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Particle physics article
 

Particle physics article

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This article compares Jain paramanu with particle physics. Suggestions are solicited

This article compares Jain paramanu with particle physics. Suggestions are solicited

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    Particle physics article Particle physics article Document Transcript

    • Particle Physics and Paramanu Dr. C.Devakumar cdevakumar@yahoo.com cdevakumar@gmail.com Preamble Introduction Particle physics (PP) Elementary Particles Fundamental forces Future Research The standard model Particle mass Quarks and leptons Dark matter Search for a grand unified theory Jaina Paramanu Jainology and PP: Comparison Bibliography Glossary of Terms in Particle Physics Related information on Anu and Skandha Laws of Combinations Abstract: Physical world for scientists is ‘be all and end all’ and to the seers it is onlyto remind them the ultimate reality of Self-realisation and salvation. It will be unfair tolook in the scriptures for experimentally derived hard-evidences of the types expected ofa modern scientific research. In case of Jainism, a vast ocean of knowledge has been lostirrecoverably. In spite of all, one comes across aphorisms of wisdom, which providevaluable leads and clues. The much-talked biodiversity stems from karmic bondage. Asof now, three families of elementary particles viz. quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons areknown in particle physics. British physicists have identified the following areas for futureresearch in particle physics. First, what determines the masses of the elementaryparticles? This is arguably the central question in particle physics today. Second, why arethere three generations of quarks and leptons? Why does matter dominate over antimatterin the universe? The proposed experiments will probe for evidence possibly indicatingthe existence of more fundamental particles The third crucial question concerns thenature of the `dark matter´ forming more than 90% of the mass of the universe. Thismaterial produces no radiation and can only be detected through its gravitationalattraction. Its existence almost certainly indicates physics beyond the Standard Model,possibly the existence of new particles. Jainology has most of the clues on these vexingissues. According to Jainology, paramanu is the most fundamental particle of matter. It is
    • also the basis of unit of time, space and number. There are 200 primary types ofparamanus and infinite secondary types. Even quarks appear to be composite in the lightof Jaina anus. The present gap of knowledge in particle physics can be easily addressedthrough the lens of Jainology. A plausible explanation on dark matter is available in theform of varganas. The Jaina concepts would further greatly enhance our understanding onelectromagnetic radiation, spectroscopy, the science of odour and flavour. The advent ofelectrical charges and their role in bondage in Jainology are exemplary and they speakvolumes about the genius in creativity. The examples (such as milk, ghee, silicates etc)used to explain the charged species are very apt and modern. There is a strong analogybetween photon and anu and once, this is established, it would be a great boost toJainology. There are striking resemblances in the nomenclature: Quarks have flavours;anus have tastes; gluon has colours. It is concluded that science has a long way to travelto catch up with Jaina concepts and can immensely benefit from Jainology. Preamble: The cardinal principle of Jainism is to attain Self-realisation andsalvation. Due to unfortunate course of events in the history of Jainism after the lastThirthankara, the twelve canons of scriptures were lost (according to Digambaratradition) leaving behind a tiny portion as our heritage. The great seers were generous torecord the knowledge that was passed on to them and within the limitation of theirmemory in the form of written records. The available scriptures are adequate in guidingthe aspirants of salvation. Even here, we see the glimpses of knowledge that would behidden in the twelve canons and their companion (Anga-baahya). These paradigms andperspectives must be kept in mind while seeking solutions in Jain scriptures to themysteries confronting the scientific world. Another point to be borne in mind is that thereal knowledge is to be felt through one’s own spiritual experience. Physical world forscientists is ‘be all and end all’ and to the seers it is only to remind them the ultimatereality. Naturally, one will not find experimentally derived hard-evidences of the typesexpected of a modern scientific research and approach. Instead, what one would comeacross are plain statements or aphorisms of wisdom, which provide valuable leads andclues.Introduction According to Jaina cosmology, the universe is constituted of six genera ofsubstances viz. souls, matter, space, time-atoms, medium of motion and medium of rest.The souls are essentially two types: liberated and pure; bonded and impure. The latter isotherwise is known as the mundane soul. The matter has association with the mundanesouls in the form of karmic bondage. The biodiversity stems from this bondage and theresultant behaviour and growth thereof. In Jainism, the subject matter of interest isprimarily the mundane soul and the means by which he can free of the karmic bondage.Matter exits in multiple ways and undergo transformations both by biotic and abioticmechanisms. A proper understanding of the Universe and its constituents is of paramountimportance and a pre-requisite in the path of Self-realisation. The extant scripturescontain relevant information to this extent and purpose.
    • Particle Physics Elementary Particles There are three groups of elementary particles: quarks, leptons, and gauge bosons. Quarks, of which there are 12 types (up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom, plus the antiparticles of each), combine in groups of three to produce heavy particles called baryons, and in groups of two to produce intermediate-mass particles called mesons. They and their composite particles are influenced by the strong nuclear force. Leptons are light particles. Again, there are 12 types: the electron, muon, tau; their neutrinos, the electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino; and the antiparticles of each. These particles are influenced by the weak nuclear force. Gauge bosons carry forces between other particles. There are four types: gluon, photon, weakon, and graviton. The gluon carries the strong nuclear force, the photon the electromagnetic force, the weakons the weak nuclear force, and the graviton the force of gravity. Elementary ParticlesQuarks♠ Symbol u d s c b t Charge 2/3 -1/3 -1/3 2/3 -1/3 2/3 (?) Mass( GeV/c2) 0.39 0.39 0.51 1.55 4.72 >170Leptons♠
    • Quarks♠Symbol e µ τ νe νµ νCharge -1 -1 -1 <10-8 <0.0006 <0.5Mass ( GeV/c2) 0.0051 0.106 1.78 0 0 0 Fundamental forces Four types of fundamental forces interacting between particles had been identified. • The electromagnetic force acts between all particles with electric charge, and is related to the exchange between these particles of gauge bosons called photons, packets of electromagnetic radiation. • In 1973, the theory of quantum chromodynamics was postulated to account for the strong nuclear force through the exchange of gauge bosons called gluons between the quarks and antiquarks making up protons and neutrons. • Theoretical work on the weak nuclear force began with Enrico Fermi in the 1930s. The existence of the gauge bosons that carry this force, the weakons (W and Z particles), was confirmed in 1983 at CERN, the European nuclear research organization. • The fourth fundamental force, gravity, is experienced by all matter; the postulated carrier of this force has been named the graviton. Future Research British physicists have proposed a strategy for future research in particle physics. In a report, ` Particle Physics 2000´, the UK Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) set out the areas of the subject considered most promising for future research. The standard model The Standard Model describes the elementary particles and the forces acting on them. The model supposes that matter comprises two distinct families of elementary particles, quarks and leptons. Normal matter is built from two types of quark, u and d, which form protons and neutrons. Two types of lepton, the electron and the electron neutrino, are also found in the everyday world. This pattern of pairs of elementary particles is repeated in two heavier `generations´ of particles, each with two quarks and two leptons, which are revealed in accelerator experiments. However, although the Standard Model is astonishingly successful, it cannot be the whole story. In its current form, it contains many constants, such as the mass of particles, which are not predicted but are measured in experiments and inserted into theory `by hand´. The SERC report identifies three crucial unresolved problems.
    • Particle mass First, what determines the masses of the elementary particles? This isarguably the central question in particle physics today. Peter Higgs of EdinburghUniversity has proposed that particles acquire mass through interactions with a newparticle, the Higgs boson, but there is no experimental evidence for this mechanism. Toinvestigate the origin of mass, SERC supports the proposed large hadron collider, aparticle accelerator planned for construction at CERN, the European particle physicslaboratory near Geneva, by 2008. The new machine would be powerful enough to revealthe Higgs boson if it exists.Quarks and leptons Second, why are there three generations of quarks and leptons? The existence ofthree generations is known to explain another of natures puzzling features, CP violation– the inherent lack of symmetry in the weak nuclear force. Understanding themechanism and size of this asymmetry is a subtle and challenging problem. It willlead towards the explanation of another mystery - why does matter dominate overantimatter in the universe? The problem will be tackled by experiments on the HERAaccelerator at DESY, the German national particle physics laboratory in Hamburg. Themachine will collide electrons with protons. It will work as a powerful electronmicroscope, yielding a high-resolution picture of the protons and the quarks within them.The experiments will probe for evidence of structure in quarks and leptons, which wouldindicate that these particles are themselves built from more fundamental particles - apossible explanation for the three generations.Dark matter The third crucial question concerns the nature of the `dark matter´ forming morethan 90% of the mass of the universe. This material produces no radiation and canonly be detected through its gravitational attraction. Its existence almost certainlyindicates physics beyond the Standard Model, possibly the existence of newparticles. Extremely sensitive detectors are needed to find it. To have escapeddetection so far, dark matter must have very little interaction with ordinary matter.The search for a grand unified theory Theorists have already shown that two of the four basic forces of nature –electromagnetism and the weak force - are aspects of a single force, the electroweakforce. This suggests that the strong nuclear and electroweak forces can in turn be broughttogether in a `grand unified theory´. There have been several attempts to include gravitywith the other forces in a consistent framework. The most exciting work is on stringtheory which replaces point particles with the oscillations of one-dimensional `strings´.As yet there is no hint of experimental support but the new accelerators might turn these
    • promising ideas into fact. Jaina Paramanu Paramanu or simply anu is the most fundamental particle of matter. It is alsocalled Pudgala meaning thereby an agent of fission and fusion. It is beyond sensoryperception. The sanskrit word, anu denotes that ‘it is inferred.’ It is eternal, occupies onespace point and it is of corporeal form. It has no mass and is spherical. It is also the basisof unit of time, space and number. It is formed by the fission of composites andaggregates called skandhas. In the lowest energy level of charges (snigdha or ruksha), itexists in free form. It can also lead to the formation of lattices of several kinds calledvarganas in free states. Some of these varganas are the templates or seeds of materialaction, the physical world are known for. There are 200 primary types of paramanus (fundamental particles) as seen fromthe following Table 1. Each anu has distinct taste i.e, one out of five tastes, has distinctcolour i.e. one out of five colours, has a distinct smell i.e. one out of two smells, has adistinct charge either positive or negative and has a distinct thermal touch i.e. either coldor hot. Thus we have 5 x 5 x 2 x 2 x 2 combinations. The degree of the intensity of eachof these properties can vary from minimum to infinity in each anu. The degree of theintensity of each of these properties can vary from minimum to infinity in each anu.Thus, we have infinite secondary types of anus. The degree of these characteristics can besubject to modifications during interactions but no character can be completelyannihilated. Anu just as any other substance has the intrinsic property of modifications. Table 1. Fundamental quantum numbers of paramanusGunas Taste Colour Smell Electrical Thermal(Quantum Charge TouchNumbers?) Bitter Blue Good Snigdha sita (positive) Sour Yellow Bad Ruksha usna (negative) acidic White Sweet Black Astringent Red Jainology and Particle Physics: Comparison 1. Among the fundamental particles, neutrinos, anti-neutrino and gauge bosons alone seem to come closer to Jaina anus, though not really.
    • 2. According to Jaina view, there are at least 200 fundamental particles. There is room for modern research to follow this excellent lead.3. The five gunas (colour, taste, flavour, charge and thermal property) can be translated as quantum numbers analogous to modern quantum chemistry.4. There are five fundamental colours as an intrinsic property of anus. In science, there are only three primary colours viz. red, blue and green from which secondary colours can be synthesized. The present understanding of spectroscopy dealing with colour is one of electromagnetic spectrum having definite colour bands and the associated thermal properties. The red and infrared region refers to hot zone while the ultraviolet region may be the converse of it. The Jaina view is rather very distinct as far as these two properties are concerned. Here again, there is food for thought for spectroscopists.5. The science of odour and taste is not that advanced and these two properties get varied responses from different organisms. From the Jaina point of view, it is clear that man should be the target test organism so that good and bad smells as well as taste stimuli make sense with respect to human world.6. The snigdha (+ ve) and ruksha (-ve) charges are responsible for fusion and fission. In modern physics, gluons are assigned this role. However, there is close analogy with chemical bonding involving electrons.7. The examples (such as milk, ghee, silicates etc) used to explain the charged species are very apt and modern.8. Since anus are beyond sense-perception, it does mean that they can not be detected by any instrument due to lack of sensitivity of this order. In other words, their presence can only be deduced through the study of composite particles called skandha pradeshas. Even quarks appear to be composite in the light of Jaina anus.9. The mystery of dark matter is best revealed by the arrays of anu varganas and skandha varganas including vast valleys of voids in between. Some of these varganas and voids may not emit any radiation in the detectable range.10. Energy is also matter. This view is common to both the systems. According to Jainism, sound is a paryaya or a modification–effect of interaction of skandhas. Sound belongs to the family of skandha. Is photon an anu or a cluster of anus? This needs to be properly understood. In other words, what constitutes electromagnetic radiation? Since, there can be nothing smaller than anu, the energy packets must be made of anus only.11. There are striking resemblances in the nomenclature: Quarks have flavours; anus have tastes; gluon has colours. Great men think alike!12. Going through the Jaina view of paramanu, one thing is abundantly clear; i.e. science has a long way to travel to catch up with these Jaina concepts. Science is
    • not in a position of superiority in terms of understanding of matter to ignore Jaina views as of now. BibliographyJainendra Siddhanta Kosa, by Kshu. Jinendra Varni, Bharatiya Jnanpith Prakasan, New Delhi, V Edition (1997) Part III ‘Pudgal’, pp. 67-68; ‘Paramanu’, pp. 13-18; ‘ Vargana’ pp. 411-419. Part IV ‘ Skandha’, pp. 445-447.Jain Lakshanavali edited by Balchandra Siddhantashastri, Vir Sewa Mandir, 21, Daryaganj, Delhi (1973) Vol. 2: ‘Paramanu’, pp. 665-666; Vol. 2: ‘Pudgal’, pp. 712-714. Vol. 3: ‘Vargana’, pp. 983; Vol. 3: ‘Skandha’, pp. 1177.Anu, and Skandha through the Lens of Jainology and Modern Science (Tamil) by C. Devakumar, pp. 69-79. In “Jainism and Science (Tamil)” published by Srutakevali BhadraBahu Swami Seva Dal, Kund Kund Nagar-604 505 (2001).
    • Glossary of Terms in Particle Physics
    • Antiparticle: In nuclear physics, a particle corresponding in mass and properties to agiven elementary particle but with the opposite electrical charge, magnetic properties, orcoupling to other fundamental forces. For example, an electron carries a negative chargewhereas its antiparticle, the positron, carries a positive one. When a particle and itsantiparticle collide, they destroy each other, in the process called ` annihilation´, theirtotal energy being converted to lighter particles and/or photons. A substance consistingentirely of antiparticles is known as antimatter. Other antiparticles include the negativelycharged antiproton and the antineutron.Baryon : A heavy subatomic particle made up of three indivisible elementary particlescalled quarks. The baryons form a subclass of the hadrons and comprise the nucleons(protons and neutrons) and hyperons. (See also Mesons and Baryons )Brown Dwarf : In astronomy, an object less massive than a star, but heavier than aplanet. Brown dwarfs do not have enough mass to ignite nuclear reactions at their centres,but shine by heat released during their contraction from a gas cloud. Some astronomersbelieve that vast numbers of brown dwarfs exist throughout the Galaxy. Because of thedifficulty of detection, none were spotted until 1995, when US astronomers discovered abrown dwarf, GI229B, in the constellation Lepus. It is about 20-40 times as massive asJupiter but emits only 1% of the radiation of the smallest known star. In 1996 UKastronomers discovered four possible brown dwarfs within 150 light years of the Sun.Dark Matter : Matter that, according to current theories of cosmology, makes up90-99% of the mass of the universe but so far remains undetected. Dark matter, if shownto exist, would explain many currently unexplained gravitational effects in the movementof galaxies. Theories of the composition of dark matter include unknown atomic particles(cold dark matter) or fast-moving neutrinos (hot dark matter) or a combination of both. In1993 astronomers identified part of the dark matter in the form of stray planets and browndwarfs, and possibly, stars that have failed to light up. These objects are known asMACHOs (massive astrophysical compact halo objects) and, according to USastronomers 1996, make up approximately half of the dark matter in the Milky Wayshalo.Gauge bosons or field particles : Any of the particles that carry the four fundamentalforces of nature. Gauge bosons are elementary particles that cannot be subdivided, andinclude the photon, the graviton, the gluons, and the weakons.Gluon: A gauge boson that carries the strong nuclear force, responsible for bindingquarks together to form the strongly interacting subatomic particles known as hadrons.There are eight kinds of gluon. Gluons cannot exist in isolation; they are believed to existin balls (`glueballs´) that behave as single particles. Glueballs may have been detected atCERN in 1995 but further research is required to confirm their existence.Grand Unified Theory: A sought-for theory that would combine the theory of the strongnuclear force (called quantum chromodynamics) with the theory of the weak nuclear andelectromagnetic forces. The search for the grand unified theory is part of a largerprogramme seeking a unified field theory, which would combine all the forces of nature(including gravity) within one framework.
    • Hadron: A subatomic particle that experiences the strong nuclear force. Each is madeup of two or three indivisible particles called quarks. The hadrons are grouped into thebaryons (protons, neutrons, and hyperons) and the mesons (particles with masses betweenthose of electrons and protons). (See also Mesons and Baryons)Leptons: The electron, muon, tau, and their neutrinos comprise the leptons - lightparticles with half- integral spin that `feel´ the weak nuclear and electromagnetic forcebut not the strong force. The muon (found by US physicist Carl Anderson in cosmicradiation in 1937) produces the muon neutrino when it decays; the tau, a surprisediscovery of the 1970s, produces the tau neutrino when it decays.Leptoquark : A hypothetical particle made up of a quark combined with a lepton, or anew particle created by their interaction.MACHO (massive astrophysical compact halo object): Component of the Galaxysdark matter. Most MACHOs are believed to be brown dwarfs, tiny failed stars with amass of about 8% that of the Sun, but they may also include neutron stars left behindafter supernova explosions. MACHOs are identifiable when they move in front of starscausing microlensing (magnification) of the stars light. Astronomers first identifiedMACHOs in 1993 and estimate that they account for 20% of the dark matter.Meson: A group of unstable subatomic particles made up of two indivisible elementaryparticles called quarks. It has a mass intermediate between that of the electron and that ofthe proton, is found in cosmic radiation, and is emitted by nuclei under bombardment byvery high-energy particles. The mesons form a subclass of the hadrons and include thekaons and pions. Their existence was predicted in 1935 by Japanese physicist HidekiYukawa. (See also Mesons and Baryons )Mesons and Baryons: The hadrons (particles that `feel´ the strong nuclear force) werefound in the 1950s and 1960s. They are classified into mesons, with whole number orzero spins, and baryons (which include protons and neutrons), with half-integral spins. Itwas shown in the early 1960s that if hadrons of the same spin are represented as points onsuitable charts, simple patterns are formed. This symmetry enabled a hitherto unknownbaryon, the omega-minus, to be predicted from a gap in one of the patterns; it duly turnedup in experiments.Quarks: In 1964, US physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig suggested that allhadrons were built from three `flavours´ of a new particle with half-integral spin and acharge of magnitude either 1/3 or 2/3 that of an electron; Gell-Mann named the particlethe quark. Mesons are quark -antiquark pairs (spins either add to one or cancel to zero),and baryons are quark triplets. To account for new mesons such as the psi (J) particle thenumber of quark flavours had risen to six by 1985.
    • Superstring Theory: A mathematical theory developed in the 1980s to explain theproperties of elementary particles and the forces between them (in particular, gravity andthe nuclear forces) in a way that combines relativity and quantum theory. In string theory,the fundamental objects in the universe are not pointlike particles but extremely smallstringlike objects. These objects exist in a universe of ten dimensions, although, forreasons not yet understood, only three space dimensions and one dimension of time arediscernible. There are many unresolved difficulties with superstring theory, but somephysicists think it may be the ultimate `theory of everything´ that explains all aspects ofthe universe within one framework.Unified Field Theory: The theory that attempts to explain the four fundamental forces(strong nuclear, weak nuclear, electromagnetic, and gravity) in terms of a single unifiedforce. Research was begun by Albert Einstein, and by 1971 a theory developed by USphysicists Steven Weinberg and Sheldon Glashow, Pakistani physicist Abdus Salam, andothers, had demonstrated the link between the weak and electromagnetic forces. The nextstage is to develop a theory (called the grand unified theory) that combines the strongnuclear force with the electroweak force. The final stage will be to incorporate gravityinto the scheme. Work on the superstring theory indicates that this may be the ultimate`theory of everything´.Weak nuclear force or weak interaction: One of the four fundamental forces of nature,it causes radioactive beta decay and other subatomic reactions. The particles that carrythe weak force are called weakons.Weakons or intermediate vector bosons: A gauge boson that carries the weak nuclearforce. There are three types of weakons, the positive and negative W particle and theneutral Z particle.WIMP (weak interacting massive particle): Hypothetical subatomic particle found inthe Galaxy’s dark matter. These particles could constitute the 80% of dark matterunaccounted for by MACHOs (massive astrophysical compact halo objects). The wimpsfill up space and hold the galaxies together (Hindustan Times, 16.9.99)
    • Related information on Anu and SkandhaSkandhasAn aggregate of anus is called a skandha. Skandhas can be classified into skandha,skandhadesa and skandhapradesa depending on the number of anus constituted there of.They can also be divided into two types viz., those that can be perceived by the sensesand those that can not. They can exist in six different physical states:1. solids,2. liquids,3. shadows or images,4. gases/vapours, badara suksma; minute perceptible to senses5. ions/plasmas(?), suksma minute imperceptible to senses as karmic matter6. composite particles. Suksma suksma, ultramicroscopic; composed of matter ranging from a doublet of particles to karmic matter. (Notes from Panchastikaya)JAIN LAWS OF COMBINATIONS 1.Skandhas are formed by the processes of fusion, fission and both. (Chemical analogy: A molecule can be synthesized from its elements. A molecule can decompose to give rise to smaller fragments. A molecule can also be formed by condensation through which a new molecule is formed by the combination of two molecules with concurrent elimination of a smaller fragment). Fusion of two anus can give rise to a molecule of two space points. Such a dianuic molecule can further combine with a third anu to give a new molecule of three space-points and so on. (For instance, formation of O2 and O3. The latter can also be formed directly from its elements for example CO and CO 2.) Thus, the molecular formation i.e., fusion can be ad infinitum in which N anus can fuse to a molecule of N space points. Alternatively, fusion can be concurrent with conservation of space thereby leading to the formation of denser materials. Fission can reverse the process in the same ways. 2. Visible objects are formed both by fission and fusion of infinite anus. Notes: Similarly, objects invisible to eyes can be formed by both mechanisms. Infinite particles can fuse to give rise to a skandha invisible to eye. An invisible skandha can be made visible only by the twin processes of fission followed by fusion. Fission alone does not render it visible. The fragment combines with another forming a visible skandha. 3. Anus are formed by fission only. 4. A skandha constituting infinite anus can just occupy a space point. 5. Snigdha and ruksha are the driving forces of bond formation. 6. Anus having the least quantum of charge do not undergo fusion.
    • 7. Anus having equivalent charges (irrespective of sign) do not take part in fusion processes.8. Such anus form arrays of anu-pairs (varganas) of definite distance as a single row or in a matrix form containing numerable/ innumerable or infinite anus in all directions of space- time.9. Fusion of particles differing in charges by two units is allowed between same as well as opposite signs.10. The skandha with higher charge transforms the inferior partner leading to a compound.11. Mutations and modifications in four characteristics in case of anus and in all characteristics in case of skandhas always take place with the conservation of fundamental characteristics of anus.