Treaty of Paris in 1783
Constitution ratified in 1787
George Washington elected
President in 1788 and took
office in 1789
Jay’s Treaty (Treaty of
London) in 1794
Two Party System (Federalist
Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of
Madrid) in 1795
British Surrender at Yorktown, 1781
Treaty of Paris
Ended the American
Peace treaty between
America and Great Britain
The British had a separate
treaty with Spain giving
East and West Florida to
The British had a separate
treaty with France.
The treaty had ten major
Treaty signed on September 3, 1783
Treaty of Paris – Ten Points
Acknowledging the United States to be free, sovereign and
independent states, and that the British Crown and all
heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government,
property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part
Establishing the boundaries between the United States
and British North America.
Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in
the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in
the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.
Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to
creditors on either side.
Treaty of Paris – Ten Points (Cont.)
The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state
legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands
"provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which
have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]"
United States will prevent future confiscations of the property
Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by
the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves).
Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual
access to the Mississippi River.
Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be
returned without compensation;
Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the
signing by the contracting parties. (Happened in US on Jan. 14,1784)
Problems after Treaty of Paris
British did not remove occupations of forts on the Great Lakes
(Detroit, Niagara, Mackinac, Oswego, and Maumee)
Impressments of American Sailors into British Navy
By 1793, the British seized over 250 American ships.
Southern politicians wanted monetary compensation
for slaves who were evacuated by the British Army following the
Merchants in both America and in the Caribbean wanted
the British West Indies to be reopened to American trade.
The boundary with Canada was vague in many places, and needed
to be more clearly delineated.
The British were believed to be aggravating Native American
attacks on settlers in the Northwest (Kentucky and Ohio).
Terms designed by Alexander
Hamilton, Secretary of the
British agreed to leave forts in
American Northwest Territory
and recognize it as American.
The British agreed to pay $10.3
million to the ship owners who
vessels were stolen by the
Britain gave the USA “most
favored nation” status with
Britain in an attempt to slow
down or stop US/French
Two Boundary Commissions
ordered for Northeast and
Jay Treaty Issues
The idea of compensation to the southern states for
slaves taken during the American Revolution taken off
the table. (John Jay was a strong abolitionist and didn’t
put up a fight.)
The problem with the impressment of American
Sailors not resolved.
Jeffersonians wanted to be able to trade with France
openly and supported France in their war against
Britain. The treaty promoted aristocracy.
French started taking US ships to get a similar deal as
the British in the Jay Treaty.
When John Adams became President, he started
Chief Justice John Jay burned in effigy.
building up a Navy as helped authorize privateers
against the French. This led to the Quasi-War (17981800) as well as the US not repaying French debt.
(Treaty of Madrid)
Signed October 27,1795
Ratified by Senate on March 7,
Conflict in area that US claimed as
part of Georgia
Spain came to the table out of fear
for the stronger relationship
between Britain and US after Jay
The 31st parallel was decided as the
dividing line between Florida
(Spain) and Georgia (US).
Reinforced US shipping rights on
the Mississippi River
Gave strength to the US drive to
keep moving west.
Map of the USA in 1800
Napoleon took back
Louisiana in 1800
(Solidified after Jay Treaty)
Party was built mainly by bankers and
Wanted strong centralized national
Desired a National Bank
Liked tariffs and taxes (e.g., Whiskey Tax)
Initially formed as an anti-administration
Weak central government
Strong state government
Militia based military
Against a national bank
Adams vs. Jefferson
Washington’s Vice President
Washington did not want third term and
Adams beat Jefferson for presidency in 1796.
XYZ Affair in 1797 to 1798 (Bribes to French
Diplomats were required in order to discuss
treaties. Led to Quasi-War)
Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 (To quell
possible revolution from DemocraticRepublicans. If you spoke out against the
government, you could be fined or deported if
Strengthened Navy, armed merchant ships,
and allowed privateering to counter French
taking of US ships.
Quasi-War with France from 1798-1800.
Lost to Jefferson in 1800 when Jefferson
accused Adams of raising taxes within the US.
Adams vs. Jefferson
Washington’s Secretary of State during
Washington’s first term
John Adam’s Vice President
Wanted a militia army and small coastal patrol
navy (Mosquito Fleet). He reduced the
standing army and navy. Loss key Army
Opened USMA at West Point in 1802
First Barbary War (1801-1805)
Louisiana Purchase in 1803 ($15 Million)
Let Jay Treaty expire and tried to renegotiate
with Britain about impressment.
Chesapeake Affair in 1807
Embargo Act of 1807
Minister to France
Secretary of State
June 22, 1807
USS CHESAPEAKE was attacked by the HMS
LEOPARD near Chesapeake Bay
LEOPARD shot broadsides at CHESAPEAKE with
CHESAPEAKE only getting one shot off.
CHESAPEAKE surrendered and had four Sailors taken
and tried for desertion. One was hanged.
CHESAPEAKE was allowed to go home.
Commodore James Barron was court-martialed for his
actions and 13 years later shot Stephan Decatur
(member of the court-martial board) in a dual to
defend his honor.
Led to the Embargo Act of 1807
Embargo Act of 1807
was the last straw for Jefferson.
Resulted from French and
British taking of US merchant
ship and Sailors.
No US ships to trade overseas
and no foreign
immediately after becoming
Embargo spelled backwards is Ograbme
which is represented by the snapping turtle.
Leader of the Shawnee from the Ohio
Raised around war especially American
Revolution and Northwest Indian War
Wanted to unify the Indian Tribes in
America into a confederacy
Did not like the treaties the Americans
were making with Native Americans.
(Americans were slowly buying up
territory that they feel they rightfully
won after the American Revolution.)
Sided with the British during the War of
1812 in order to keep Indian Territory.
William Henry Harrison
Aide de camp to General Wayne
during the Northwest Indian War.
Governor of Indiana Territory from
U.S. Congressman (1816-1819)
U.S. Senator (1825-1828)
Elected President of the United
States in 1840. Inauguration date
was March 4, 1841. Died of
pneumonia on April 4, 1841.
Shortest Presidency in U.S. History.
Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 11, 1811)
William Henry Harrison vs.
Tenskwatawa (brother of
1,000 U.S. Troops and 500-700
Harrison was marching forces
towards Prophetstown to force
Native Americans out of
Indiana and while his forces
were camping out, they were
attacked by Tenskwatawa’s
Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 11, 1811)
Attack came at 4:30AM
Battle lasted two hours
Harrison lost 62 men while the
Native Americans lost about 50.
The Native Americans went back to
Prophetstown and fought amongst
themselves for Tenskwatawa said
they would not be hurt in the
They abandoned Prophetstown
and left the area. Harrison came to
Prophetstown the day after the
battle and found it abandoned.
Aftermath of the Battle of Tippecanoe
Initially viewed as a defeat for the US.
It was later declared a victory over
Secretary of War William Eustis did
reprimand Harrison for his lack of
fortification. Harrison had many
arguments for the Dept of War and
resigned after the War of 1812.
The battle did get used for fuel for the
“Warhawks” as to the problem with
British support of the Native
Tecumseh blamed his brother for the
loss against the Americans.
Wrote the Virginia Plan and became
the “Father of the Constitution”
Leader of the first House of
Representatives in 1789
Leader in the DemocraticRepublican Party
Secretary of State under Jefferson
Elected President in 1808
Was president from 1809-1817
President during the whole War or
Madison Requests War
Article One, Section Eight of the Constitution says
"Congress shall have power to ... declare War".
On June 1, 1812, Madison sends a letter to the U.S.
Congress requesting them to Declare War against UK.
The reasons Madison wanted war were: Trade blockage
with France, Impressment of Sailors, and British support
of the Native American raids
House of Representatives voted 79 to 49 (61% in favor)
Senate voted 19 to 13 (59% in favor)
No Federalists voted for War with the United Kingdom
The War Starts
The war started on June 18, 1812
Alexander Contee Hanson wrote against in the Federal Republican newspaper
against the war in Baltimore.
Riots started in Baltimore from the opposition to the war.
Mobs destroyed Hanson’s office.
Two people died in the riots. These were the first casualties of the war.
General Hull invades Upper Canada near
Detroit on July 12, 1812 but he is forced out
and retreats to Fort Detroit.
Fort Michilimackinac surrenders to the
British on July 17, 1812.
Fort Dearborn Massacre happens on
August 15, 1812 when Native Americans
stormed the fort. General Hull wanted to
evacuate the fort but the order arrived to
General Hull surrenders to General Issac
Brock and Native Americans at Fort
Detroit without a fight on August, 16, 1812.
General William Hull
USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere
US Navy had only 22
commissioned ships while British
had 85 vessels in American waters.
On July 17, 1812, USS Constitution
was off the coast of New York
where she spotted five British
ships. She got away before the
British ships could engage her.
The USS Constitution sailed into
Boston harbor to rest and replenish
is its stores.
The USS Constitution got under
way on August 2, 1812 and received
intel of a British frigate from the
U.S. Privateer Decatur.
USS Constitution escapes
from British squadron
USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere
At 2:00 p.m. on 19 August, the
Constitution sighted a large ship to leeward, and
bore down to investigate.
The strange ship proved to be theGuerriere, whose
crew recognisedConstitution at about the same
moment. Both ships prepared for action.
Captain Issac Hull closed quickly at “fighting
Guerriere fired shots but missed early. Then shots
bounced off and their crew said the there sides
must be made of iron.
Constitution then closed closer and fired close in
broadsides and rifle shots.
Boarding parties were called and the British
captain was killed.
The victory was well received by the American
public and was the only good news of the war to
It helped with recruitment for the Americans.
The battle on August 19,1812
General Issac Brock
The Hero of Upper Canada
Joined the British Army at 15yrs old in 1785 as
Served in Caribbean and fought in AngloRussian Invasion of Holland
Transferred to Canada in 1804
Was put is sole Command of Canadian Forces
American tensions occurring under Jefferson
caused him to start to reinforce forts and
Put under General Provost in 1811
Worked with Tecumseh
Held back General Hull’s US invasion then
countered with attack on Detroit
Hero of Battle of Queenston Heights
Battle of Queenston Heights
Major General Stephen Van
Rensselaer (political appointee)
was in charge of all US Forces
(3,600) and was a NY State Militia
Brigadier General Alexander
Smyth was in charge of the regular
forces (900) but was a lawyer by
British were led by Major General
Brock (1,300) who was coming off
a victory in Detroit.
Stephen Van Rensselaer
Battle of Queenston Heights
Van Rensselaer wanted a two pronged attack. He would lead an
invasion force from Lewiston to Queenston Heights. Smyth
would attack across from Fort Niagara to Fort George from the
Brigadier General Smyth never attended any meetings and
ignored General Van Rensselaer
Van Rensselaer didn’t want to delay and decided to attack from
Lewiston without northern support from Smyth.
On October 9, 1812, Sailors and Marines successfully attacked
two brigs near Fort Erie. Brock thought the attack was coming
from the south.
Brock came back after realizing that was not the attack but
American forces somehow were told that Brock left in haste for
Detroit where Major General William Henry Harrison was
attempting to recover.
Battle of Queenston Heights
Van Rensselaer told Smyth to send his troops south
to Lewiston for attack at 3am on October 11th, but
they got stuck in the mud on the way there.
Van Rensselaer doesn’t wait for Smyth.
Troops on the bank of the Niagara waited for the
boats to carry them over, but the lead boat took all
the oars for the other boats.
Van Rensselaer attempted to plan again for the 13th
but Smyth was not ready and stayed in Black Rock.
Brock spent all this time preparing defenses.
Battle of Queenston Heights
Van Rensselaer finally got his troops
on boats and had them cross the
Niagara the morning of the 13th. But,
he stayed behind.
The British were ready for them and
had cannon shoot at the Americans as
they landed. Their aim was a little off
because it was dark before first light.
Some of the US troops floated
downriver 800yds to far from the
landing sight and were captured as
Brock was awakened at Ft George by
the shooting and headed south with
Battle of Queenston Heights
The Americans took some high
ground and set up cannons and
started firing at Queenston.
Brock led a charge up the hill at
the Americans and was
Brigadier Roger Hale Sheaffe
took over after Brock fell.
The British were motivated to
revenge Brock and won total
“Push on, brave York volunteers”
Naval Victories in October 1812
USS Wasp defeats HMS
Frolic in the Caribbean on
October 18, 1812.
Unfortunately, USS Wasp was
found and captured later that
afternoon by HMS Poictiers.
USS United States led by
Admiral Stephan Decatur
captured the HMS
Macedonian on October 25,
USS United States vs. HMS Macedonian
James Madison barely wins
reelection against DeWitt
Clinton (Mayor of NYC) with
50.4% of the popular vote and
a 128-89 Electoral Vote
British blockade Georgia and
General Dearborn attempts to
invade Quebec by marching
troops north of Lake
Champlain. The attempt
failed for half of his troops
who were militia did not want
to march into Canada.
Major General Henry Dearborn
Secretary of War William
Eustis resigns and current
Secretary of State James
Monroe take over as Secretary
of War as well.
Paul Hamilton resigns as the
Secretary of the Navy even
with the US Naval victories.
He felt that Congress was
hostile to strengthening the
Navy and the President did
not back his ideas.
USS CONSTITUTION VS HMS JAVA
USS CONSTITUTION (Dec 29th) was off Brazil looking for prizes and found HMS JAVA.
CONSTITUTION engaged JAVA quickly and hit first.
CONSTITUTION was hit and had damaged rigging, but they also hit JAVA’s foremast.
They get stuck together with the riggings and CONSTITUTION takes advantage. JAVA does
hit the CONSTITUTION's helm and they have to manually steer the tiller.
JAVA is reduced in speed and CONSTITUTION gets away for a hour for repairs. She
reengages and hits the JAVA hard sinking her.
After this battle, the British Navy changes its rules of engagement for American ships. British
ships are NO LONGER allowed to engage one on one with American ships.
Battle of Frenchtown (Jan.18,1813)
After the fall of Fort Detroit, the people of
Frenchtown were scared of an invasion of the
British and Indians and asked Maj. General
Harrison for help.
Brig. General James Winchester was Maj. General
Hull replacement for the Commander of the Army
of the Northwest.
Winchester was told by Harrison to stay close to the
Maumee River near Fort Meigs, but he ignored that
order and sent troops led by Lt Col William Lewis
towards Frenchtown to defend them.
Lewis crossed the frozen Maumee River and then
up towards Frenchtown.
Lewis had 667 Kentuckians and 100 French Militia.
They took Frenchtown in a day.
Battle of Frenchtown (Jan.22,1813)
The British realize that the Americans won at
Frenchtown and sent 600 British Militia and 800
Native American forces south from Fort Malden.
Harrison in upset for Winchester sending Lewis
north to Frenchtown but happy for the victory. He
tells the American forces stay and hold Frenchtown.
The American forces were not very experienced
with a large percentage of them seeing battle for the
first time on January 18, 1813.
Winchester did not send reinforcements north to
The British and the Native Americans routed the
American forces at Frenchtown. 300 Americans
killed and 500 taken prisoner. More were killed by
the Native Americans as prisoners.
The surviving prisoners were taken to Ft. Malden.
USS Hornet vs. HMS Peacock (Feb 24, 1813)
The USS Hornet was off the
coast of Brazil with the USS
Constitution looking for prize
ship until January 1813 when the
Constitution left the Hornet to
be on her own.
While off the northern coast of
South America on Feb. 24, 1813,
the Hornet spotted the HMS
The HMS Peacock was out
gunned by CAPT Lawrence’s
Hornet very quickly and the
March and April 1813
Captain David Porter with USS Essex rounds Cape
Horn and sails into the Pacific to prey upon British
Oliver Hazard Perry arrives at Presque Isle, PA to
assume responsibility for constructing a fleet on Lake
British extend blockade all the way to Mississippi.
Americans occupy west Florida.
American Major General Wilkinson occupies Mobile.
Battle of York (April 27,1813)
New Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr.
wanted to spend more time trying to control Lake
He wanted to focus on Kingston on the eastern
side of Lake Ontario and started sending
American forces to Sackets's Harbor.
Weather delayed the attack on Kingston so it was
decided to attack York, which was less defended.
Brig General Pike was chosen to lead the attack
and led 1,700 Soldiers with 14 ships transporting
The fort in York was well overmatched by the
The British commander sensing a loss. Set the
fort on fire and the cannon battery exploded.
Pike has mortally hit by rocks in the explosion.
The American forces then spent the next couple
days burning the town of York to the ground.
Brig. General Zebulon Pike
Seige of Fort Meigs (28 April – 09 May, 1813)
After the loss of Frenchtown, Harrison
consolidates his forces at a newly built Fort
He initially had a force of 4,000 Soldiers, but the
Kentucky Militia enlistments expired. He lost
close to 2,000 of his force.
Harrison quickly got 300 more from Cincinnati,
but the threat of British General Procter coming
from the north was real.
Procter had a British/Indian force of about 2,000
and started a siege on April 28, 1813.
The fort held for the first few days and Harrison
sent a small force to spike the British batteries. It
didn’t break the seige.
On May 5, 1813, Harrison sent a force close to
1,000 to attack the British batteries. They did
secure the batteries but got caught by Indians
coming from the woods. Only 150 survived.
On May 7, 1813, the British arranged a prisoner
exchange and withdrew on May 9, 1813.
Capture of Fort George (May 27, 1813)
After York was burned, supplies for
Fort George diminished.
General Dearborn felt that Fort
George was ripe for the picking.
He sent 1,200 men under Lt. Col
Winfield Scott to attack do an
amphibious assault on Ft. George.
Scott’s forces landed while being
attack by bayonet by the British. But,
Americans had the numbers and
outflanked the British forces and then
took the fort.
Battle of Sackett’s Harbor (May 29, 1813)
Navy Captain Isaac Chauncey was sent to Sackett’s Harbor in late 1812 to build a
fleet to attack the British on Lake Ontario.
Captain Chauncey was with a squadron of his ships at the Capture of Fort
George. The British thought they could now attack Sackett’s Harbor.
The British sailed from Kingston to Sackett’s Harbor but ran into a group of
ships sailing to Sackett’s Harbor to reinforce the fort. They attacked and
captured or killed all of the American reinforcements.
That delay did give time for the Americans to prepare and reinforce their
defenses at Sackett’s Harbor.
The British attacked on May 29, 1813 but the Americans repelled them.
June and July 1813
On June 1st, HMS Shannon defeats and captures the USS
Chesapeake off of Boston and Captain Lawrence dies. He
says “Don’t Give Up the Ship” while dying.
On June 6th, the British defeated the Americans at Stoney
Americans held back the British from Norfolk, VA on June
British repelled a force of Americans attacking at Beaver
Dams, Ontario on June 24th.
On June 26th, the British did win a battle in Hampton, VA
just four days after the loss at Norfolk.
The Creek Indians under Red Stick won a battle at Burnt
Corn in Alabama on July 27th.
On August 2st, Americans
held back a British attack at
Fort Stephenson in Ohio.
Admiral Perry finishes his
Lake Erie fleet on August 4th.
On August 30th, the Creek
Indians attack forces at Fort
Mims just outside Mobile, AL
and killed or captured all
American forces in the Fort
Fort Mims Massacre
Battle of Lake Erie (Sep 10, 1813)
Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry built
nine ships to battle the British on Lake
The British had seven ships on the lake.
They met off Put-In-Bay in the early
The British had the advantage being up
wind and longer range guns. They
attacked the USS Lawrence (Perry’s
flagship) and sunk her.
The HMS Detroit and the HMS Queen
Charlotte collided after the Lawrence sunk
giving Perry an advantage and ability to
sink both ships.
Perry transfers to the USS Niagara and
then leads the Americans to a dramatic
The Americans now control Lake Erie.
Battle of the Thames (Oct 5, 1813)
On October 5th, American Forces led by Maj
Gen William Henry Harrison made an attack
into Canada across from Detroit.
Maj Gen Proctor had already been
withdrawing his British forces back further
into Canada before hearing of the loss on
It was a major defeat for the British and
Harrison had regained control of the
Northwest Territory. Harrison had a 3 to 1
Tecumseh (Leader of the Shawnee Nation)
died in this battle.
Ended the British push into America in the
Northwest Territory and Proctor was courtmartialed. It also stopped Native American
attacks in the Northwest Territory.
Death of Tecumseh
Battle of Chateaugay (Oct 25-26, 1813)
Americans wanted a two pronged invasion into Canada. One north of Lake Champlain
and one just north of Sackett’s Harbor and both were supposed to attack at the same time
Maj Gen Wade Hampton could not wait anymore for Maj Gen James Wilkinson to attack
north of Sackett’s Harbor and led his invasion force in the Four Corners at Chateaugay,
One third of Hampton’s 4,000 man force (NY Militia) decided to not cross the border
British Lt Col Charles de Salaberry had intel from local farmers of the impending
American invasion and was prepared to meet the Americans.
De Salaberry met the Americans at a ford in the river and repealed the Americans back
with just over 1,400 British and Indian forces.
It was a decisive British victory.
Battle of Crysler’s Farm (Nov 11, 1813)
Maj General Wilkinson had an American force of close to 8,000 start an invasion in Canada down river (St.
Lawrence) from Sackett’s Harbor. They were supposed to meet with Hampton’s force coming from the east. But they
were defeated at Chateaugay.
The American forces left on Oct 17, 1813.
They crossed the St. Lawrence into Canada in early Nov 1813.
On the morning of the Nov 11, 1813, the British force of only 800 met the Americans.
The Americans only had about 2,500 engage with about 1,000 being stragglers.
The British held their ground and were motivated by initial victories. British Brig Gen Leonard Covington was
quoted as saying “Come on, my lads! Let us see how you will deal with these militiamen!”
The British eventually forced the retreat of the American forces. This battle is called the “Battle that Saved Canada!”
Creek War (1813-1814)
After the massacre at Fort Mims in Alabama, Maj General Andrew Jackson (who has been
wanting to get into the war somehow) assembled an army of 2,500 Tennessee Militia to
take on the Creek in the Mississippi Territory.
Brig General John Coffee was assigned to Jackson and was sent to the Creek town of
Tallushatchee (NE Alabama) and surrounded the town on Nov 3, 1813. Coffee won
General Jackson then marched his troops to another Creek town of Talladega and
decisively won there on Nov 9, 1813.
At the end of the year, a large number of Jackson’s troops had their enlistments end they
went back to Tennessee. Jackson did recruit about 900 “raw” troops and attempted to
keep fighting in Mississippi Territory (now eastern Alabama). They engaged the Creek
near the Emuckfau and Enotachopco Creeks. It was almost a total lost. Red Stick
missed out on a chance to crush all of Jackson’s force.
Jackson recruited more troops and allied Native Americans forces. He pushed south in
the Mississippi Territory (near central Alabama) and surrounded the Creeks on the bend
of the Tallapoosa River (Horseshoe Bend) and definitely ended the Creek War with a
victory on Mar 27, 1814.
On Aug 9, 1814, the Creek ceded half of present central Alabama and southern Georgia at
the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
Burning of Newark and Buffalo
On Dec 10, 1813, the Americans pull out of
Ft. George and retreat back across the
Niagara River to Ft. Niagara. The British
were pressing from the west and there was
talk of bringing American Forces all the way
east to attack Kingston. The Americans
burn the town of Newark to prevent
reinforcement of Ft. George.
Ft. Niagara is not is good condition with
destruction from attacks in 1812 and 1813
have not been repaired. The British feel it
can be captured easily and they do so on
Dec 18, 1813.
The British then burn the villages of
Lewiston, Black Rock and Buffalo to the
ground as they take revenge for the burning
of Newark from Dec 19-31, 1813.
April – June 1814
On Apr 11, 1814, Napoleon abdicates control of France and
goes into exile on the island of Elba. The British start
sending more troops to North America.
On Apr 20, 1814, HMS Orpheus defeats USS Frolic.
USS Peacock defeats HMS Epervier on Arp 29, 1814.
On Jun 18, 1814, Napoleon is finally finished at the Battle of
Waterloo. Great Britain puts all focus on North America.
USS Wasp II defeats HMS Reindeer on Jun 28, 1814.
Brig General Winfield Scott sets up a major training
program in Buffalo, NY. Unable to get blue material for
uniforms but gets grey material. “Long Grey Line”
Battle of Chippawa (Jul 5, 1814)
On Jul 3, 1814, the Americans led by Winfield
Scott cross the Niagara River and capture Fort
Erie with about.
British were confused and thought Ft Erie was
held by the British and didn’t panic about
Americans coming towards Chippawa.
When a total force of 3,500 American and
Iroquois started to cross the Chippawa Creek,
the British was surprised. They were more
surprised that the grey uniformed Soldiers
were not militia but trained regulars.
Scott advanced his force is a “U” shape around
the befuddled British force.
British retreated back to Ft. George.
First overwhelming victory in the Niagara
Battle of Lundy’s Lane (Jul 25, 1814)
Maj Gen Jacob Brown and Brig Gen Winfield Scott
decided to push north after taking Ft. Erie and winning
in Chippawa and holding Queenston. But, there was
still no Naval support from Commodore Chauncey for he
was still holding his force in Sackett’s Harbor.
Lt Gen Gordon Drummond took control of British force
at Ft. George. He ordered the British force at Ft. Niagara
to head south and then cross the Niagara.
The Americans were pinned between Ft. George and
British forces coming from the south. It forced a battle
at a road called Lundy’s Lane.
It was a “knock down- drag out” battle with both sides
getting around 800 casualties each including injuries to
Maj Gen Brown and Brig Gen Scott (forced Scott out of
American forces were forced back to Ft Erie.
It was a British victory but in proved the British that the
Americans were going to fight hard.
Peace Negotiations Begin
On Aug 8, 1814, peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Kingdom of the
Netherlands. Russia wanted to host the talks but it was decided on
Ghent. They did participate as intermediaries.
After Napoleon being defeated, the British wanted to start to find a way
to end the war. Lack of trade with America was hurting the British
Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Albert Gallatin led the American
The British initial position was to create a Indian State (from Ohio to
Wisconsin) and that the Americans do not have Naval Forces on the
The American leverage only came from the victory on Lake Erie and at
The British were starting a three pronged invasion to secure their
leverage as well: push towards Washington D.C., south from Canada
down towards Lake Champlain, and New Orleans.
The Creeks sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson on Aug 9th.
The British Siege of Fort Erie begins on August 13th.
The British take Pensacola in West Florida on Aug 14th.
The British land near Benedict, Maryland on Aug 19th.
The Americans lose the Battle of Bladensburg just
outside of Washington D.C. on Aug 24th. The
Americans had almost 2,000 more Soldiers in the
battle but retreated when the fighting got tough. It
was quoted as being "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to
American arms.“ They pushed towards Washington…
The Burning of Washington D.C.
British General Robert Ross had initially not
planned to burn the American capital. He
sent messengers to negotiate peace but the
Americans shot him.
Ross then ordered the burning of federal
buildings only with looting forbidden.
Admiral George Cockburn wanted to
destroy a Washington newspaper that
criticized him. He did not burn the
building for fear of fire spreading to other
buildings, but destroyed it brick by brick.
The British burned the Library of Congress
and Thomas Jefferson later sold his whole
library to replace the books lost.
The burning of the federal buildings was in
retaliation to the burning of the parliament
building in York in April 1813.
Hurricane of Providence
The British tried to set fire to 150 barrels of
gunpowder at an abandoned American fort.
The nitwits ended up setting off the whole kit
and kaboodle at once and killed 30 of their
own men while wounding another 44. Seems
these guys were their own worst enemy. Then
the wind picked up and the rain started to fall
in buckets. Just in the nick of time before the
entire city was burned to the ground, a
hurricane showed up. The fires were put out
throughout Washington DC and Ross
ordered a full scale retreat back to their
The British never returned and Washington
DC was saved from total destruction by this
so-called “Hurricane of Providence.”
It also slowed progress to Baltimore and gave
Baltimore time to prepare for the British.
Battle of Plattsburgh (Sep 11, 1814)
As part of the British three pronged
strategy, Lt Gen George Provost was
sending a large invasion force on
11,500 into New York State.
Americans only had a force of about
1,500 to defend.
The only way to stop the British is to
have naval control of Lake Champlain.
The British had the long gun
advantage, but Commodore Thomas
Macdonough had a plan to draw the
British Naval Force in into Plattsburgh
Batteries from shore and the anchored
American ships with a wind advantage
forced the British to close in and the
slowly were defeated and turned away.
With no naval control of Lake
Champlain, the British had to turn the
invasion force back to Canada.
On Sep 4th, Secretary of War
John Armstrong after the
burning of Washington resigns
and James Monroe takes over
On Sep 12th, the Americans hold
an assault on Mobile
The American slow down the
British towards Baltimore with
the Battle of North Point on Sep
Battle of North Point
Battle of Baltimore (Sep 13-14, 1814)
After North Point, the British marched 4,300
troops towards Baltimore.
The Americans retreated to a defensive line just
around the City of Baltimore. They had about
100 cannon and about 10,000 troops ready to
The American defenses were more formidable
than the British thought.
The British found a weakness on the right flank,
but the higher command decided to have the
troops got back on the British ships.
Ft. McHenry was the only thing stopping British
ships from coming into Baltimore harbor. Also,
the Americans sunk merchant ships to block the
The British bombarded Ft. McHenry for 27hrs.
The fort held and the British decided to sail away.
A lawyer was onboard a British ship during the
bombardment trying to rescue Dr. William
Beanes. He saw the overnight bombing and woke
the next day to see the fort still standing. Francis
Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner.
Americans evacuate Fort Erie and bring the forces
back to Buffalo on Nov 5th.
Maj Gen Jackson starts his defense of the South with
the capture of Pensacola on Nov 7th.
Jackson reinforces Mobile on Nov 11th.
Jackson leaves to defend New Orleans on Nov 22nd.
On Nov 25th, the British fleet leaves Jamaica for New
Peace Treaty of Ghent (Dec 24, 1814)
After victories at the Battle of Plattsburg and holding
of Baltimore, the Americans gain some more leverage.
The British want the end of the war, but still pressed to
attack New Orleans for some more leverage.
The Americans and British decide on terms.
The borders remain the same as at the start of the war.
All prisoners are released.
British promise to return any slaves taken during the
war (eventually just pay $1.2million for them).
Battle of New Orleans (Jan 8, 1815)
Maj Gen Jackson continued to set up
earthworks and consolidated Regulars, Militia,
Locals, Indians, and Pirates to defend New
There was a British attack on Jan 1st that
showed a weakness on Jackson’s left line, but
British General Pakenham decided not to
The British advanced on Jan 8th and marched
straight at a highly reinforced line of
At the end of the day, the British had 2,042
casualties: 291 killed (including Generals
Pakenham and Gibbs), 1,267 wounded
(including General Keane) and 484 captured
or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13
dead; 39 wounded, and 19 missing.
Jackson becomes a hero to America.
The Treaty of Ghent was signed two weeks
earlier and neither side in New Orleans knew.
Outcomes of the War of 1812
The borders remained the same as when the war started
status quo ante bellum.
The U.S. Navy grew and became a world recognized force.
The Canadians held back the American advances and led
towards their independence as their own nation.
The indigenous Indian nations lost their claim to an
independent nation and were eventually pushed out by the
The U.S. Army became an important force and a standing
army was maintained including Winfield Scott making the
US Military Academy one of the best in the world.
Trade resumed to all nations in Europe that wanted to
trade with the US.