Orlando Cabrera: Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Orlando Cabrera: Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America

on

  • 447 views

Orlando Cabrera, CEC Program Manager, Air Quality and PRTR, on CEC work on Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America spoke at the Resilient Communities in North ...

Orlando Cabrera, CEC Program Manager, Air Quality and PRTR, on CEC work on Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America spoke at the Resilient Communities in North America workshop in New Orleans on July 10, 2012. More info. at http://www.cec.org/council2012

Statistics

Views

Total Views
447
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
447
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • In light of the substantial evidence linking environmental hazards to potential adverse health effects, various organizations are attempting to estimate the environmental burden of disease (EBD – the morbidity and mortality caused by exposure to preventable environmental hazards. It is an important endeavour because it highlights the magnitude of environmental harm and may identify specific risk factors that affect public health.In this table in particular you can observe the estimation of EBD across North America. The health outcomes selected – respiratory and diseases, cancer, and congenital affliction were selected because of the strength of evidence for environmental aetiology, availability of data. As well, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, and cancer are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality throughout North America.For example, in the United States the burden of asthma is enormous – nearly 26 million Americans (one in 12 persons) are affected by this chronic respiratory disease, including 7 million children. A panel of experts in environmental and pulmonary medicine estimated the EAF (environmental attributable factor) between 10% and 35% of cases are only related to outdoor and non-biologic pollutants (such as vehicle exhaust and emissions from stationary sources). [The only in this case is attributed to the fact that the range didn’t include indoor air pollutants, infections, and/or climatic conditions. If these factors were to be included practitioners estimated that the asthma incidence could be doubled.] The information presented in this table is of outstanding importance and can be used to: direct research; inform public education efforts; empower communities, assist physician in providing advice to patients; guide health and environmental policy making; and evaluate the effectiveness of policies, programs, and other interventions.
  • The Diagram describes the underpinning foundations on which the Framework to Improve the Environmental Health in North America would be based upon. It recognizes the social, cultural, and socioeconomic dimensions of human health, and intent to address health as a state of complete physical, mental, emotional, spiritual and social well-being. An interdisciplinary approach embracing three key components: the environment, health outcomes, and the Socio-economic and cultural context where crucial interventions are to be focused on. Considering these components as a whole in order to enhance public health, will aid to identify interconnected indicators to assess vulnerability characteristics of communities exposed to environmental contamination while concomitantly contemplating the multifaceted levels of complexity (such as time, individual versus home and community level, national and NA considerations as well as international components – notably to the mobilization dynamics of pollutants in the ocean and the atmosphere). I would like to draw your attention to one example of how climate change and variability emerge as an important indicator of vulnerability and how it can potentially impact on communities and particularly to those individuals exposed to pesticides. Heat waves, the human body responds to heat stress by activating three key systems to dissipate heat excess (cardiovascular, respiratory, and sweating). Changes in the blood flow combined with increased sweating are an effective mechanism to dissipate excess body heat. But the combination of increased moisture (caused by sweating), warm temperatures on bare skin, and augmented skin blood flow also provides an ideal environment to accelerate the transcutaneous absorption of many types of pesticides. Likewise, the increased demand for heat production in a cold environment results in an elevation in respiratory rate, thus increasing the intake of airborne toxicants.

Orlando Cabrera: Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America Orlando Cabrera: Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America Presentation Transcript

  • Improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America CEC’s Air Quality and Pollutant Releases Program JPAC Workshop, New Orleans, La June 9-10, 2012
  • Tracking Pollutant Releases and Transfers in NorthAmerica (North American PRTR Project)Objectives: Increase access to information, awareness and understanding of the sources and handling of pollutants of common concern across North America Improve the comparability of PRTRs in North America Support decision-making at all levels (communities, industry, governments) relative to pollution prevention and reductionApproach: Development of an integrated online North American PRTR dataset and tools; and publication of the Taking Stock report with analyses addressing North American health and environmental issues Outreach and development of relationships with stakeholder communities, via Taking Stock and the annual public meeting Tri-lateral collaboration on comparability and consistency in the areas of data reporting, collection, and quality assurance of PRTR data
  • Pollutant Releases and Transfers Reporting Facilities
  • Taking Stock Report and Website
  • Louisiana Petroleum Refineries and Terminals (2009) Taking Stock Online
  • Capacity Building to Improve the EnvironmentalHealth of Vulnerable Communities in North America Objective:  Assist Communities in the identification of potential health risks posed by environmental contamination, and actions to mitigate them Approach:  Development of Framework document for building capacity among communities throughout North America (focus on vulnerable populations such as children and indigenous communities)  Tri-national collaboration with stakeholders, building on existing tools and resources (e.g., Community Action for Renewed Environment Resource Guide, CEC’s Taking Stock Online, SMOC monitoring initiatives, AirNow, etc.)  Improving public dissemination of air quality conditions through the implementation of AirNow-International in Mexico
  • Capacity Building to Improve the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities in North America Annual Environmental Burden of Disease (selected health outcomes) Chronic Cardiovascular In-utero exposureCountry Obstructive Asthma diseases Cancer and congenital Pulmonary affliction Disease (COPD) 1700 infants deaths4 714,000 affected1 1.3 million affected1 850,000 affected3 25,000 low birth weight 2.7 million affected1 9773 deaths 72,743 deaths 68,322 deaths 1900 stillbirthsCanada 288 deaths 256,461 hospitalizations 447,218 hospitalizations 215,493 hospitalizations 6400-9600 serious EAF: 26-53%2 EAF*: 10-30%2 EAF: 7-23%2 EAF: 5-15%4 (12-29%2) congenital anomalies EAF: 2-10%2 5-10 million affected5Mexico 15.5 million affected2 8946 deaths5 17,000 deaths 86,554 deaths6 92,679 deaths 183,095 low birth weight 128,960 hospitalizations 296,877 hospitalizations5 249,239 hospitalizations 65,584 hospitalizations EAF (COPD): 37-47%2 EAF:12-29%2 EAF:7-23%2 EAF: 3-25%2 EAF (Asthma): 26-53%2 COPD: 5-10% of population7 Asthma: 26 million (7 million children)7,8 3447 deaths 19.4 million adultsUnited 81 million affected7 affected9,10,11 9883 deaths (5.319 < 1yo) 456,000 hospitalizations 599,413 deaths 336,747 low birth weightStates EAF: 10-35%9 567,628 deaths 4 million hospitalizations 1.3 million hospitalizations 25,894 stillbirths12 EAF: 7-23%2 EAF : 2-10%2 EAF: 2-10%9 (12-29%2) *EAF: Environmentally Attributable Factor
  • Capacity Building to Improve the Environmental Health ofVulnerable Communities in North AmericaFramework to Improve the Environmental Health in North America Levels Context Time;  Demographic; Individual, Home, Community  Economic; National, North America,  Social factors, International etc. Health Outcomes Environment  Physical Health  Natural & Built; status;  Climate variability;  Psychological  Social environment, etc. factors;  Lifestyle, etc. Intervention / Actions Products/Tools Integrated Risk/Health Assessment
  • Capacity Building to Improve the Environmental Health ofVulnerable Communities in North AmericaDraft Framework Outline1.Introduction 1.1 Functional Criteria of a Framework document for improving the Environmental Health of Vulnerable Communities2. Background 2.1 Environmental Health 2.2 Vulnerable Communities 2.3 Chemical Exposure 2.4 Environmental Burden of Disease 2.5 Environmental Health Indicators 2.6 Institutional Use of Environmental Health Indicators 2.7 Terminology3. The Framework 3.1 Objectives 3.1.1 Specific Objectives 3.2 Extent 3.3 Pillars 3.4 Select or Develop Indicators that Characterize Vulnerability to Environmental Contamination 3.4.1 Environmental Conditions 3.4.2 Social Determinants 3.4.3 Biological Factors 3.4.4 Institutional Conditions 3.5 Application 3.6 Conduct Targeted Monitoring and Evaluation 3.7 Make Informed Decisions4. Challenges 4.1 Community 4.2 Governments 4.3 Scientific 4.4 Knowledge Transfer5. Conclusions6. References
  • CEC Air Quality and Pollutant ReleasesFor more informationOrlando Cabrera RiveraProgram Manager,Air Quality/PRTRTelephone: (514) 350-4300Fax: (514) 350-4314Email: ocabrera@cec.orgwww.cec.org/takingstock Three countries. One environment.