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Ceg chapters 1 3 Ceg chapters 1 3 Presentation Transcript

    • Cognitive English Grammar:
    • Theory, Practice and Beyond
    • Günter Radden
    • Hamburg University
    • raddeng@yahoo.com
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Cognition and its interaction with other human systems (Panther & Radden 2011) 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • X and Y alike construction (Panther & Thornburg)
    • (1) A car-free family resort offering a warm welcome, summer and winter alike.
    • (2) Doctors and citizens alike are concerned about the consequences of health-care reform.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Cognition and its interaction with other human systems (Panther & Radden 2011) 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Language and cognition
    • (1) Impact of cognition on language: Motivation in language
    • (2) Impact of language on cognition: Whorfian effects
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    •  
    • Relative
    • Arbitrariness M o t i v a t i o n Predictability  
    (1) Motivation in language 20 80 douze 12 14 19 21 quatorze dix-neuf vingt-et-un quatre-vingt vingt 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • What do we call this thing?
    •  
    •  
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Words for ‘screw-driver’ across languages
    • SCREW- DRIVE -ER screwdriver English
    • SCREW(S)- PULL -ER Schraubenzieher German
    • skruetrækker Danish
    • csavarhúzó Hungarian
    • SCREW- TURN -ER schroevedraaier Dutch
    • nejimawashi Japanese
    • TURNS -SCREW tournevis French
    • nasadollike Korean
    • DE/OUT -SCREW-ER destornillador Spanish
    • STICK-IN / TAKE-OUT -SCREW cacciavite Italian
    • KEY OF CUT chave de fenda Portuguese
    • SCREW- KNIFE luósīdāo Chinese
    • SCREW- CHISEL skruvmejsel Swedish
    • ruuvimeisseli , ruuvitaltta Finnish
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben-zieh-er csavar-húz-ó schroeve-draai-er screw-driv - er skruv-mejsel tourne-vis chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM – ‘screw’ INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben -zieh-er csavar -húz-ó tourne- vis screw -driv - er skruv -mejsel schroeve -draai-er chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM – ‘drive’ INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben-zieh-er csavar-húz-ó schroeve-draai-er screw- driv - er skruv-mejsel tourne-vis chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM – ‘pull’ INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben- zieh -er csavar- húz -ó schroeve-draai-er screw-driv - er skruv-mejsel tourne-vis chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM – ‘turn’ INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben-zieh-er csavar-húz-ó schroeve- draai -er screw-driv - er skruv-mejsel tourne -vis chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM - Instrument INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben-zieh- er csavar-húz- ó schroeve-draai- er screw-driv - er skruv-mejsel tourne-vis chave de fenda 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Screwdriver ICM INSTRUMENT TOOL ‘ screwdriver’ ACTION APPLIED-TO cut of screw PURPOSE drive -in pull -out MEANS turn MATERIAL METAL SHAPE long thin rod with handle on one and blade at the other end key chisel long shaft with metal blade Schrauben - zieh - er csavar - húz - ó tourne - vis screw - driv - er skruv - mejsel chave de fenda schroeve - draai -er 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Motivation in language (Panther & Radden 2011)
    • A linguistic sign (target) is motivated to the extent that some of its properties are shaped by a linguistic or non-linguistic source and language-independent factors.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Motivation of subject-auxiliary inversion (Langacker 2011) Normal Subject-Verb clause: She will wait for me. The subject she is the anchor of the clause and the existential core; the auxiliary will is the existential verb. The proposition is not to be negotiated. Subject-Auxiliary inversion in yes-no questions: Will she wait for me? The auxiliary will is the anchor of the clause and the existential core: The speaker directs the hearer’s attention to the reality status of the propositional content, which is to be negotiated. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • (2) Whorfian effects
    • “ Language is the formative organ of thought.” (Wilhelm von Humboldt, 1830-35)
    • “ The limits of my language are the limits of my mind. All I know is what I have words for.”
    • (Ludwig Wittgenstein)
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Whorfian effects: Grammatical gender (Lera Boroditsky)
    • ‘ key’
    • German der Schlüssel evokes “male” attributes:
    • ‘ hard’, ‘heavy’, ‘jagged’, ‘metal’, ‘serrated’, ‘useful’
    • Spanish la llave evokes “female attributes:
    • ‘ golden’, ‘intricate’, ‘little’, ‘lovely’, ‘shiny’, ‘tiny’
    • ‘ bridge’
    • German die Brücke evokes “female” attributes:
    • ‘ beautiful’, ‘elegant’, ‘fragile’, ‘peaceful’, ‘slender’, ‘pretty’
    • Spanish el puente evokes “male” attributes:
    • ‘ big’, ‘dangerous’, ‘long’, ‘strong’, ‘sturdy’, ‘towering’
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • die Rialto-Brücke 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • el puente de la torre de Londres 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Vertical time in Chinese
    • Earlier times (events) are ‘up’, later times (events) are ‘down’
    • shang-ban-tian upper-half-day ‘morning; forenoon’
    • xia-ban-tian lower-half-day ‘afternoon’
    • shàn-yuè up-month ‘last month’
    • xià-yuè down-month ‘next month’
    • yue-tou month-head/top ‘the beginning of the month’
    • yue-di month-bottom ‘the end of the month’
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • Part I The cognitive framework
    • 1. Categories in thought and language
    • 2. Cognitive operations in thought and language
    • 3. From thought to language: Cognitive Grammar
    • Part II Things: Nouns and noun phrases
    • 4. Types of things: Nouns
    • 5. Grounding things: Reference
    • 6. Quantifying things: Quantifiers
    • 7. Qualifying things: Modifiers
    • Part III Situations as temporal units: Aspect, tense and modality
    • 8. Situation types: Aspect
    • 9. Grounding situations in time: Tense
    • 10. Grounding situations in potentiality: Modality
    • Part IV Situations as relational units: Sentence structure
    • 11. Event schemas: Sentence patterns
    • 12. Space and extensions of space: Complements and adjuncts
    Radden & Dirven. 2007. Cognitive English Grammar 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • From lexical to grammatical specifications of time
    • Lexical forms (specific notions)
    • I teach every morning .
    • I teach from 8am to 12am .
    • Lexico-grammatical forms (intermediate)
    • I’ ll teach at the university.
    • I used to teach at the university. /ju:stə/ instead of /ju:zd tə/
    • Grammatical forms (general notions)
    • I teach at the university.
    • I taught at the university.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • A rustler lassoed the steers. Specific notions (Talmy 1988)
    • Lexical elements Meaning
    • 1. rustler cattle thief
    • 2. lasso catch something with a lasso
    • 3. steer castrated bull
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • A rustler lassoed the steers. Generalised notions (Talmy 1988)
    • Grammatical elements Meaning
    • 1. a no identifiability
    • 2. the indentifiability
    • 3. rustler , steers = nouns entity character
    • 4. (rustler)Ø = singular unitary instance
    • 5. (steer)s = plural multiple instance
    • 6. lasso = verb event character
    • 7. -ed = past tense event time before speech time
    • 8. a rustler = subject agent
    • 9. the steers = object patient
    • 10. subj. verb obj. = active voice agent’s point of view
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • A rustler lassoed the steers. Lexical vs grammatical specifications
    • Lexical specifications Gramm. specifications
    • Function: conceptual content structural function
    • Information: specific general, schematic
    • Number: fewer in number more numerous
    • Lexical specifications provide more and greater intricacy of information. A machine stamped the envelopes. Shift to a new scene; same basic breakup of the scene.
    • Grammatical specifications establish the main delineations of the scene organization. Will the rustlers lasso the steer? Change of scene organization, basic content remains intact.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • (Some) basic cognitive-linguistic assumptions
    • 1. Language, including its grammar, is part of human cognition and human experience .
    • 2. The function of language, including its grammar, is to communicate meaning.
    • 3. The structures of grammar are meaningful and motivated .
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • Cognitive English Grammar: Workbook
    • Günter Radden, Réka Benczes, Catherine Schwerin, Susannah Ewing Bölke
    • Hamburg, Budapest
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Cognitive English Grammar Workbook
    • “ We firmly believe that CL offers ways and means to facilitate foreign language learning because it enables us to point out the motivation behind every aspect of language. Language thus becomes explainable, and once learners see the […] ways a language works, they may start constructing and reconstructing their own hypotheses about the language they are learning.”
    • Martin Pütz, Susanne Niemeier, René Dirven (eds) (2001). Applied Cognitive Linguistics II: Language Pedagogy . Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter, xv.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Cognitive English Grammar Workbook
    • Target:
    • Students of English, linguistics, educational science
    • Aims for students:
    • Grasp the theoretical concepts
    • Able to explain language phenomena in linguistic terms
    • Enhance own understanding of language
    • Evolve more subtle linguistic discernment
    • Engage in small-scale linguistic research-style activities to train relevant skills
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • Chapter 1
    • Categories in thought and language
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Categories
    • A category is a collection of equivalent experiences that are
    • meaningful and relevant to us, i.e. categories are formed for
    • things that “matter” in a community .
    • Collection : Categories are types
    • Equivalence : Assessment of similarity of experiences
    • Experience : “We see things not as they are but as we are.” (Kant)
    • Meaningfulness and relevance : “Language without meaning is meaningless.” (Jakobson)
    • Community : Collective experience
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Experiential basis of categories: Kids’ thoughts on LOVE
    • WHY DOES LOVE HAPPEN BETWEEN TWO PARTICULAR PEOPLE?
    • “ One of the people has freckles and so he finds somebody else who has freckles too.” (Andrew, age 6)
    • “ No one is sure why it happens, but I heard it has something to do with how you smell. That’s why perfume and deodorant are so popular.” (Mae, age 9)
    • “ I think you’re supposed to get shot with an arrow or something, but the rest of it isn’t supposed to be so painful.” (Manuel, age 8)
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Experiential basis of categories: Kids’ thoughts on LOVE
    • WHY DO LOVERS OFTEN HOLD HANDS?
    • “ They want to make sure their rings don’t fall off because they paid good money for them.” (Gavin, age 8)
    • “ They are just practicing for when they might have to walk down the aisle someday and do the holy matchimony thing.” (John, age 9)
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Experiential basis of categories: Misunderstanding
    • A mother was teaching her 3 year old daughter the Lord’s Prayer. For several evenings at bedtime she repeated it after her mother. One night she said she was ready to solo. The mother listened with pride as she carefully enunciated each word right up to the end.
    • “ And lead us not into temptation,” she prayed, “but deliver us some e-mail. Amen.”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Experiential basis of categories: Ah, it's a new world
    • I was teaching my 6-year-old daughter how to unbuckle her seat belt.
    • She asked, "Do I click the square?“
    • I said, "Yes.“
    • She asked me, "Single click or double click?"
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Ecological motivation
    • “ The ecology of a linguistic unit is to be understood in the sense that it has “pointers” to other units and, to the extent that the unit is related to other units in the language, it is motivated. Since each linguistic unit is related to other units within a system, all units are motivated to some extent.” (Taylor 2004)
    • “ Cognitive and functional linguists find that virtually everything in language is motivated .” (Langacker 2008: 14)
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift: Middle English system of long vowels i: u: e: house find feet old deal æ: :с foot o: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift of Middle English long vowels i: u: au ai e: house find feet old deal æ: :с foot o: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift; 1st phase: Raising of mid-vowels i: u: e: house find feet old deal æ: :с foot o: i: u: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift; 2nd phase: “push”: Diphthongization of high vowels i: u: au ai e: house find feet old deal æ: :с foot o: i: u: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift; 3rd phase: “pull”: Raising of low vowels i: u: au ai e: house find feet old deal æ: :с foot o: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Great Vowel Shift: Early Modern English system of vowels i: u: au ai e: house find feet old deal foot o: 02.09.11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Categorization: Genesis
    • In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.
    • And the earth was without form, and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep […]
    • And God said, “Let there be light”: and there was light.
    • And God saw the light, and that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness .
    • And God called the light Day , and the darkness he called Night . […]
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • And God said, “Let there by a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters ”.
    • And God made the firmament, and he divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament.
    • And God called the firmament Heaven . […]
    • And God said, “Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let dry land appear”: and it was so.
    • And God called the dry Land ; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas : and God saw that it was good. […]
    • And God said, “Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night ” […]
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Birdiness hierarchy (Lakoff)
    • A robin is a bird. true
    • A robin is sort of a bird. false (it is a bird)
    • A chicken is sort of a bird. true, or very close to true
    • A penguin is sort of a bird. true, or close to true
    • A bat is sort of a bird. close to false
    • A cow is sort of a bird. false
    • A robin is a bird par excellence . true
    • A chicken is a bird par excellenc e. false
    • A robin is a typical bird. true
    • An eagle is a typical bird. false, or far from true
    • A chicken is a typical bird. false
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Taxonomy: ‘musical instrument’
    • Superordinate: musical instrument
    • Basic level: guitar piano drum
    • Subordinate: folk guitar grand piano kettle drum
    • classical guitar upright piano bass drum
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Taxonomy: ‘furniture’
    • Superordinate: furniture
    • Basic level: table chair lamp
    • Subordinate: kitchen table kitchen chair floor lamp
    • dining-room table dining-room chair desk lamp
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Taxonomy: ‘tool’
    • Superordinate: tool
    • Basic level: hammer saw pliers
    • Subordinate: claw hammer handsaw pincers
    • sledge hammer chain saw needle-nose pliers
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Frames - acoustic illusions
    • It was found that the [erm] -eel was on the axle .
    • WHEEL-frame
    • It was found that the [erm] -eel was on the shoe .
    • SHOE-frame
    • It was found that the [erm] -eel was on the orange .
    • FRUIT-frame
    • It was found that the [erm] -eel was on the table .
    • MEAL-frame
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Frames - acoustic illusions
    • Paint the fence and the ?ate.
    • Check the calendar and the ?ate.
    • Here's the fishing gear and the ?ate.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Active zones: Source prominence
    • Can you lubricate the car? [= parts of the car easing smooth motion]
    • Can you wash the car? [= body of the car]
    • Can you hoover the car?
    • [= interior of the car]
    • Can you lubricate, wash, and hoover the car?
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Profiled active zones
    • Japanese:
    • o naka ga sukimashita – the stomach is empty = ‘I am hungry’
    • nodu ga kawaita desu – the throat is dry = ‘I am thirsty’
    • Cameroon Pidgin English:
    • Ma skin di slak – my skin (body) is slack = ‘I am tired’
    • Persian:
    • How is you health? = ‘How are you?’
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Profile/active-zone discrepancy with subjects and objects (Langacker)
    • a.  The boy {blinked / waved / coughed / meditated / ached / stretched / smiled / urinated}.
    • b.  She hit me (in the {arm / stomach / mouth / back / leg}).
    • c.  She hit me (with {her left hand / her right elbow / the top of her head / a stick / a baseball}).
    • d.  I can {hear a piano / see the elephants in the distance [only a cloud of dust being visible] } . 
    • “ One can never be totally precise, and usually we do not even try.”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Metonymy : Target prominence
    • The commission inspected the school. [= the curriculum]
    • The commission examined the school. [= the teachers]
    • The commission praised the school. [= the baseball team]
      • # The commission inspected, examined, and praised the school.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • source target metonymy reference point target target target target frame concept- ualizer Reference-point constructions 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Some reference-point constructions
    • Profile/active-zone discrepancy: She hit me.
    • Possessive constructions: my foot
    • Topic constructions: The lottery, I never have any luck.
    • Compounds: mosquito net
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Compounds (Langacker)
    • A butterfly net is a net used to catch butterflies.
    • A mosquito net is a net used to protect us from mosquitoes while sleeping; it might also be a net used to catch mosquitoes, or a net used by mosquitoes to catch tiny fish.
    • A chimney squirrel might be a squirrel that lives in a chimney or a trained squirrel used to clean a chimney by running up and down inside it.
    • An airplane diaper might be a diaper carried on an airplane for infant emergencies or a large piece of cloth wrapped around an airplane to soak up leaking fuel.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Some lexical metonymies
    • Amanda is a blabbermouth.
    • I’d get my butt on an airplane and get out of Japan.
    • I am just a student.
    • Dinner will be served in 30 miles.
    • After the earthquake and tsunami, they [young people] are rolling up their sleeves.
    • When you pull a trigger, a gun goes off.
    • Keep the pedal to the metal.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Different metonymic sources – same target: ‘I have not driven a car recently’ (Song 1997: 102)
    • konogoro kuruma-ni notte-inai
    • ‘ I have not ridden wheels recently’
    • highlights mobility and has a much wider distribution than:
    • konogoro handoru-wo nigitte-inai
    • ‘ I have not held a steering wheel recently’,
    • which highlights the controlling aspect of driving
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Some grammatical metonymies INSTANCE FOR TYPE: A lion has a bushy tail. ENDPOINT OF PATH FOR PATH: The beach is down the street. EVENT FOR DURATION: I fell asleep during the lecture. STATE FOR ACTION: You must be in bed by 10 o’clock. RESULT FOR ACTION: Win two weeks’ vacation in a five-star hotel! 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Analogy
    • solar system > structure of the atom
    • waves of water > light waves, sound waves
    • flowing water > electric current
    • infection > computer virus
    • highway system > data highway
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The same target domain LOVE is understood in terms of different source domains
    • LOVE IS PHYSICAL FORCE : I was drawn to her.
    • They are attracted to each other.
    • LOVE IS A PATIENT: This is a sick relationship.
    • It's a tired affair.
    • LOVE IS MADNESS: I'm crazy about her.
    • She drives me out of my mind .
    • LOVE IS MAGIC: I was spellbound .
    • She is bewitching .
    • LOVE IS WAR: He is known for his many conquests .
    • He won her hand in marriage.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Different target domains are understood in terms of the same source domain SPACE
    • STATES ARE LOCATIONS: She is in love with him.
    • CHANGE IS MOTION: She fell in love with him.
    • TIME IS MOTION: The years flew by.
    • EMOTIONS ARE LOCATIONS: She is in high spirits.
    • THINKING IS MOTION: My mind is racing .
    • COMMUNICATION IS TRANSFER: Did you get my point?
    • KINSHIP IS PROXIMITY: She is a close relative.
    • SIMILARITY IS PROXIMITY: That’s close to the truth.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • SIMILARITY IS CLOSENESS
    • a. Maroon and crimson are close in color, but they are by no means identical.
    • b. Buying land on the moon borders on the absurd.
    • c. Ben is nearly as tall as me.
    • d. The cotton shirt is approximately the same price as the rayon shirt.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • DIFFERENCE IS DISTANCE
    • a. Red and green are far apart.
    • b. The difference between red and green is vast .
    • c. Your idea of friendship and my idea of friendship are worlds apart .
    • d. Hard work separates the men from the boys.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • SIMILARITY IS CLOSENESS DIFFERENCE IS DISTANCE distance closeness Fred’s house is close to Gerald’s house. Fred’s house is far (away) from Grant’s house. Fig Grd Fig Grd 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar Fred’ house is similar to Gerald’s house. Fred’ house is different from Gerald’s house.
    • Chapter 2
    • Cognitive operations in thought and language
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Construals: Structural alternatives
    • The bottle is half full.
    • The bottle is half empty.
    • Context: drinking from a bottle:
    • The bottle is (still) half full. ‘more than expected is left ’
    • The bottle is (already) half empty. ‘less than expected is left ’
    • Context: filling a bottle:
    • The bottle is (already) half full. ‘more than expected is filled ’
    • The bottle is (still) half full. ‘less then expected is filled ’
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Canonical perspectives 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Non-canonical perspectives 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Droodles Egyptian pyramids. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Droodles A Mexican riding a bicycle. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Droodles Close-up of pig looking at book titles in a library. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Droodles Restroom key and keychain at a service station 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Viewpoint (Sweetser)
    • Language is basically, intrinsically viewpointed.
    • BECAUSE
    • Cognition is basically, intrinsically viewpointed.
    • BECAUSE
    • The body is basically, intrinsically viewpointed.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Fictive motion An ornate wrought-iron gateway leads into the garden, so its colourful beds of flowers and green lawns can be admired from outside, too. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Fictive motion The Royal Gorge Railroad tracks follow the Arkansas River. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Fictive motion
    • Alfred Hitchcock could not have conjured a scarier highway—122 miles of vertigo between Monterey and Morro Bay. Two lanes for nearly its entire length, the road meanders along cliff tops poised high above the Pacific.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Fictive motion
    • Anasazi Indians built these structures, and lived here, around 1200 AD. You won't be able to walk amongst these ruins. They're located in the wall of a steep cliff, that drops down into Butler Wash. 
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Figure and ground Look over there at the bird in the sky. ?Look over there at the sky around the bird. 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Figure and Ground (Escher) 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Canadian flag Two angry men with their foreheads pressed together: Jack and Jacques 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Camouflage Merging of figure and ground: bird perched on log 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Figure and Ground in language
    • ( 1) a. The cat is under the blanket.
    • b. The blanket is over the cat.
    •  
    • (2) a. The bike is near the church.
    • b. The church is near the bike.
    • c. The bike is near the Empire State Building.
    • d. ? The Empire State Building is near the bike.
    •  
    • (3) a. The apple fell to the ground.
    • b. ?? The ground received the apple.  
    • c. Jennifer resembles her grandmother.
    • d. ? Grandmother resembles her niece.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Figure and Ground in language
    •  
    • (4) a. The bread got stale.
    • b. ? Staleness came to the bread.
    • c. Bill began singing.
    • d. ?? Singing began in Bill.
    • (5) a. Rosemary dreamt while she slept.
    • b. ? Rosemary slept while she dreamt.
    • c. Frank exploded after he touched the button.
    • d. ? Frank touched the button before he exploded.
    •  
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  • Reality and representation spaces
    • At an exhibition of
    • Franz Marc’s paintings:
    • Lady to Marc:
    • “ Horses aren’t blue, are they?”
    • Marc: “But this is not a horse.
    • This is a painting.”
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  • René Magritte, The Treachery of Images 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • René Magritte, The Treachery of Images
    • The Treachery of Images is one of Magritte's most celebrated and interesting works. He presents a familiar object in the shape of a pipe, and then tells us in lettering beneath it that " this is not a pipe ".
    • This seeming paradox plays on our common sense and perception of reality. What he has created is in fact not a pipe, not something we could smoke - only a representation of one.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Lexical blends
    • Chunnel
    • emoticon
    • earwitness
    • infomercial
    • teleshopping
    • edutainement
    • politainment
    • carjacking
    • alcokey
    • palmtop
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  • Blends based on idioms
    • I shop, therefore I am.
    • To be or not to be – let’s have them both.
    • Never judge a book by its movie.
    • Eat now – pay waiter.
    • A penny saved is not much.
    • No nukes is good nukes.
    • Strike while the bug is close.
    • On the other hand, you have different fingers.
    • Better late than pregnant.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • What is this? A Trojan Horse 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Blending in visual representation 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Blending in visual representation 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Buddhist monk
    • A Buddhist Monk begins at dawn one day walking up a mountain, reaches the top at sunset, meditates at the top for several days until one dawn when he begins to walk back to the foot of the mountain, which he reaches at sunset. Make no assumptions about his starting or stopping or about his pace during the trips.
    • Riddle: Is there a place on the path that the monk occupies at the same hour of the day on two separate journeys?
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Buddhist monk 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The Buddhist monk Composition: two individuals Completion: encounter frame Elaboration: “running the blend”: compression d 1 d 2 d d 1 = d 2 Input space 1: ascent Input space 2: descent 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Conceptual integration network
    • Input spaces
    • Cross-space mapping : connects counterparts in the input mental spaces by means of vital relations. Neurologically, cross-space mappings correspond to coactivation bindings.
    • Generic space : captures the structures that the input spaces have in common.
    • Blend : inherits partial structure from the input spaces and has emergent structure of its own.
    • Emergent structure : is generated in three ways - composition, completion, elaboration.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Blending in grammar
    • Fictive motion: The cliff drops down 600 feet.
    • Generic reference: A tiger hunts by night.
    • Negation: There isn’t anyone living in the house.
    • Modality: There must be someone living in the house.
    • Present perfect: The train has left.
    • Caused motion: Fred sneezed the napkin right off the table.
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  • Conversational implicature
    • Pauly goes in to see the manager.
    • “ I have to have a raise, boss,” he says. “There are three other companies after me.”
    • “ Is that so?” The boss says. “What companies are after you?”
    • “ The electric company, the telephone company and the gas company.”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Conventionalised implicatures: Pragmatic strengthening
    • Volition to future: I’ll go now.
    • Permission to obligation: You must go now. cf. use of may for ‘obligation:
    • The next witness may come in.
    • Lack to need: You need to buy new socks.
    • Location to possession: There are three opera houses in Berlin. Berlin has three opera houses.
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  • Grammaticalisation: Semantic bleaching and phonetic erosion
    • Are you gonna eat that?
    • I have to go now.
    • I gotta go now.
    • He went crazy.
    • I know that [thət] this must be wrong.
    • It’s a quarter past three.
    • Given that they don’t speak English they managed very well.
    • On behalf of all those present I thank you for spending your precious time with us.
    • Those notions could change in light of recent research.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • Chapter 3
    • From thought to language
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Nouns and verbs (Langacker 2008)
    • A noun is defined schematically as an expression that profiles a thing.
    • A thing is characterized schematically as a set of interconnected entities, grouped and reified to form a unitary entity for higher-level cognitive processes . (Example recipe )
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Spicy Onion Burgers
    • Directions
    • 1 Mix thoroughly the beef, picante sauce and soup mix. Shape firmly into 6 burgers, 1/2-inch thick each.
    • 2 Lightly oil the grill rack and heat the grill to medium. Grill the burgers for 10 minutes or until desired doneness, turning the burgers over halfway through grilling.
    • 3 Serve on rolls with lettuce, tomato, avocado and additional picante sauce.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Spicy Onion Burgers 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • The thing ‘recipe’ Langacker (2008: 106)
    • “ By our abstract definition, a recipe is a thing whose constitutive entities are the successive steps involved in preparing some dish. These steps are interconnected and established as a group just by virtue of being conceived as occurring in a certain sequence. They are reified by being conceptualized as a single, unified procedure with the overall goal of creating a dish.”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Nouns and verbs (Langacker 2008)
    • A noun is defined schematically as an expression that profiles a thing.
    • A thing is characterized schematically as a set of interconnected entities, grouped and reified to form a unitary entity for higher-level cognitive processes. (Example recipe )
    • A verb is defined schematically as an expression that profiles a process.
    • A process is a complex relationship that develops through conceived time and is scanned sequentially along this axis.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Processes
    • “ We conceptualize an event as seamlessly unfolding, with each state developing organically out of its predecessor […]. The component states are sequentially accessed through processing time […].
    • This amounts to mentally tracking an event as it unfolds through [conceived] time, that is, scanning sequentially through it along the temporal axis. Accordingly, it is referred to as sequential scanning .”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Things and relations
    • Conceptual units: things relations
    • Linguistic expressions: nouns verbs, adj’s, adv’s, prep’s
    • Semantic/syntactic status: autonomous dependent
    • Concept: stable temporary, transitory
    • Information: rich vague, polysemous
    • Category: clearly delimited poorly defined
    • Prototypical members: physical objects actions, processes, states
    • Acquisition: earlier later
    • I’m not an alcoholic, I only drink (from time to time).
    • # I don’t drink, I’m only an alcoholic.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Iconicity
    Which of these figures is a “takete” and which one a “maluma”? 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Kanji characters: Ideograms 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Kanji characters for ‘Nihon’ 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Kanji characters for ‘Tokyo’ 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Iconicity
    • Imagic iconicity applies to a simple sign that resembles its conceived referent. Pictograms :
    • Onomatopoeia ( imitative iconicity) Latin cuculus > OFr. coucoul (> cokold > Engl. cuckold ) > OFr. coucou > Engl. cuckoo
    • Cuckoo superseded Old English g ē ac , which lost its onomatopoeic quality through sound change, and did not undergo the regular sound change of /u/ to / Λ/ .
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Words for the cuckoo
    • Afrikaans: koekoek Japanese: kakkou kakkou
    • Albanian: ku ku Italian: cucú, cucú, cucú
    • Catalan: cucut, cucut Korean: ppu-kkook-ppu-kkook
    • Croatian: ku-ku Norwegian: koko
    • Danish: kuk-kuk Portuguese: cucu cucu
    • Dutch: koekoek Russian: ku-ku
    • English: cuckoo Slovene: ku-ku
    • Estonian: kuku kuku Spanish: cúcu cúcu
    • Finnish: kukkuu Swedish: koko
    • French: coucou Turkish: guguk, guguk
    • German: kuckuck Ukrainian: ku-ku, ku-ku
    • Hebrew: kuku Vietnamese: cuc-cu
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Onomatopoeia bang as in Bang goes the weekend (Taylor)
    • Many monosyllabic words with the vowel /æ/ designate a noisy impact and/or sudden movement :
    • slam, slap, crack, clap, flap, crash, bash, spank, smack, prang
    • Several words commencing in /b/ are associated with a sudden event :
    • boo, beat, bat, batter, bump, binge, bingo
    • A number of words ending in a nasal are associated with sound or movement :
    • sing, ring, ping, fling, sling, dong, gong, hum, boom
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Iconic principles
    • 1. Principle of proximity/distance:
    • Susan is not happy but content.
    • #Susan us unhappy but content.
    • 2. Principle of quantity :
    • #That car i is fast and that car i is comfortable.
    • That car is fast and it is comfortable.
    • That car is fast and comfortable.
    • 3. Principle of sequential order :
    • Harry came in and sat down .
    • #Harry sat down and came in .
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • 1. Principle of proximity 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Proximity principle 09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Principle of proximity: Grammatical vs natural gender ( K.-M. Köpcke 2005)
    • Und er liebt Henriette Vogel, das Mädchen , das in derselben Nacht wie er geboren wurde und die mit ihm im Bordell aufwächst.
    • ‘ And he loves Henriette Vogel, the girl [neuter] which was born the very night as he and who is growing up with him in the brothel’
    • With increasing distance between head noun and relative pronoun natural gender wins out .
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • 2. Principle of quantity
    • Something that carries more weight is given more wording and, conversely, something that carries less weight is given less wording.
    • 1. (a) She talks, talks, talks.
    • (b) The ball bounced and bounced.
    • 2. (a) # That car i is fast and that car i is comfortable.
    • (b) That car is fast and it is comfortable.
    • (c) That car is fast and comfortable.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Principle of quantity: Reduplication
    • Plurality : Indonesian: kursi ‘chair’ kursikursi ‘chairs
    • Samoan: mate ‘he dies’ matemate ‘they die’
    • Collectivity : Malayan: poehon ‘tree’ poehon poehon ‘wood’
    • Dakota: runa ‘man’ runa runa ‘people’
    • Distribution : Ewe: ka ‘cut’ kaka ‘cut into pieces’
    • Iteration : Wolof: sopa ‘love’ sopasopa ‘love forever’
    • Malayan: pala ‘ask’ palapala ‘ask incessantly’
    • Intensification : Twi: ká ‘touch’ kíka ‘grab’
    • Fiji: kere ‘ask’ kerekere ‘beg for money’
    • Tense : Gothic: haitan ‘be called’ haihait ‘was called’
    • Latin: pendo ‘I hang up’ pependi ‘I have hung up’
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • 3. Principle of sequential order
    • now and then
    • sooner or later
    • today and tomorrow
    • from birth to death
    • shoot and kill
    • hide and seek
    • cash and carry
    • bed and breakfast
    • law and order
    • But : back and forth
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Principle of sequential order: Chinese word order (Tai 1985)
    • After I have finished the dinner *Call me
    • call me. after I have finished the dinner.
    • He from Chine came. *He came from China.
    • He yesterday arrived *He yesterday in the United States
    • in the United States. arrived.
    • He yesterday *He yesterday left
    • for the United States left. for the United States.
    • He fell in the water. *He in the water fell.
    • He in the kitchen cooked. *He cooked in the kitchen.
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
    • From the day of their wedding, Linda has been nagging her husband about his past. “Come on, tell me,” she asks again, “how many women have you slept with?” “Honey,” he says, “if I told you, you’d just get angry.” “No, I promise I won’t,” she begs.
    • “ Well, if you insist. Let’s see, one, two, three, four, you, six, seven...”
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Complex situations: Complex sentences
    • Complex situation Complex sentence
    • no particular conceptual link juxtaposition
    • loose conceptual link coordination
    • tight conceptual link subordination
    • tightest conceptual link complementation
    • - conception - that- clause
    • - desire - to- infinitive
    • - perception - bare infinitive
    09/02/11 Cognitive English Grammar
  • Motivation of complement clauses
    • that- clause: indirectly experienced situations: conceived and communicated situations:
    • I know that I can’t turn back the time.
    • I wished that I could see you again.
    • I told you that you can’t turn back the time.
    • to -infinitive: imagined wished-for situations: desire:
    • I’d like to hear from you.
    • I wish to visit Great Britain to improve my listening skills.
    • bare infinitive: directly experienced situations:
    • I saw/heard the man go overboard.
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