr. Steve Hutchinson in the Guest ColumnSpotlight On 7 explores the situation of teacher education inWorth While Web 9 India to situate and explain the rationale and approach of the TESS-India project funded byCEMCA NewsCase Study 10 13 G reetings to all the stakeholders of the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for the DFID. Neil Butcher and Andrew Moore describe the UNESCO ICT-CFT framework application in Guyana as a Case Study of howSMART Tips 18 Asia (CEMCA) and esteemed readers of governments can develop strategy forRegional Round Up 20 EduComm Asia. integrating ICTs in education and build teacher competencies. Spotlight section focusses onBook Review 21 After my joining CEMCA in July 2012, we Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited - started planning for re-launch of the CEMCA a company supported by State Govt ofForthcoming Events 23 Newsletter – the EduComm Asia that became Maharashtra in India and that has been irregular in 2010. I started thinking about the promoting innovative use of ICT in education, relevance of a quarterly Newsletter in today’s including starting of the eB.Ed. programme in abundance of information on the World Wide collaboration with I-CONSENT and offered in Web (WWW). Then several of you started partnership with the Yashwantrao Chavan asking about the Newsletter, and my conviction Maharashtra Open University. We have tried to about the value of organized information for a put together useful information in the sections specific readership made us sit and plan for this such as SMART Tips, Worth While Web, Book issue. As we began preparing this issue to bring Review and Forthcoming Events. you meaningful, relevant, and appropriate knowledge, we also realised the importance of Our efforts would be to bring this regularly to keeping ourselves up-to-date to serve you better. you, and this is possible only with your suggestions, feedback and timely contributions. We understand the need for information sharing Tell us what you liked, what not, and what you not only about the activities of CEMCA, but want us to include in future. You can reach us also about new developments and trends in the through the newly designed website (http:// CEMCA’s field of competence. We know how www.cemca.org.in) and also get more recent eagerly some of you have been waiting for the information about CEMCA activities by issue of EduComm Asia, and it is my pleasure to subscribing to the eNewsletter. bring you back this popular Newsletter to you. Wish you a very happy New Year. This issue has been planned as a special thematic issue on Teacher Education to Dr. Sanjaya Mishra 1
    • of confidence on the ability of distance Guest Column... education institutions to offer training of a sufficiently high quality has resulted in building more teacher training institutions The Wisdom of Teachers: A New knowing well that a bricks and mortar approach can never train enough teachers. Approach to Teacher Education But the rapid expansion of bricks and mortar colleges undermines the need for By Steve Hutchinson quality and quantity as faculty lack adequate training and preparation forIndia faces a pressing need to educate, Enrolment doesn’t mean attendance; their roles.train and develop millions of teachers Attendance doesn’t imply learning; A conventional problem solving approachover the next few years in order to meet and underpinned by a conventional approachthe needs of a rapidly expanding Mindless rote learning still to teaching and learning can’t address theeducation system. How to do this at scale dominates. teacher quality and quantity issue in Indiaand to quality and how best to use new today. Taking people out of their Put simply: India requires more teacherstechnologies and the different ways of who are better trained, in a system that communities to learn about how to workthinking about knowledge that they embeds learning to teach in the context of in them is, I argue, fundamentally flawed.afford, remain critically important the classroom and changes the way that Learning about most things – how toquestions. In this guest column I’m going teachers teach and children learn and communicate, interact, behave and so onto look at recent trends in education and motivates both children and teachers to is a local, communal, activity. Bringing turn up to school. But while this can be people together – in the way that we takeset out the argument for the development put simply, solutions are hard to come by. people away from their communities andof open resource and practice networks bring them together in lecture halls - as adeveloped by the many (as opposed to the Rittel, Horst and Webber (1973) talk formal learning experience is notfew) set against a focus on learning in and about ‘wicked’ problems. Wicked particularly effective at changing the waythrough practice (rather than learning problems like global warming, or global we do things in practice.that’s distant from practice). I’m going to food security, are difficult to define andend by talking about the newly started, it’s impossible to see the start or even the Take teacher education inDFID funded, TESS-India (Teacher end of them. The important thing to India, for example – a classicEducation through School-based Support recognize about ‘wicked’ or ‘super wicked’ problems is that they’re example of a wicked problem.in India) Project and the ways that this impossible to solve. You can only move There is a huge need to trainseeks to draw on the ‘wisdom of thecrowd’ (Surowiecki, 2004) to produce them towards resolution and the most more teachers, but we seem effective way to do that is through to find it hard to think of newhigh quality, infinitely adaptable and collaboration and communication. and innovative qualityfreely available resources to supportschool-based teacher education. Take teacher education in India, for approaches to teacher example – a classic example of a wicked training that will help us toAnalysis of the situation problem. There is a huge need to train address those needs more teachers, but we seem to find it hardTeachers, teacher educators and to think of new and innovative quality When we look at the world today we seeadministrators in India know the facts approaches to teacher training that will a very different approach to learning. Webetter than anyone. It seems that India has help us to address those needs. It isn’t just see significant rise in the use of sociala teacher shortage of around 1.3 million one single problem; there are many inter- media and collaborative online tools:teachers and many more in service linked problems, each with its own Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia are all nowrequire further training and development. solution that just adds to the complexities commonly used. We now have the toolsThis is a huge number, and despite of the problem. And treating it as a tame to collaborate and communicate in wayssignificant improvements in the States of problem - one that can be fully defined that previous generations would findBihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and and solved through rational processes - impossible to comprehend. AndUttar Pradesh, the research by De et al will only make the situation worse. Lack fortunately for us, it’s this ability to(2011) reported that in these states2
    • collaborate and communicate that will and then packaging it up for broadcast. direct support and often through sharinghelp us to address the wicked problem materials and resources that they had Over time – and with the advent ofthat is the Indian teacher education created. computer access to on-line forums – thesystem. OU developed more And now, as we move forward 15 years, interactive ways of we see new social and online forms of faculty staff and communication and engagement. At this students engaging phase of its development the OU started with each other. The to offer significant amounts of its OU’s pre-service materials on line (OpenLearn) and teacher training through iTunesU and YouTube. And while course, the Post iTunesU and YouTube are still one-way Graduate distribution mechanisms (albeit with the Certification in opportunity to offer open comment on the Education (PGCE), resources) OpenLearn leads the way in was one of the first terms of open access student generated courses in the OU to content. In OpenLearn – we provide use this on-line significant amounts of material (with approach. In those access to online forums). For example, days we gave a one set of materials looks at mentoring computer to each of strategies for teachers in schools, with a the PGCE students, forum where people who use the materials which they then can interact and a space where they can Figure 1: Pedagogical trends in the 21st Century (Source: Bean, Banks and Hutchinson, 2011) passed on to the ‘rate’ the materials – a bit like ‘liking’ a school that supported comment on Facebook. But there is also aThe horizontal axis: from one to them when they had completed their part of the site called LabSpace – where studies. 20 years later – that’s still a users can post their own adaptations ormany to many with many revolutionary idea! embellishments of the materials for othersWhen the Open University (OU) in the to use and to rate. The community itself During this phase of the University’sUK first started in the late sixties, the first can decide what counts as knowledge and development, while the University stillgeneration of courses were based on decides whether or not it’s useful. If we decided what ‘counted’ in terms ofprinted materials that were posted to think of creating an encyclopedia, this important knowledge, students engagestudents – with laboratory kits and so on – now looks more like Wikipedia. with faculty and withthat came to be supported by late night or their peers supportingearly morning television programmes. each other. In terms ofStudents in those days had to be very teacher education, thisdedicated in the days before VCRs. was often offeringFeedback was, and still is, provided bypersonal tutors on written assignments resources, suggestingand tutors met groups of students face-to- alternatives, respondingface on a regular basis. The University to late night calls aboutdecided what knowledge was important, it how to relate an obscurepackaged it up and supported students in and abstract contentgetting to grips with that knowledge, area to a group oftesting them and then finally offering a troublesome and boredcertificate: from one to many. This, as it teenagers. This was anwas for most Universities then and now, important developmentwas a knowledge one-way street. If we at the OU – although we didn’t know it at From Encyclopedia Britannica tohad been creating an encyclopedia – we the time. Students had begun to Wikipedia, from Microsoft’s operatingwould have been developing the participate in an educationally social way system to Linux, from Outlook toEncyclopedia Britannica: a small group of with each other and with the University, Facebook – the World has changed fromexperts deciding what knowledge counted supporting each other’s learning with one to many to many with many. 3
    • The vertical axis: from distant to critical questioning and that inspireslearning to close learning thoughtful and reflective responses and which also opens up reverse reflection,On the vertical axis (in Figure 1) it’s where theoretical understanding ispossible to identify another trend – exposed to the scrutiny of practice. I’msupported by a growing evidence base – also arguing that teachers as experts inthat training and education is (mostly) their own practice (and I’m not sayingbest done in the context where that that this is always what others might seelearning is going to be used. If you want as good practice) have a great deal toto learn to drive a car in Delhi – you’re offer to the learning process. They knowprobably better off learning on the streets the daily realities of their classrooms.of Delhi, rather than in a classroom – Their practice has its own integrity and ifalthough it’s probably safer in the we want to change practice we have toclassroom! The context is everything. It That takes us back to the second vertical find ways to encourage teachers to sharedrives what you learn, how you learn it continua: the movement from learning their expertise and find ways ofand how successful you are at it. That that’s distant from practice to learning integrating different ways of working intoisn’t to say that there isn’t a role for that’s close to it. I appreciate I’m being a their practice.theory in helping learners to frame or little bit provocative here (particularlyquestion practice, but practice itself has coming from what’s conventionally called Let’s look again at the two framing trendsits own integrity and poses equally a distance education university); but in Figure 1. Teacher education coursesdemanding questions of theory. what’s more ‘distant’ – taking people that live in the bottom left-hand corner away from their practice and their see teachers removed from their practice,It’s therefore surprising that there are still perhaps to training centres, or teacher communities and putting them in a largemany people across the World who lecture theatre talking about abstract training colleges, to receive centrallybelieves that teachers can be trained theory or giving people learning activities developed training materials. Courses inwithout going into classrooms. Learning to carry out and reflect on with their this quadrant should be able toto teach in these jurisdictions is a communities, in context? demonstrate high levels of consistency astheoretical process with significant To move the argument to focus more both context and academic creation areemphasis on learning content and other specifically on the training and education limited but they are unlikely to make arelated studies in the areas of philosophy, of teachers, what I’m saying is that the significant impact on teacher practice forpsychology, sociology and so on. I’m not best place to train teacher to teach is in three reasons:arguing that these studies are worthless –and when I look at the reading lists of schools, with theory that is closely 1) It’s a top-down approach that ignoresthese courses I can see how interesting aligned to practice, that exposes practice the contextual expertise that teachersand challenging they could be. But I am bring to their professional learning.arguing that these studies are only To move the argument to focus 2) By ignoring this expertise, teachersworthwhile in relation to practice if they more specifically on the training aren’t helped to see how newhave the context at their heart. If they and education of teachers, what learning maps against their contextdon’t, then it’s highly unlikely that it willchange the way teachers do things and the I’m saying is that the best place and will be transformed by it.way that children learn things. It’s an to train teacher to teach is in schools, with theory that is 3) It’s also a process that ignores theimportant point: protocols, ways of creative capacity of the teacherworking, ideas, are constantly closely aligned to practice, that community to support learning. Therenegotiated and repositioned on their exposes practice to critical teacher’s voice is diminished and theway to practical implementation as questioning and that inspires teacher is relegated to the role ofdifferent people on the landscape of thoughtful and reflectiveprofessional practice engage with the listener rather than contributor. responses and which also opensideas. The ideas that policy makers have up reverse reflection, where And, if you agree with me that the teacherat the start of the journey will always be theoretical understanding is education situation in India is a ‘wickedsubject to constant change, so that by the problem’, it won’t help the Indian exposed to the scrutiny ofend of the journey they might bear little education system to move towards practice.resemblance to the initial proposal. resolution.4
    • The argument that follows is that teacher Metaphorically speaking, we’re bringing implementation strategy that reflectseducation courses, projects and the best chefs from India together, what the teacher educatorsapproaches that occupy the top-right working in partnership with the OU’s own themselves wish to prioritize, andquadrant are more likely to change expert chefs, to create a teacher educator what institutional support needs to bepractice. They are focused in practice and banquet – but the food lacks regional in place so that the TESS-Indiaon changing practice with practical colour, special ingredients and local ways project can deliver transformativeactivities that recognize the complexity of of preparing and cooking the food. We’re practice-based resources tailored torenegotiation. And they also draw on the then inviting the teacher educator the different contextualized needs.expertise and wisdom of the community community to the banquet table to adapt We’re going to ensure that the qualityas teachers take a leading role in the meals and to share their own family of the materials developed, in formsupporting the professional education of and regional cooking secrets. Some will and presentation, will be of theother teachers. take some of the food and have a picnic; highest possible standards using a some will set a formal dining table andBut there are also problems with this sequence of structured collaborative have many courses and as the participantsapproach. How does teacher education workshops. change the meals and add to the menu anddeveloped by the community address share different ways of eating the meals We will make ‘classroom-basedover-arching and national strategic we’ll all benefit. activities’ for teachers the key focusobjectives? How do novice readers and of the OER materials.users of the resources know what has aquality kite-mark? Zealots of the open Metaphorically speaking, we’re The OER materials will be designedapproach will say that quality is a matter bringing the best chefs from to facilitate teacher uptake offor the community. Through badging or, India together, working in innovative and successful child-in facebook terms, ‘liking’ it’s possible partnership with the OU’s own friendly ‘active learning’ pedagogicalfor the community to recognize and expert chefs, to create a teacher approaches.reward expertise and support. But there educator banquet – but the food We will integrate video and audioare real problems with this approach lacks regional colour, special material into the resources and makewhen you’re seeking such a significant ingredients and local ways of these available for download or useparadigm shift in practice. preparing and cooking the food on mobile phones and handheldAnd that’s the starting point for the TESS- tablets.India project. What’s the best way to help In a bit more detail: We will design a web environment toto move a wicked problem towardsresolution; that engages in collaboration host the OER resource network and We’re developing Open Educational facilitate shareback, soft certificationand communication; that focuses on Resources (OERs) to support and voting/reputation managementclassroom activities, but that also Elementary teacher education in tools.recognizes that, initially at least, the Hindi/mother tongue, Mathematics,community needs some support in The OER materials will be developed English, Science and Leadership andidentifying best practice? in Hindi, English, Odia, Bangla, to support secondary teacher Kannada and Assamese to maximizeThe TESS-India Project education in English, Mathematics, coverage and impact. Science and Leadership.TESS-India (teacher education through And finally, we will engage in robustschool-based support) is a DFID funded We’re focusing on 7 States and with monitoring and evaluation.collaborative project led by the Open them we will develop anUniversity in the UK that brings together Working from these starting points, thea network of teacher educators from TESS-India partners will reach 1,000,000across India to produce free, high quality teachers by the end of the first phase ofand infinitely adaptable resources to the project in 2015 with projected reachsupport a developing teacher and teacher of 7 million teachers by 2025.educator community to improve the The TESS-India resources will be madequality of teacher education and to help available for print, digital downloadpartners to increase the numbers of (including DVD/CD ROMS, Micro SDquality trained teachers. 5
    • cards that can be used in low cost mobile materials. The community will be able to their context and their active role inphones) and on the Internet. The specific ‘like’ or vote on the new or revised renegotiating these pedagogicaldetails will depend on the teacher materials and contributors will be able to approaches in this context. It’s aneducation project priorities for each State build their reputational status. And, if the approach that also engages with thewhere teacher educators are able to adapt, amended or new resources get sufficient teacher educator and teacher communityamend and improve the core resources support from the community, a central at large, inviting and encouraging theirand share them back with the community. team will be able to quality assure the engagement, providing a platform from content and adapt it for inclusion on the which they can share their expertise,Conclusions kite-marked site. engage in a bigger community andTo summarize, we’re bringing teacher Through this process, we aim to engage actively support each other’s’educators from across India and the UK the wider community while still offering development.together to produce high quality resources resources that are of an internationally Working collaboratively; seeing teachersfor teacher educators and teachers. high level. The ultimate aim would be to as the solution rather than the problem;Initially we’ll develop these in English withdraw from this central control and helping them to support each other with aand as ‘vanilla’ pan-India resources. Then focus on learning in the classroom;we’ll work with State-based subject We aim to engage the wider developing, sharing and capitalizing onspecialist experts who can also work in community while still offeringthe language of the State to engage in a the wisdom of teachers, is the only way, resources that are of an we believe, that significant and lastingprocess of ‘trans-culturization’. As aresult, all of the resources that have been internationally high level change can be made to teacher educationdeveloped at a national level will be in India.localized for use in our 7 focus states. open it up fully to the community. But,And then, finally, we’ll work with teacher given the issues I’ve raised in thiseducators to adapt the State materials so column, and of the need for a paradigm Dr. Steve Hutchinson is the Director ofthat they fit the specific needs of each shift in teaching and learning approaches the Open University’s TESS-Indiastate. in India, we think this half-way house is a (Teacher Education through School- prudent first step. Based Support in India) project. Prior toAll of the materials will be held on a this, he was Director of the OU’s pre-website and we’ll invite the larger And, looking again at Figure 1, while this service teacher education course, thecommunity to comment, to add resources isn’t a project that’s in the very top right- PGCE, and Director of the Practiceand perspectives and, through a parallel hand corner of the top right-hand Based Professional Learning Centre oflab space, invite the community to adapt quadrant it’s a project that fundamentally Excellence. He can be reached atand refine resources, or even provide new relies on teachers’ expert knowledge of <Steven.Hutchinson@open.ac.uk> References Bean, M., Banks, F. and Hutchinson, S. (2011) ‘Open learning for Open Societies: The Role British Institutions can play in the Indian Human Resources Revolution’ in J. Johnson and R. Kumar (Eds) Reconnecting Britain and India: Ideas for an Enhanced Partnership, Academic Foundation , New Delhi, India. De, A., Khera, R., Samson, M., Kumar, S (2011) PROBE revisited: A Report on Elementary Education in India, Oxford University Press, Oxford Rittel, Horst, and Webber (1973); “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning,” pp. 155–169, Policy Sciences, Vol. 4, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Inc., Amsterdam. [Reprinted in N. Cross (ed.), Developments in Design Methodology, J. Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1984, pp. 135–144.] Surowiecki, J (2004). The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations Little, Brown Internship Available CEMCA offers internship to graduate and post- assignments. Internships are available for 2-6 six graduate students to gain work experience in the months, and should be part of the learning and area of CEMCA’s field of competence and enhance development plan of the candidate. For details visit their academic knowledge through practical work Knowledge Management page at CEMCA Website.6
    • courseware and learning materials in theSpotlight On... form of Open Educational Resources (OER). It supported ‘Social Wealth’ created through learning activities of pedagogic innovation with constructivistMKCL and eB.Ed. Programme education. This platform is useful also forBy Prof. M. N. Deshmukh creating Primary and Secondary Networks of students, tutors and mentors, and the partner organizations.Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Ltd its Digital University Framework. It not(MKCL), a state government sponsored only helps other state Governments to eB. Ed. (E-Education)corporation, a business house established establish similar corporations like Programmefor propagation of mass computer literacy Rajasthan Knowledge Corporationwith the major shareholders -- Limited, but other countries also take This programme is designed as a newMaharashtra State Govt. and all the support from MKCL in establishing paradigm suitable for a connected societyUniversities in Maharashtra has offered similar organizations. in which learning-working–developing ismajor technology support for online integrated. This is a degree course aboutteacher education programme, in the form MKCL made all its capacities and “e-Education” and it is also an e-learningof e Platform and Support Services systems available to I-CONSENT (Indian programme. This course is to provide on-(ePASS). Consortium for Educational line, packaged ICT based alternative teacher preparation programme for training of large number of teachers using network and Tech-MODE (Technology Mediated Open and Distance Education). It is accessible to any learner (A3 learner - anyone, anywhere, anytime), particularly when this vast number is infested with numerous disparities and divides, as in Indian situation.MKCL is a unique institution in the Transformation) for development and The pilot run of this programme wascountry which has a great success story to deployment of e-B.Ed. programme conducted for two years through threetell. Within a short span of a decade, it through its ePASS including mechanisms study centers and access centershas built huge capacity and enriched and management tools and techniques like organized with the help of associateinfrastructural, financial, human andintellectual resources for the state byproviding learning, governance andempowerment services to people with anetwork coverage in all metropolitan,urban, semi-urban, rural, tribal and hillyareas of the state with a network of over5000 Authorized LearningCenters equipped with more than 35,000computers and state-of-the-art hardware,software and internet connectivity.MKCL has made more than six millionyouth computer literate at a very E-Learning Resources for All (ERA) -- a universities and organizations andaffordable cost through its MS-CIT Learning Management System (LMS) for network of local mentors and national andcourse since 2001. MKCL is also the students. Technical support services international experts on the panel asproviding direct facilitation services to were available to course teams formore than a million university students central resource grid, using all the designing, developing, deploying andstudying in 11 state universities through delivering, using and updating the advanced technology and expertise at 7
    • MKCL e.g., ERA, e-platform of questions: How to adoptMKCL, Learning Content ‘development centric-learning-Management System (LCMS), centric model’ which willetc. The pilot batch of 47 students provide learning forhas successfully completed the development, through real lifeprogramme with highly gratifying problem situations of which theexperiences for both, the learners, learner is a part? How to adoptas well as, the course teams. ‘Experiential, contextual learning’ model to integrate theChallenges and Issues for process of educationalInnovative Teacher transformation in the system ofEducation Programme ‘living-working-learning-While developing this programme developing-transforming’some concerns in the field came together in a connected society?up. For example, educators, as How to create large techno-well as, the students of this social structures for thisprogramme were a product of courses, producing the programme, field transformation?conventional F2F schooling. De-learning testing the programme, getting feedbackand re-learning was little difficult for and updating the courses and finalizing Conclusionthem. the programme for global marketing. A novel innovative teacher educationWork culture and study habits of students program is developed, tried out and field It was very difficult for participants toand mentors are not very conducive to tested with a considerable success and remain on the new line of thinking. Theylearning and working in online great potentialities which may prove to be were constantly going back to oldenvironment. They are accustomed to a very strong alternative to a mainstream content-centric pedagogical approachesnon-reflective learning. Initially they conventional teacher education and ways of thinking and working. Manyfound it difficult to cope up with the programme, a model which may provide times, after working for several monthsrequirements of the programme like self solutions to number of problems of and then realizing that the work is notstudy, reflective thinking, group working, teacher training faced by many what was expected and again restartingindependent working / working with the developing countries, particularly, from ground zero was quite frustrating toperson-person and machine-person Commonwealth countries. them.activities, and use of ICT. MKCL is trusted and valued member of On the hindsight, every one realized, the I-CONSENT which offers eB.Ed.The course writers had to undergo a including the course developers, a change programme in partnership with theprocess of un-learning conventional in their thinking and insights developed Yashwantrao Chavan Maharastra Openteaching and content-centric pedagogy during the two years of working together University, Nashik.orientation, learning and using in the B.Ed. (e-Education) project.constructivist pedagogy, orienting in This write-up has been prepared by Prof. Results of the pilot run were very positivesituated learning design, working for M. N. Deshmukh, Member Secretary, I-creating real life situations, developing and promising. Consent, who can be reached at The programme addresses some of the <mndeshmukh11@hotmail.com> Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited I-Consent ICC Trade Tower, A wing, 5th Floor, International Convention Center, ‘A’ Wing, 5th Floor, Senapati Bapat Road, Senapati Bapat Road, Shivajinagar, Pune - 411 016, Maharashtra, India Pune - 411016, Maharashtra, India Tel. No. : +91 20 4011 4500 / 4501 http://www.mkcl.org/iconsent/index.html Fax No. : +91 20 2563 0302 e-Mail : mkcl(@)mkcl.org http://www.mkcl.org/8
    • Worth While Web While the World Wide Web is full of information for teachers and teacher educators, we present to you a select list of links that are useful to keep as bookmark. All the links were active at the time of going to the press. BBC Teachers site: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/teachers/ Commonwealth of Learning Resources: http://www.col.org/RESOURCES/Pages/default.aspx Curriki: http://welcome.curriki.org/ Discovery Education: http://www.discoveryeducation.com/ International Council on Education and Teaching: http://icet4u.org/ Khan Academy: http://www.khanacademy.org/ Library of Congress Teacher Resources: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/ MERLOT: http://www.merlot.org/merlot/index.htm Microsoft in Education: http://www.microsoft.com/education/en-us/Pages/index.aspx NASA Education Program: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/education/about/index.html National Geographic Education: http://education.nationalgeographic.co.in/education/teaching-resources/?ar_a=1 OER Commons: http://www.oercommons.org/ Smithsonian Education: http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/ Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: http://www.tessafrica.net/ Teachers; Domain: http://www.teachersdomain.org/ TeachersFirst: http://teachersfirst.com/index.cfm UNESCO Recommendations on status of Teachers: http://www.unesco.org/ulis/cgi-bin ulis.pl?catno=160495&set=504F3518_1_339&gp=1&lin=1&ll=1 UNESCO Teacher Education: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/education-building-blocks/teacher- education/ Vidya Online: http://www.vidyaonline.net/ WikiEducator: http://wikieducator.org/Main_Page World Teachers’ Day: http://www.5oct.org 9
    • expectations from the course, based onCEMCA News which the scope of the programme was arrived at. The material development of Certificate on Community RadioConsultation on Community Technology will follow a collaborative process and is expectedRadio Technology Programme to be completed by June 2013.An expert roundtable was organised on 4-5 October 2012that brought representatives of different stakeholdersinvested in the sector like Ministry of Information andBroadcasting, Broadcast Engineering Consultants India Ltd(BECIL), International organisations, CRS Representatives,NGOs, manufacturers of broadcast equipment and stationmanagement software, with the purpose of setting theexpectations for the programme and defining its scope.Prof. Santosh Panda, STRIDE, IGNOU guided the processof evolving the programme curriculum as per the DistanceEducation Council (DEC) standards and procedures foroffering self-learning academic programmes. Across theboard, the initiative was hailed as timely and much neededand over two days, stakeholders stated their vision and COL Support to ICTCE2012 support of COL, CEMCA facilitated participation of three The Commonwealth of Learning (COL) supported the ODL teachers from the region in the conference. The International Conference on ICT Culture in Education 2012 recipients of the support were Md. Mizanoor Rahman organized by the Educational Technology and Management (Bangladesh Open University), Mrs Sharifah Rosfashida Bt Academy (ETMA) from 27-29 September 2012. With the Syed Abd Latif (Open University of Malaysia) and Ms. Sabina Yesmin (Bangladesh Open University). Each of the participants presented their research paper during the conference, and also interacted with the participants. While a visit to IGNOU helped Sharifah to know more about the technological practices there, Mizan and Sabina benefitted by interacting with their doctoral supervisors at IGNOU.Indian Delegation Visited University, Penang from 29-31 October 2012, and 1-3 NovemberMalaysia 2012 respectively. Initiated by the MHRD, GOI, the study tour was aimed at understanding best practices which are followed inCEMCA supported the study tour of Shri T.K. Kaul, Deputy governance, financial management and student support servicesRegistrar, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Shri D.K. by these two Open and Distance Learning universities inSingh, Deputy Registrar, Uttarakhand Open University, and Smt. Malaysia. The study team visited different schools, divisions andC. R. Valsala Hariharan, Deputy Secretary, Ministry of Human libraries of both the universities to get first-hand informationResource Development (MHRD), Govt. of India, for visiting through interaction with the staff and observed professionalOpen University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and Wawasan Open practices.10
    • NBS has got adequate strength to support at least 1000 radioRadio goes Global with Web stations on the internet platform. NBS provided all kind ofRadio Initiative support including technology, human resources, and maintenance to community radio stations in the CEMCA project that ended inTo bring radio listening closer to the web listeners across globe, 2012. While NBS is continuing to provide the services to theNewzstreet Broadcast Services Private Limited (NBS) with the stations on one-to-one basis, CEMCA has discontinuedinitial support of CEMCA has created a platform - supporting the direct maintenance costs to NBS, as it believes“iradioIndia.com” that supports 16 community radio stations go that such an initiative should be self-sustaining, and participatingglobal. stations can pay the small service fees directly to NBS.The Web radio project was CEMCA considers that the webinitiated by CEMCA as a Public radio revolution needs to growPrivate Partnership (PPP) in India and the Commonwealthinitiative. Between June 2011 to countries of Asia. It may beAugust 2012 NBS designed a noted that starting a communityrobust audio streaming radio stations requirestechnology platform to support appropriate permission andCEMCA’s initiative. With the licence from governmentlaunch of “CEMCA Web radio agencies for transmission offacility” web listeners not only radio waves. Whereas, anyoneaccessed entertainment shows, can create a web radio stationsongs and educational on the Internet and continueprogrammes of Community streaming audio/voice. ThisRadio stations but also it technology has the potential toallowed educational institutions make Indian educationalto provide audio lectures through web streaming technology. institutions global in a cost effective way by allowing them to share their audio lectures online (live or on-demand basis). WebNormally, web radio involves streaming media, presenting radio will also help create more radio stations, where there is alisteners with a continuous stream of audio that cannot be scarcity of spectrum for traditional radio stations. CEMCA willreplayed, much like traditional broadcast media. In this respect, continue to promote awareness about Web Radio throughit is distinct from on-demand file serving. There are two different institutional capacity building and advocacy for web radio. (withkinds of facilities which are being provided to different stations inputs from NBS)by NBS. One is the “LIVE RADIO” and the other is “RADIOON DEMAND”. The stations can upload their content in theinternet platform and can allow listeners to pick and choose the Virtual Open Schooling Initiativecontent and then make their own play list and listen on internetplatform or they can simply stream their content as they run in Launchedtheir respective radio stations and people can listen as per the CEMCA in collaboration with the National Institute of Openprogramme schedule of the station. Internet radio is also distinct Schooling (NIOS), the premier open schooling institution in thefrom podcasting, which involves downloading rather than world, launched the Virtual Open Schooling initiative on 16streaming. Many web radio services are associated with a October 2012. This joint activity will explore the possibility ofcorresponding traditional (terrestrial) radio station or radio developing a new model of educational delivery by integratingnetwork. Internet-only radio stations are independent of such the already existing excellent ICT infrastructure at NIOS. NIOSassociations. currently uses ICT for Online admission, On-Demand Examination System, and Open Educational Resources. The oneWeb radio services are usually accessible from anywhere in the day national consultative workshop held on 16 October 2012world - for example, one could listen to a Bangladesh station discussed the concepts and technology for virtual open schoolingfrom Europe or America. For example, Radio Padma in the with the stakeholders, especially with the State Open Schools inBangladesh is now growing in popularity quotient due to web India.radio. Web radio remains popular among expatriates andlisteners with interests that are often not adequately served by Dr. S.S.Jena, Chairman, NIOS while inaugurating thelocal radio stations. consultative workshop pointed out that even today NIOS and 11
    • Women students in IGNOU’s PGDEL to receive scholarship The Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia has announced 10 scholarships to women faculty members to pursue online “Post Graduate Diploma in eLearning (PGDEL)” of Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), New Delhi. In order to encourage use of online learning in Indian educational institutions, and promote use of eLearning by faculty members, CEMCA will provide 10 scholarships to women faculty members who desires to pursue the online Post Graduate Diploma in eLearning (PGDEL), offered by Staff Training and Research Institute of Distance Education (STRIDE) of IGNOU.State Open Schools (SOS) are serving to approximately 5million students only, and therefore, India needs to strengthen The Scholarship will be in the form of reimbursement of fullthe Open and Distance Education made of learning to serve a programme fee. Women teachers/academics from openlarger target group which could be only made possible by universities, Higher Education Institutions, NCERT/NIOS/CBSEoffering programmes through VOS model. He also emphasized and other similar organisation are eligible for consideration, andthe importance of VOS in the context of Rashtriya Madhyamik are encouraged joining the programme and apply forShiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) for universalisation of secondary reimbursement of fees from CEMCA with confirmed admission.education in India. Chief Guest for the inauguration of theconsultative meeting, Ms. S. Radha Chauhan, Joint Secretary,School Education, MHRD, Government of India stated that inthe 12th five year plan more than 90% of children in the agegroup of 14 years should be in School, and virtual schoolingcould be one of the alternatives to achieve this target. Explainingthe importance of ICT as an enabler which will provide relevanttools on a virtual platform, Ms. Chauhan also pointed out thehuge challenge of developing and delivering e-content vis-a-visthe common belief that a teacher cannot be replaced.CEMCA also signed Memorandum of Understanding with NIOSon the occasion to facilitate the VOS initiative and alsocollaborate in the area of vocational education and developmentof Open Educational Resources. New Website of CEMCA Launched The new website of CEMCA was launched by Prof. Asha Kanwar, President and CEO, Commonwealth of Learning during the 12th Advisory Council Meeting of CEMCA held at Hotel Grand, New Delhi on 17 December 2012. The new website is available at www.cemca.org.in, while stakeholders can also access the same site through www.cemca.org and www.cemca.asia. The new website is based on the widely used Drupal open source content management system. Thus, it has a variety of features such as social media integration, structured navigation and increased usability experience. The site is designed for web accessibility, and provides increased interface to existing resources at CEMCA and COL.12
    • of change in this process. ConsequentlyCase Study teacher education and training, supported by technology, has been placed at the forefront of efforts to tackle ineffectiveImplementing the UNESCO ICT Competence teaching and low quality of learning inFramework for Teachers in Guyana classrooms. This is a challenge in a country where only 27% of the populationBy Neil Butcher and Andrew Moore is identified as Internet users. The Ministry of Education’s ICT operational plan recognizes thatIntroduction literacy is acquired. This situation has integration of ICT into education is based been attributed in part to the low retention on addressing issues of content, access,The recently developed Information of qualified teachers and the subsequent competency, and the actual integration ofCommunication Technology (ICT) employment of untrained and unqualified ICT into teaching and learning, which isProfessional Development Strategy for teachers. intricately tied with teacher and studentTeachers in Guyana holds the competencies in the availablepromise of identifying a rapid, cost- technologies.effective way to enhance andoverhaul existing teacher education ICT Professionalsystems in environments with few Development Strategyresources and limited humancapacity. As the name suggests, ICT The Guyana ICT Professionalis being used to leverage advantage Development Strategy for Teachersby accessing quality free resources shares the broader vision of thesuch as curriculum frameworks, Guyana Ministry of Education’steaching and learning resources, ICT Operational Plan that:and online tools. The strategyacknowledges the central role that ICT and other assistiveeducation officials, teacher trainers, technologies for educationaleducators, and students play for it delivery will be supporting ato be realized. It rests on an quality and accessible teachingassumption that, by revising teacher and learning environment at alleducation to embrace ICT, levels of the education system inimprovements in student Guyana. Further, most graduatesperformance can be derived. of the Secondary level will have attained core competencies in ICTThe Guyana Context Literacy. Figure 1: Typical Guyana Primary School studentsWith a population of about The long-term outcomes of this780,000, Guyana is characterized In 2007, of 9,303 teachers across the strategy is to ensure that all Ministry ofby a predominately rural population, with system 42% were untrained. In response Education officials, teacher developmentonly 28% of the inhabitants living in to these statistics the Ministry of management and staff, school principals,urban areas. Life expectancy is good, and teachers are competent to harness Education (MoE) has prioritized growingover 62 years for males and 70 years for ICT effectively to support high quality the number of qualified teachers byfemales. Expenditure on Education in teaching and learning in Guyanese providing opportunities for both pre- and2007 was 6.1% of GDP, which gives the schools, with: in-service teachers to gain accreditation.country a ranking of 28th in the world.1 Most able to integrate the use ofThe quality of both primary and As a crucial component of its strategy, the basic ICT tools into the standardsecondary education in Guyana, however, Ministry identified educational school curriculum, pedagogy, andhas been questioned. Research suggests it technology, with concurrent development classroom structures, knowing how,is only at tertiary level that functional in teacher ICT competencies, as the agent where, and when (as well as when 13
    • not) to use technology for classroom teaching and learning. This Map activities and presentations, for learning pathway uses the Curriculum management tasks, and to acquire UNESCO ICT Competence additional subject matter and Framework for Teachers pedagogical knowledge in support of (CFT) as its guiding their own professional development; framework. It seeks to Identify and develop core competences OER A critical mass able to use more for the key intended audiences for a suite of Determine sophisticated methodologies and Revise professional development OER Usage technologies with changes in the curriculum that emphasize depth of initiatives, as mapped out in Development understanding and application of figure 2. Cycle school knowledge to real world Create Usage The types of strategy Evaluate problems and pedagogy in which the Guides initiatives identified in the teacher serves as a guide and document include: manager of the learning environment and students are engaged in 1) Revision of the Teacher Deploy extended, collaborative project-based Education curriculum to learning activities that can go beyond incorporate ICT Figure 3: Materials Development Cycle the classroom and may involve local components at different stages of initial and in-service personnel. or global collaborations.2 training, including subject specific 3) ICT awareness and capacity buildingThe Strategy provides a comprehensive focus for secondary education. initiatives designed for educationframework and learning pathway for stakeholders at ministerial and 2) Creation of a suite of ICT integrationMinistry of Education officials, school teacher education level. courses aimed at school managementprincipals, administrators, and teachers to as well as courses for ICT Schoolbecome competent to harness ICT coordinators and technical training Curriculum and Materialseffectively to support high quality for ICT maintenance and support Development Process In developing the new curriculum the Initial Teacher Training Continuing Professional Development Guyana team used a method that proved quick and cheap to implement, but Advanced Diploma in Introductory Stand- Specific Short Courses Education Alone Course on Use of (Specialized introductory resulted in a comprehensive professional (Two specialized courses on ICT in Education courses aimed at practising ICT and on teaching IT as a (Dedicated, generic CPD teachers, qualified and development ICT programme. By course aimed at qualified, unqualified, offered subject, plus ICT focuses in practising teachers who have Technology adopting and reworking the UNESCO other subject-specific alongside generic CPD courses) not been taught about ICT in modules: Literacy ICT Competency Framework for their Initial Training) Use of Success Maker TeachinglT as a subject Teachers (CFT)3 the curriculum revision ICT maintenance and support) and materials development team was able Bachelor of Education Stand-Alone Course on (Two specialized courses on ICT integration in to develop a curriculum that created a ICT and on teaching IT as a Education subject, plus ICT focuses in (Dedicated, generic CPD Knowledge logical flow between courses run at Cyril other subject-specific course aimed at qualified, Deepening Potter College of Education (CPCE) and courses) practising teachers who have not been taught about ICT in University of Guyana (UG). The their Initial Training) UNESCO ICT CFT also has at its core a distinctly education focus as it encourages Specific Short Courses Menu of specialized CPD courses aimed at qualified, the acquisition of ICT competencies practising teachers: ICT Integration for School Principals (both stand- Knowledge while investigating issues around the alone and integrated into current course for principals) The Role of an ICT Coordinator Deepening national education sector, curriculum, ICT maintenance and support pedagogy, school administration and Incorporation of new courses as demand arises professional development. In developing materials and activities to support the Figure 2 : ICT Professional Development Framework for Guyana UNESCO competencies the development14
    • participants, and b) At UG, the modules have been established a basis implemented through the for subsequent subjects of Science and delivery of the Technology, having thus been modules. delivered to around 125 students during 2012. Not all aspects of 3) Module the modules have yet been implementation. implemented, as connectivity The above remains a problem, but the scope modules have been of delivery will be expanded successfully when connectivity is supplied integrated into pre- (expected in the last quarter of service teacher 2012). Encouragingly, around 25 education students have also completed Figure 4: Screenshot of the Course’s CD interface. In this instance a page from Technology Literacy, Module 3 Unit 1 programmes at ICT Integration projects, CPCE and UG, as demonstrating leadership asteam exploited free and open education potential ICT champions within part of the wider Guyana Improvingresources. They did very little their schools. Teacher Education Project (GITEP):repurposing of these resources but createdsets of student activities designed to c) At NCERD, the module on a) At CPCE, the modules havecontextualise the readings. They also Technology Literacy has been been deployed in both 2011 andcreated sets of facilitation guides to assist delivered to in-service teachers 2012, to groups of around 200the implementation of the programme. during August holiday students in each year. The next workshops. These can only scheduled delivery of theProgress in Implementation accommodate 75 students per modules at CPCE is in 2013, session, so the modules haveSignificant achievements have been when the first module will be been delivered to 75 in-serviceregistered in implementation of the delivered to around 350 teachers each during 2011 andstrategy to date. These can be students. In addition, CPCE is 2012.summarized as follows: offering a Foundational ICT Literacy module for students 4) Development of case study and1) Module development. Two complete UNESCO ICT CFT toolkit. Flowing with no prior exposure to ICT, professional development modules from the above activities, two were developed for implementation teaching them the basics of using ICT. resources have been created: a in Guyana (one on ‘Technology detailed case study on the Guyana Literacy’ and one on ‘Knowledge experience and a UNESCO ICT CFT Deepening’). These were then re- Toolkit. These have been distributed versioned specifically for both pre- by COL and UNESCO through service and in-service teacher various channels, including the World education, resulting finally in four OER Congress held in Paris in June, modules4. 2012.2) Professional development. As part of the module development process, Lessons Learned several workshops have been run The following lessons emerged during with staff from CPCE, UG, and implementation of the Guyana ICT NCERD to develop the skills of Professional Development Strategy for lecturing staff to deploy the modules. Teachers project: These were also used as opportunities to integrate feedback ICT Professional Development from staff into the module design. Strategy for Teachers Lessons: These professional development - High level support of the activities were well received by initiatives is key to success. 15
    • - There is need for a Committee materials are possibly more effect and mutually reinforced the interest to bring key interests and useful than the electronic version of all parties which is a critical ingredient stakeholders together for because access to ICT and for a successful and effective partnership. successful implementation. familiarity with the tools is still limited for many students and The combined experiences of these - The UNESCO ICT CFT partners in the revision and improvement teachers. provides an excellent point of of Teacher Education through devising reference for development or - Open Education Resources can ICT in Education professional refinement of development offer a cost effective route to development initiatives has also resulted strategies. acquiring quality teaching and in the creation of a “ICT in Education learning materials, especially in Teachers’ Professional Development - It cannot be assumed that environments where resources teacher education providers Toolkit”. are in short supply. It is not, have the necessary skills to however, a shortcut to the St Vincent and the Grenadines too needed develop, adapt, and implement normal materials development an ICT in Education Professional courses aligned with the ICT process. It requires time, some Development Strategy for Teachers. Their CFT. skill, and creativity to rework the main concern, however, was to devise - ICT infrastructure is necessary materials to satisfy a specific set ways to improve human capacity to if a professional development of objectives identified by a support the activities stated therein. COL initiative like this one is to Curriculum committee or body. and ComSec helped to devise plans to: succeed. develop a cache of ICT in Education - The real benefit of using OER is - A small amount of seed funding that once a ‘master’ version has ‘master teachers’ who would act as is likely to be needed to initiate been fashioned from repurposed mentors to others and another to provide activities to support technical resources it can be legally shared ICT in Education training for School assistance and capacity and distributed amongst a large Principals. building to integrate the group with no additional costs. Both Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica strategy into existing processes Localized repurposing by those were supported through the development who wish and have the skills to - Communication and advocacy of an ICT in Education Professional adapt it can also be legally as well as a defined Monitoring Development Strategy for Teachers. endorsed. and Evaluation strategy are Dominica also had need of a set of important to support the Beyond Guyana baseline survey tools to identify current process. ICT in Education trends. Samoa already The partnership consisting of the Ministry had clear ICT in Education policy Materials Development Lessons: of Education, Commonwealth Secretariat directives, but did not have a clear - Engagement in the process and (ComSec), Microsoft, Commonwealth of implementation plan. COL and ComSec adoption of the course materials Learning (COL) and UNESCO have been provided advice on these issues, and also by the lecturers is enhanced if instrumental to successful implementation offered access to a number of open of the UNESCO CFT in Guyana to date. the product meets a real need or licensed ICT in Education programmes Each partner has provided resources and requirement. for them to adapt and deploy. competencies that created a synergistic - Despite current advances in e- Through discussion and collaboration learning that use technology in Each partner has provided with teachers, teacher trainers and ever more sophisticated ways, resources and competencies ministry personnel in these countries, the most appropriate use of COL and ComSec were able to assemble that created a synergistic effect technology needs to take into and mutually reinforced the various tools that comprise this ‘toolkit’. account the context in which it In addition, a resource produced before will be used. When assessing the interest of all parties which is a these activities – the UNESCO ICT context, both infrastructural critical ingredient for a Competency Framework for Teachers issues and human capacity need successful and effective (CFT) – provided a conceptual to be assessed. In this particular partnership framework for activities in every country. instance, the paper-based16
    • This Framework is that meets the needs of allintended to inform education stakeholders. Ineducation stakeholders addition, the initiativesabout the role that ICT can designed to capacitateplay in enhancing different these personnel illustrateaspects of education. The that digital resources suchset of teacher as the UNESCO ICT CFTcompetencies described in and OER as well as manythe Framework are digital tools available ‘adddesigned to facilitate value’ rather than imposingimprovements to school additional burdens to existing responsibilities.administration, teaching Educational technologyand learning, and teacher promises, after an initialprofessional development investment of time andthrough the exploitation of resources, improvedtechnology.5 productivity, enhanced Where the Guyana Ministry of Education teaching and learning, more effectiveConclusion has been farsighted, however, was in administration and pervasiveThe Guyana case study demonstrates that realizing that at the core of this communication channels. The Guyanadigital resources and technologies can be transformation was not the technology Professional Development Strategy forused effectively as a catalyst for itself but rather the people who would be Teachers illustrates a potential pathway toeducational change. The potential expected to wield it. These players can be achieving transformation.benefits that can be derived from found at all levels within the educationembracing digital tools and content are sector: Ministry, agencies, teacher Neil Butcher is Director of Neil Butchersignificant and can enhance teaching and training institutions and the schools & Associates and <neilshel@nba.co.za>. themselves. Consequently, Guyana has Andrew Moore a Project Manager withlearning, administration and Neil Butcher & Associates and can becommunication. built a professional development strategy reached at <andryn@iafrica.com1 World Factbook. (2011). Guyana2 These statements are adapted from: UNESCO. 2008a. ICT Competency Standards for Teachers: Policy Framework.3 UNESCO ICT CFT is available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002134/213475E.pdf4 In Service international http://ccti.colfinder.org/education/ict-internationalIn Service Guyana - http://ccti.colfinder.org/education/guyanaPre Service Inter - http://ccti.colfinder.org/education/pre-service-internationalPre Service Guyana - http://ccti.colfinder.org/education/pre-service-guyana5 Read more about UNESCO ICT CFT on the UNESCO website: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/themes/icts/teacher-education/unesco-ict-competency-framework-for-teachers/ Dear readers, EduComm Asia is your newsletter of useful ideas, views and information. From one issue to the next, we aim to strengthen the newsletter. The best way to do so is by keeping content diverse. You can help us to do so by becoming a contributor. Write to us about educational media news and other events that you would like to see in the newsletter. All contributions shall be duly acknowledged and appreciated. - EduComm Asia 17
    • How to set your page inSMART Tips watchlist? You can add pages to your watchlist whileUsing ‘Watchlist’ in Media Wiki (i) viewing an article, and clicking the ‘Watch’ link in the menu bar or (ii) whileBy K. Gowthaman editing an article, check the “Watch this page” checkbox near the edit summary (Figure-2) or (iii) you can set yourThe most common wiki for all of us is What is Watchlist? preferences to “Add pages you edit toWikipedia, while WikiEducator is your watchlist” (Figure-3). Remembergrowing fast in number primarily within The watchlist provides list of changes you need to logged in to perform thesethe community of educators. Both these (addition/ deletion/ modification/ task, as these are personal settings.platforms run using the Media Wiki – updation etc) carried out in wiki pages. Itopen source software that is designed to functions as a personalized recent changebe run on a large server. MediaWiki is in a selected page. It can provide a list ofextremely powerful and scalable software all watched pages as per requirement suchfor a feature-rich wiki implementation. as reverse-order, changes made in dateContent of wiki is primarily enriched by and time. The default cutoff for theits users. As it is a collaborative platform, watchlist is currently three days for usersusers can contribute/update articles with less than 1000 pages in theiravailable in wiki or create new articles. watchlist, and 12 hours for users with more than 1000. (Note: This is a defaultNo one owns any page in wiki. As on 8th prescribed by Wiki that cannot beDecember, 2012, around 51,019 users changed by the user).have contributed and 19,105 articlesuploaded in wikieducator.org. It is Each line in the watchlist provides details Figure 2: Watchlist selection during editingalways difficult to keep track change of such as last edit, minor or major edit, dateinformation in ordinary web pages. & time, difference between the currentMoreover wiki is a dynamic platform and the previous version, editor’s userwhere pages created by you can also be name and the edit summary etc.edited by another user. In such a situationit is difficult to keep track of changes. What watchlist does?However, Media Wiki provides several i) Last Edit: the last edit made to eachtracking methods. watched page in reverse chronological orderWiki’s Tracking Technology ii) Recent Changes: in the recentWiki provides various tracking methods changes, watch pages will be listed insuch as Recent changes, Enhanced recent bold to call attention to them.changes, Related changes, Watching Figure 3: Watchlist in preferences My WatchList Link:pages, Watchlists, Page history, Diff How to remove a page from(difference between two versions of a Log on to www.wikipedia.org or watchlist?page), User contributions, Edit summary, www.wikieducator.org. You can seeMinor edit etc. Watchlist is one of the watchlist by clicking on the ‘my watchlist’ In order to remove a page from yourimportant tracking methods offered by link in the sidebar. Figure 1 shows the watchlist by (i) view the article, and clickWiki. Let us discuss about watchlist. ‘my watchlist’. the ‘unwatch’ link in the menu bar, or (ii) click the “My watchlist” link in the sidebar, and select “edit complete list”. You will be given a checkbox list from which you can select multiple pages to be removed from the list. Watching a page allows you to receive e- mail notification of changes to it. To enable this feature, you need to select “E- Figure 1: ‘my watchlist’18
    • mail me when a page on my watchlist is of changes to go back, using the links at together all changes made to each page onchanged” at Preferences settings. the top of the watchlist. For the maximum a given day. You may choose to set the (30 days), select “all”. For non-standard “Maximum number of changes to show inHow to control the list of values, select one of the available links expanded watchlist”changes displayed? and then edit the value after “days=” in Hope that above description would beShow/hide different types of edit: You the URL. The default value, which must helpful for using the Watchlist trackingmay choose to hide or show minor edits, be a number of days not greater than 7, is method in Media Wiki platforms such asbot edits, one’s own edits, edits by set on the “Watchlist” tab of your user Wikipedia and WikiEducator.anonymous users and edits by logged-in preferences.users. Initially the default behavior for all Enhanced watchlist: You can select toof these is “show”. The defaults can be display only the last edit to each watchedchanged using the options available on Dr. K. Gowthaman is Deputy Director at page (“Simple watchlist”). This is Inter University Consortium forthe “Watchlist” tab of your user currently the default, but can produce Technology Enabled Education forpreferences. misleading results. Having selected the Development (IUC-TEFED), IGNOU. HeTime period covered: You can choose expanded watchlist, you can choose can be reached athow many hours or days you want the list “enhanced” display mode, which groups <gowthaman@ignou.ac.in> Research ShowsOER ASIA Survey Findings 2012 OER Asia survey finding show the level of Internet sources is the main source of OER use. For details and awareness about Open Educational reports visit http://www.oerasia.org/oerasiasurvey Resources and its use in Aisa. The The graphics are drawn from the PPT report available in the following figures are self-explanatory and above website under CC-BY. Authors responsible for the report high percentages of respondents in the are G Dhanarajan and I. Abeywardena of Wawasan Open survey are unaware about Creative Commons licensing system, and mostly University, Penang, Malaysia. 19
    • Regional Round UpRegional Symposium on Open EducationalResourcesEducational leaders and practitioners of Open Educational presentation emphasized the expansion of the circle of OER asResources (OER) participated in a three day event at the progress in the last 10 year. Her presentation is available at http://Waswasan Open University, Penang from 19-21 September 2012 www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/2012-to understand and share knowledge of the role played by 09-20.aspxemerging technologies in the context of increasing access, See also: http://www.oerasia.org/oersymposiumenhancing equity and promoting lifelong learningin higher education. Organized in collaborationwith DISTED College and IDRC, Canada, theevent was supported by the UNESCO, InternationalCouncil for Open and Distance Education,Association of Asian Open Universities and theCommonwealth of Learning, Canada. Majorthemes discussed in the symposium covered areassuch as institutional policy for OER, technologiesfor creation of OER, designing OER, sustainingOER projects and initiatives, and quality assuranceof OER. In addition to keynote addresses, therewere only about 20 selected papers presented in theSymposium giving scope to increased interactionand discussion. About 80 participants from all overthe world participated in the Symposium. Prof.Asha Kanwar, President and CEO ofCommonwealth of Learning in her keynote embedded into existing or new teacher education programmeTESS-India Consultation across India.WorkshopTESS-India pre-operational consultation workshop was held in Dubai SCOP 2012New Delhi from 26-29 November 2012. The Standing Conference of Presidents (SCOP) of theTESS-India (Teacher Education though School-based Support International Council for Open and Distance Education (ICDE)in India) is a DFID funded project to develop high quality free met at Dubai from 13-15 November 2012 in the spectacularresources to support teacher educators across India. Focussing complex of the Hamdan Bin Mohammed eUniversity (HBMeU).on seven states in India, the project expects to develop a set of The SCOP conference focussed on Open and Distance Educationlearning resources to support existing or new teacher education (ODE): Barriers, Opportunities & Strategies Forward, with aprojects across India. The workshop in the week beginning the view to tackle the various challenges and barriers associated with26th November was a vital part of the planning process aimed to the implementation of ODE from both an international anddevelop a curriculum framework for the writing of the teacher regional perspective. Participated by over hundred Rectors anddevelopment units. The framework identifies the most difficult Vice Chancellors of distance teaching institutions around theaspects of content knowledge and the trickiest area of world, the event was a platform to discuss developments such aspedagogical approach for teachers in India, providing the Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC), Open Educationalcontent and pedagogical knowledge map for the resources Resources (OER) and use of Social Media to promote awarenesswhich will subsequently be adapted and localised and then about ODE. The meeting also discussed the strategic plan for the20
    • ICDE in the next three years. With a mix ofkeynote presentations and small group work, theevent presented huge scope to discuss bilateral andmultilateral issues amongst the participants provingto be a great networking event for ODE. Dr.Sanjaya Mishra, Director, CEMCA represented theCommonwealth of Learning in the event andpresented one of the Keynote addresses. Dr.Mishra in his keynote entitled “Openness ineducation” called upon the Rectors and ViceChancellors to reflect on the concept of “openness”in their universities and develop strategies to createopen systems for knowledge transaction using newinformation and communication technologies topromote learning for development and foster knowledge http://www.col.org/resources/speeches/2012presentations/Pages/societies. His presentation is available at 2012-11-14.aspx Book Review The Commonwealth of Open Educational Resources and Learning and UNESCO are Change in Higher Education: playing a proactive role in providing guidance in all new Reflections from Practice international initiatives. The Open Educational Resources and Change in Higher Volume in hand is one such Education: Reflections from Practice Edited by Jenny step ahead in the direction of Glennie, Ken Harley, Neil Butcher and Trudi Van Wyk; providing solution to many of Published by Commonwealth of Learning, Canada, 2012, pp the ‘legal, managerial, i-xxiii, 1-291, ISBN 978-1-894975-53-7. Available at http:// financial, technical, www.col.org/PublicationDocuments/pub_PS_OER_web.pdf technological and pedagogical’ issues arising out of the new situation before the ‘practising educators’. By S. K. Pulist In the volume, the 28 scholars through their 15 chapters and The world has been witnessing the exponential growth of separate sections on ‘Introduction’ and ‘Conclusion’ have Open Educational Resources (OER) during the recent times. provided a fresh insight to the concept of OER and its The last few years have been instrumental in sowing the seeds application at different levels in higher education in different of this new form of development, promotion, collaboration parts of the globe. The case studies provided in the volume and sharing of e-learning resources across the world. Though, focus on the experiences and practices being followed in the developed countries seem to be more enthusiastic in supporting the new OER initiatives, the educational different corners of the world. The ‘Vignettes’ annexed to institutions all over find it difficult to resist adoption of this some of the chapters discuss different dimensions of policy, change and, therefore, need to re-ascertain their stand and practice and reflections at international level to ‘capture more reposition them in the new situation. This development has personal accounts of OER experiences’. The ‘Introduction’ aroused the need not only to recapitulate and consolidate the provides an insight to the different initiatives taken in different efforts made in this direction but also to put suitable systems parts of the world and active role of UNESCO and COL in and practices in place for taking care of different dimensions taking the concept of OER further. It provides a historical of the concept of OER including the legal and ethical ones. perspective of the OER movement which started in the last 21
    • decade. The ‘Conclusion’ on the other hand sums up the ways of identifying the challenges in use of OER across discussions taken up in different chapters very nicely. diverse cultures and disciplines. It suggests for establishment of an evaluation process for ensuring disciplinary and cultural An overview of the variety of topics discussed in different relevance of OER. Chapter 11 discusses the experience of chapters will prove the worth of the book. Chapter 1 discusses using different educational resources on the web – both OER the prevalent issues emerging out from the workshops and non-OER with reference to pedagogical and learning organised in different countries focussing on different aspects principles. The changing role of teachers in the new setting is of OER laying emphasis on finding ‘innovative ways to the centre point of the discussion. The author cites a number of support the creation and use of quality resources and examples to substantiate his view. Chapter 12 concentrates on promotion of quality teaching practices in higher education’. various methodologies of producing and sharing existing Chapter 2, describes the most typical barriers and challenges educational materials with the rest of the world in the form of to the development and repurposing of OER as identified OER. The authors focus on different issues involved in through surveys undertaken by UNESCO aiming ‘at licensing of the educational resources including the legal ones. investigating the prerequisites, challenges and opportunities They discuss different practices of sharing material in this for the production and use of OER in the non-English manner. The diagrammatic presentation of the models in the speaking countries of the Commonwealth of Independent chapter catches eye of the reader. Chapter 13 continues the States’. discussion and takes it to other dimension with special Chapter 3 discusses the major OER initiatives which have reference to policy and practice. The authors raise some taken place in India, with emphasis on government’s policy issues while citing examples of the way institutions are commitment to OER development. The author focuses on dealing with these issues and uploading the teaching material some major initiatives which have taken place following the in the public domain. recommendations of the ‘National Knowledge Commission’ in Chapter 14 tries to analyse the OER policy adopted in Brazil. the country. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 provide empirical account The author in this chapter shares the experiences of OER based on case studies of OER projects in Africa. Chapter 4 development project in the country that tries to build specifically studies the different aspects of production and awareness advocating for the OER community development. promotion of health OER at the University of Ghana (UG) and Chapter 15 presents a case study on growth of OER culture in Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology New Zealand with special reference to Otago Polytechnic, (KNUST). In Chapter 5, the case study by South African Institute of Distance Education provides evidence to support nurturing the development of an OER ecosystem with the argument that experts driven institutional collaborations in ‘government interventions, institutional innovations and materials designing and emphasises that this practice can international partnerships’. result in development of high-quality cost-effective OER The volume reaffirms the contribution of the OER movement which would be useful in ‘diverse educational contexts’. in higher education from global perspective in a big way. The While Chapter 6 covers the task of OER development in the experiences shared by the contributors can prove to be of core subjects for teacher education across 13 institutions in immense help to the beginners who want to make headway in nine Sub-Saharan countries, Chapter 7 analyses the Open the area of OER development and sharing the resources with Educational Quality Initiative framework methodology the rest of the world following an appropriate licensing policy. reflecting on its use to promote open education practices. The new institutions will find it easy to frame and adopt a Chapter 8 takes-up the practical and legal issues involved in policy on OER development and promotion following the surfing OER for some specific purposes. Chapter 9 analyses experiences discussed in the book. Surely it will facilitate the the issues concerning the design and development of OER policy-makers and educational practitioners in viewing the from a student’s perspective. The author argues that the ‘open movement from a different perspective and exploring availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of possibilities for making qualitative difference in the way the OER is likely to change the teacher–student and student– higher education is imparted globally. student relationships away from the more traditional, teacher- centred, “sage on the stage” face-to-face mode to a more Dr. S. K. Pulist is Deputy Director at Distance Education learner-centred, “guide on the side” blended learning mode’. Council, IGNOU, New Delhi. He can be reached at Chapter 10 presents an overview of cultural and disciplinary <skpulist@ignou.ac.in>22
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