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Collaborative Healthcare Education:
Innovation & Leadership
Mary Switzer Lecture
October 24, 2013
Dr. Karen Pardue
Dr. Shelley Cohen Konrad
University of New England
Mary Switzer (1900-1971) was an interprofessional
collaborative leader before her time. She supported
cross-disability programs and was active in drafting the
constitution of the World Health Organization. She was
an advocate and global voice for people with
disabilities and for those who served their rehabilitative
and recovery needs.
World Health Organization (2010)
“Once students understand how to work
interprofessionally, they are ready to enter
the workplace as a member of the
collaborative practice team.”
WHY IPE IS IMPORTANT?
To advance the aim
health of the
To close the gap
practice settings by
IPE – Guiding Principles
“It is clear that how care is delivered is as important as
what care is delivered.” (IOM, 2001)
Roles & Responsibilities
• Communicate one’s roles and responsibilities
• Engage diverse healthcare professionals to meet the needs
of patients, families and populations.
• Use unique and complementary abilities of all members of
the team, to optimize patient care.
Values & Ethics
• Place the interests of patients and populations at the
center of health care.
• Respect unique cultural values and perspectives of
individuals, populations, and health professionals.
• Use respectful and appropriate communication in all
• Listen actively and encourage ideas and opinions of
all team members.
Teams & Teamwork
• Work with others to deliver patient-centered,
• Integrate knowledge and experience of other
professions to inform effective clinical, ethical, and
• Strong leaders value contributions of all health team
members’ and also those of the patient, family, and
• Leaders facilitate contributions from all team
members and build support for working together.
Patient Centered Care
Contact Hypothesis - Framework
Attitudinal Change is fostered when students
Reduction of Stereotypes
Enhanced Role Understanding
(Allport, 1979; Hewstone & Brown, 1986)
Contact Hypothesis- Conditions
• Equal Status
• Positive Cooperative
• Active work towards
• Discovery of Similarities
• Faculty Modeling
• Expressed Institutional
Contact Hypothesis- Methodology
• Learning with Others
• Resolves cognitive
• Relationships &
• Emotional Connection
• Role Empathy
I have seen significant
changes in attitudes
from the students who
are working in teams. I
have heard each student
say “ I NOW value the
role of …..X…” in patient
understand my ability to
work more closely with
I think this change could
have profound impact in
the future. DM-Faculty
Contact Hypothesis Testing
Undergraduate H/P Students
Before & After Enrollment in IPE Course
(N=167 matched pair)
Learning w/ students from other
h/p is likely to facilitate future
Learning w/ other h/p students
is likely to overcome
stereotypes that are held about
the different professions
Learning w/ students from other
h/p is a positive learning
Learning w/ students from other
h/p is likely to improve service
for the patient/client
Pollard et al., 2004. University of West England IPQ
IPE Initiatives - Students
The University will have integrated
educational, research, science and
service programs that are based on
partnerships. UNE will continue to be
the primary educator of healthcare
professionals for the state of Maine.
Health science programs will
embrace and promote a patientcentered approach to educating
osteopathic physicians and
Interprofessional programs promote
learning in integrative ways.
UNE Vision 2017
Extra- & Co-Curricular IPE
IPEC Event Series
IPE & the Arts
IP Student Advisory Team
IPE Case Conference
Scholarship & Research
IPE Service Learning
Ghana Immersion Learning
IPE Initiatives – Innovative Models
UNE is committed to providing
continuing education and training
opportunities in interprofessional
education and care for campusbased faculty, clinical preceptors,
and community partners.
Learning about, from and with
each other ensures that educators
and practitioners appropriately
practice and model IPE principles
Not Left to Chance
Patricia Chalmers, 31
Patricia (Pat) Chalmers is a 31-year-old woman who prides herself on
self-sufficiency and resourcefulness. She works part-time as a
bookkeeper and gets paid to take care of her aging grandmother with
whom she lives.
Pat describes herself as having been a caretaker since adolescence. It is
therefore difficult for her to acknowledge her own needs or to seek
others for help.
Pat is tired of people commenting on her weight, diet, and need to
exercise. She avoids health care as much as possible because she
knows she’ll be told to lose weight or be blamed for “being fat” (her
words). “I know what risks I face” she says. “But I’ve tried everything
and nothing works. I’ve accepted my size and would like others to
Pat found herself in the ED with a broken ankle several months ago.
The break was significant enough to require surgery. Labs revealed
elevated glucose levels and surgery was put off until further tests could
be done to determine whether Pat might have diabetes. When asked
about this possibility, Pat reacted strongly. “I don’t have the time or
money for diabetes,” she explained.
1. What do we know about Pat?
2. What health professions might contribute to
Pat’s rehabilitation and recovery?
3. How can Pat’s case be used to educate health
professions students in IPE competencies?
4. How can Pat’s case be used for health
professions faculty development?
The next step forward is to increase the link between
future healthcare employers and campus-based
interprofessional educational initiatives.
Interprofessional Practice Settings
6 Week Shared
Working in an interprofessional health system is not only beneficial
to the patient, but also to everyone on the team… each
professional learns from the other and they also can discuss their
roles and responsibilities. … having various roles and
responsibilities, they are able to work together with a common goal
of providing the utmost care and maintaining the well being of a
patient. Having a collaborative work environment with involvement
from different health care professionals allows for a solution to any
problem that may arise in a healthcare setting.
Jeby Mathew, Pharmacy Student fall 2013
“The more we work interprofessionally, the more
apparent it becomes that we face tremendously
challenging health care issues that can only be
solved through collaboration and teamwork.
There is momentum to our interprofessional
efforts that appears unstoppable.”
Jan Froehlich, OT Faculty
Mary Switzer: Agent for Culture Change
“She was extraordinary and she … was indefatigable and a political
courtesan with tremendous powers of persuasion. She had charm …
she was bright and decisive.” (Verville, 2009)