War of 1812

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A 74 slide presentation about the War of 1812. Brief goes from the causes of the war from the end the American Revolution to Tippecanoe and ends with the Battle of New Orleans.

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War of 1812

  1. 1. Beginnings….  Treaty of Paris in 1783  Constitution ratified in 1787  George Washington elected President in 1788 and took office in 1789  Jay’s Treaty (Treaty of London) in 1794  Two Party System (Federalist vs. Democratic-Republicans)  Pinckney’s Treaty (Treaty of Madrid) in 1795 British Surrender at Yorktown, 1781
  2. 2. Treaty of Paris  Ended the American     Revolution Peace treaty between America and Great Britain The British had a separate treaty with Spain giving East and West Florida to Spain. The British had a separate treaty with France. The treaty had ten major points. Treaty signed on September 3, 1783
  3. 3. Treaty of Paris – Ten Points  Acknowledging the United States to be free, sovereign and independent states, and that the British Crown and all heirs and successors relinquish claims to the Government, property, and territorial rights of the same, and every part thereof.  Establishing the boundaries between the United States and British North America.  Granting fishing rights to United States fishermen in the Grand Banks, off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence.  Recognizing the lawful contracted debts to be paid to creditors on either side.
  4. 4. Treaty of Paris – Ten Points (Cont.)  The Congress of the Confederation will "earnestly recommend" to state      legislatures to recognize the rightful owners of all confiscated lands "provide for the restitution of all estates, rights, and properties, which have been confiscated belonging to real British subjects [Loyalists]" United States will prevent future confiscations of the property of Loyalists. Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released and all property left by the British army in the United States unmolested (including slaves). Great Britain and the United States were each to be given perpetual access to the Mississippi River. Territories captured by Americans subsequent to treaty will be returned without compensation; Ratification of the treaty was to occur within six months from the signing by the contracting parties. (Happened in US on Jan. 14,1784)
  5. 5. Map of the USA in 1789
  6. 6. Problems after Treaty of Paris  British did not remove occupations of forts on the Great Lakes       (Detroit, Niagara, Mackinac, Oswego, and Maumee) Impressments of American Sailors into British Navy By 1793, the British seized over 250 American ships. Southern politicians wanted monetary compensation for slaves who were evacuated by the British Army following the Revolutionary War. Merchants in both America and in the Caribbean wanted the British West Indies to be reopened to American trade. The boundary with Canada was vague in many places, and needed to be more clearly delineated. The British were believed to be aggravating Native American attacks on settlers in the Northwest (Kentucky and Ohio).
  7. 7. Jay Treaty  Terms designed by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury  British agreed to leave forts in American Northwest Territory and recognize it as American.  The British agreed to pay $10.3 million to the ship owners who vessels were stolen by the British.  Britain gave the USA “most favored nation” status with Britain in an attempt to slow down or stop US/French Trading.  Two Boundary Commissions ordered for Northeast and Northwest borders.
  8. 8. Jay Treaty Issues  The idea of compensation to the southern states for     slaves taken during the American Revolution taken off the table. (John Jay was a strong abolitionist and didn’t put up a fight.) The problem with the impressment of American Sailors not resolved. Jeffersonians wanted to be able to trade with France openly and supported France in their war against Britain. The treaty promoted aristocracy. French started taking US ships to get a similar deal as the British in the Jay Treaty. When John Adams became President, he started Chief Justice John Jay burned in effigy. building up a Navy as helped authorize privateers against the French. This led to the Quasi-War (17981800) as well as the US not repaying French debt.
  9. 9. Pinckney Treaty (Treaty of Madrid)  Signed October 27,1795  Ratified by Senate on March 7, 1796  Conflict in area that US claimed as part of Georgia  Spain came to the table out of fear for the stronger relationship between Britain and US after Jay Treaty.  The 31st parallel was decided as the dividing line between Florida (Spain) and Georgia (US).  Reinforced US shipping rights on the Mississippi River  Gave strength to the US drive to keep moving west.
  10. 10. Map of the USA in 1800 Napoleon took back Louisiana in 1800 from Spain.
  11. 11. Two-Party System (Solidified after Jay Treaty) Federalist Party       Party was built mainly by bankers and businessmen. Wanted strong centralized national government Desired a National Bank Liked tariffs and taxes (e.g., Whiskey Tax) Strengthen Navy Pro-British Alexander Hamilton Federalist Party Democratic-Republican Party       Initially formed as an anti-administration group Weak central government Strong state government Militia based military Against a national bank Pro-French Thomas Jefferson DemocraticRepublican Party
  12. 12. Adams vs. Jefferson John Adams        Washington’s Vice President Washington did not want third term and Adams beat Jefferson for presidency in 1796. XYZ Affair in 1797 to 1798 (Bribes to French Diplomats were required in order to discuss treaties. Led to Quasi-War) Alien and Sedition Acts in 1798 (To quell possible revolution from DemocraticRepublicans. If you spoke out against the government, you could be fined or deported if alien.) Strengthened Navy, armed merchant ships, and allowed privateering to counter French taking of US ships. Quasi-War with France from 1798-1800. Lost to Jefferson in 1800 when Jefferson accused Adams of raising taxes within the US. John Adams Federalist Party Vice President 1789-1797 President 1797-1801
  13. 13. Adams vs. Jefferson Thomas Jefferson            Washington’s Secretary of State during Washington’s first term John Adam’s Vice President Pro-State Rights Pro French Wanted a militia army and small coastal patrol navy (Mosquito Fleet). He reduced the standing army and navy. Loss key Army Officers. Opened USMA at West Point in 1802 First Barbary War (1801-1805) Louisiana Purchase in 1803 ($15 Million) Let Jay Treaty expire and tried to renegotiate with Britain about impressment. Chesapeake Affair in 1807 Embargo Act of 1807 Thomas Jefferson DemocraticRepublican Party Minister to France 1785-1789 Secretary of State 1790-1793 Vice President 1797-1801 President 1801-1809
  14. 14. Chesapeake-Leopard Affair  June 22, 1807  USS CHESAPEAKE was attacked by the HMS LEOPARD near Chesapeake Bay  LEOPARD shot broadsides at CHESAPEAKE with CHESAPEAKE only getting one shot off.  CHESAPEAKE surrendered and had four Sailors taken and tried for desertion. One was hanged. CHESAPEAKE was allowed to go home.  Commodore James Barron was court-martialed for his actions and 13 years later shot Stephan Decatur (member of the court-martial board) in a dual to defend his honor.  Led to the Embargo Act of 1807
  15. 15. Embargo Act of 1807  Chesapeake-Leopard Affair     was the last straw for Jefferson. Resulted from French and British taking of US merchant ship and Sailors. No US ships to trade overseas and no foreign Financial Disaster Madison repealed immediately after becoming President Embargo spelled backwards is Ograbme which is represented by the snapping turtle.
  16. 16. Tecumseh  Leader of the Shawnee from the Ohio     Country Raised around war especially American Revolution and Northwest Indian War Wanted to unify the Indian Tribes in America into a confederacy Did not like the treaties the Americans were making with Native Americans. (Americans were slowly buying up territory that they feel they rightfully won after the American Revolution.) Sided with the British during the War of 1812 in order to keep Indian Territory.
  17. 17. William Henry Harrison  Aide de camp to General Wayne     during the Northwest Indian War. Governor of Indiana Territory from 1801-1812. U.S. Congressman (1816-1819) U.S. Senator (1825-1828) Elected President of the United States in 1840. Inauguration date was March 4, 1841. Died of pneumonia on April 4, 1841. Shortest Presidency in U.S. History.
  18. 18. Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 11, 1811)  William Henry Harrison vs. Tenskwatawa (brother of Tecumseh)  1,000 U.S. Troops and 500-700 Native Americans  Harrison was marching forces towards Prophetstown to force Native Americans out of Indiana and while his forces were camping out, they were attacked by Tenskwatawa’s forces.
  19. 19. Battle of Tippecanoe (Nov. 11, 1811)  Attack came at 4:30AM  Battle lasted two hours  Harrison lost 62 men while the Native Americans lost about 50.  The Native Americans went back to Prophetstown and fought amongst themselves for Tenskwatawa said they would not be hurt in the attack.  They abandoned Prophetstown and left the area. Harrison came to Prophetstown the day after the battle and found it abandoned.
  20. 20. Aftermath of the Battle of Tippecanoe  Initially viewed as a defeat for the US. It was later declared a victory over Native Americans.  Secretary of War William Eustis did reprimand Harrison for his lack of fortification. Harrison had many arguments for the Dept of War and resigned after the War of 1812.  The battle did get used for fuel for the “Warhawks” as to the problem with British support of the Native Americans.  Tecumseh blamed his brother for the loss against the Americans.
  21. 21. James Madison  Wrote the Virginia Plan and became       the “Father of the Constitution” Leader of the first House of Representatives in 1789 Leader in the DemocraticRepublican Party Secretary of State under Jefferson Elected President in 1808 Was president from 1809-1817 President during the whole War or 1812.
  22. 22. Madison Requests War  Article One, Section Eight of the Constitution says      "Congress shall have power to ... declare War". On June 1, 1812, Madison sends a letter to the U.S. Congress requesting them to Declare War against UK. The reasons Madison wanted war were: Trade blockage with France, Impressment of Sailors, and British support of the Native American raids House of Representatives voted 79 to 49 (61% in favor) Senate voted 19 to 13 (59% in favor) No Federalists voted for War with the United Kingdom
  23. 23. The War Starts  The war started on June 18, 1812  Alexander Contee Hanson wrote against in the Federal Republican newspaper against the war in Baltimore.  Riots started in Baltimore from the opposition to the war.  Mobs destroyed Hanson’s office.  Two people died in the riots. These were the first casualties of the war.
  24. 24. The Battle Plan
  25. 25. First Battles  General Hull invades Upper Canada near Detroit on July 12, 1812 but he is forced out and retreats to Fort Detroit.  Fort Michilimackinac surrenders to the British on July 17, 1812.  Fort Dearborn Massacre happens on August 15, 1812 when Native Americans stormed the fort. General Hull wanted to evacuate the fort but the order arrived to late.  General Hull surrenders to General Issac Brock and Native Americans at Fort Detroit without a fight on August, 16, 1812. General William Hull
  26. 26. USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere  US Navy had only 22 commissioned ships while British had 85 vessels in American waters.  On July 17, 1812, USS Constitution was off the coast of New York where she spotted five British ships. She got away before the British ships could engage her.  The USS Constitution sailed into Boston harbor to rest and replenish is its stores.  The USS Constitution got under way on August 2, 1812 and received intel of a British frigate from the U.S. Privateer Decatur. USS Constitution escapes from British squadron
  27. 27. USS Constitution vs. HMS Guerriere  At 2:00 p.m. on 19 August, the        Constitution sighted a large ship to leeward, and bore down to investigate. The strange ship proved to be theGuerriere, whose crew recognisedConstitution at about the same moment. Both ships prepared for action. Captain Issac Hull closed quickly at “fighting sails.” Guerriere fired shots but missed early. Then shots bounced off and their crew said the there sides must be made of iron. Constitution then closed closer and fired close in broadsides and rifle shots. Boarding parties were called and the British captain was killed. The victory was well received by the American public and was the only good news of the war to date. It helped with recruitment for the Americans. The battle on August 19,1812
  28. 28. General Issac Brock  The Hero of Upper Canada  British born  Joined the British Army at 15yrs old in 1785 as an Ensign  Served in Caribbean and fought in AngloRussian Invasion of Holland  Transferred to Canada in 1804  Was put is sole Command of Canadian Forces in 1806  American tensions occurring under Jefferson caused him to start to reinforce forts and cities  Put under General Provost in 1811  Worked with Tecumseh  Held back General Hull’s US invasion then countered with attack on Detroit  Hero of Battle of Queenston Heights
  29. 29. The Battle Plan as of Oct 1812
  30. 30. Battle of Queenston Heights  Major General Stephen Van Rensselaer (political appointee) was in charge of all US Forces (3,600) and was a NY State Militia Officer  Brigadier General Alexander Smyth was in charge of the regular forces (900) but was a lawyer by trade  British were led by Major General Brock (1,300) who was coming off a victory in Detroit. Stephen Van Rensselaer
  31. 31. Battle of Queenston Heights  Van Rensselaer wanted a two pronged attack. He would lead an     invasion force from Lewiston to Queenston Heights. Smyth would attack across from Fort Niagara to Fort George from the rear. Brigadier General Smyth never attended any meetings and ignored General Van Rensselaer Van Rensselaer didn’t want to delay and decided to attack from Lewiston without northern support from Smyth. On October 9, 1812, Sailors and Marines successfully attacked two brigs near Fort Erie. Brock thought the attack was coming from the south. Brock came back after realizing that was not the attack but American forces somehow were told that Brock left in haste for Detroit where Major General William Henry Harrison was attempting to recover.
  32. 32. Battle of Queenston Heights  Van Rensselaer told Smyth to send his troops south     to Lewiston for attack at 3am on October 11th, but they got stuck in the mud on the way there. Van Rensselaer doesn’t wait for Smyth. Troops on the bank of the Niagara waited for the boats to carry them over, but the lead boat took all the oars for the other boats. Van Rensselaer attempted to plan again for the 13th but Smyth was not ready and stayed in Black Rock. Brock spent all this time preparing defenses.
  33. 33. Battle of Queenston Heights  Van Rensselaer finally got his troops on boats and had them cross the Niagara the morning of the 13th. But, he stayed behind.  The British were ready for them and had cannon shoot at the Americans as they landed. Their aim was a little off because it was dark before first light.  Some of the US troops floated downriver 800yds to far from the landing sight and were captured as they landed.  Brock was awakened at Ft George by the shooting and headed south with reinforcements.
  34. 34. Battle of Queenston Heights  The Americans took some high ground and set up cannons and started firing at Queenston.  Brock led a charge up the hill at the Americans and was mortally wounded.  Brigadier Roger Hale Sheaffe took over after Brock fell.  The British were motivated to revenge Brock and won total victory. “Push on, brave York volunteers”
  35. 35. Naval Victories in October 1812  USS Wasp defeats HMS Frolic in the Caribbean on October 18, 1812.  Unfortunately, USS Wasp was found and captured later that afternoon by HMS Poictiers.  USS United States led by Admiral Stephan Decatur captured the HMS Macedonian on October 25, 1812. USS United States vs. HMS Macedonian
  36. 36. November 1812  James Madison barely wins reelection against DeWitt Clinton (Mayor of NYC) with 50.4% of the popular vote and a 128-89 Electoral Vote  British blockade Georgia and South Carolina  General Dearborn attempts to invade Quebec by marching troops north of Lake Champlain. The attempt failed for half of his troops who were militia did not want to march into Canada. Major General Henry Dearborn
  37. 37. The Battle Plan as of Nov 1812
  38. 38. December 1812  Secretary of War William Eustis resigns and current Secretary of State James Monroe take over as Secretary of War as well.  Paul Hamilton resigns as the Secretary of the Navy even with the US Naval victories. He felt that Congress was hostile to strengthening the Navy and the President did not back his ideas. William Eustis
  39. 39. USS CONSTITUTION VS HMS JAVA     USS CONSTITUTION (Dec 29th) was off Brazil looking for prizes and found HMS JAVA. CONSTITUTION engaged JAVA quickly and hit first. CONSTITUTION was hit and had damaged rigging, but they also hit JAVA’s foremast. They get stuck together with the riggings and CONSTITUTION takes advantage. JAVA does hit the CONSTITUTION's helm and they have to manually steer the tiller.  JAVA is reduced in speed and CONSTITUTION gets away for a hour for repairs. She reengages and hits the JAVA hard sinking her.  After this battle, the British Navy changes its rules of engagement for American ships. British ships are NO LONGER allowed to engage one on one with American ships.
  40. 40. Battle of Frenchtown (Jan.18,1813)  After the fall of Fort Detroit, the people of     Frenchtown were scared of an invasion of the British and Indians and asked Maj. General Harrison for help. Brig. General James Winchester was Maj. General Hull replacement for the Commander of the Army of the Northwest. Winchester was told by Harrison to stay close to the Maumee River near Fort Meigs, but he ignored that order and sent troops led by Lt Col William Lewis towards Frenchtown to defend them. Lewis crossed the frozen Maumee River and then up towards Frenchtown. Lewis had 667 Kentuckians and 100 French Militia. They took Frenchtown in a day.
  41. 41. Battle of Frenchtown (Jan.22,1813)  The British realize that the Americans won at      Frenchtown and sent 600 British Militia and 800 Native American forces south from Fort Malden. Harrison in upset for Winchester sending Lewis north to Frenchtown but happy for the victory. He tells the American forces stay and hold Frenchtown. The American forces were not very experienced with a large percentage of them seeing battle for the first time on January 18, 1813. Winchester did not send reinforcements north to Frenchtown. The British and the Native Americans routed the American forces at Frenchtown. 300 Americans killed and 500 taken prisoner. More were killed by the Native Americans as prisoners. The surviving prisoners were taken to Ft. Malden.
  42. 42. USS Hornet vs. HMS Peacock (Feb 24, 1813)  The USS Hornet was off the coast of Brazil with the USS Constitution looking for prize ship until January 1813 when the Constitution left the Hornet to be on her own.  While off the northern coast of South America on Feb. 24, 1813, the Hornet spotted the HMS Peacock.  The HMS Peacock was out gunned by CAPT Lawrence’s Hornet very quickly and the Peacock surrendered.
  43. 43. March and April 1813  Captain David Porter with USS Essex rounds Cape     Horn and sails into the Pacific to prey upon British whaling ships. Oliver Hazard Perry arrives at Presque Isle, PA to assume responsibility for constructing a fleet on Lake Erie. British extend blockade all the way to Mississippi. Americans occupy west Florida. American Major General Wilkinson occupies Mobile.
  44. 44. Battle of York (April 27,1813)  New Secretary of War John Armstrong, Jr. wanted to spend more time trying to control Lake Ontario.  He wanted to focus on Kingston on the eastern side of Lake Ontario and started sending American forces to Sackets's Harbor.  Weather delayed the attack on Kingston so it was decided to attack York, which was less defended.  Brig General Pike was chosen to lead the attack and led 1,700 Soldiers with 14 ships transporting them there.  The fort in York was well overmatched by the American forces.  The British commander sensing a loss. Set the fort on fire and the cannon battery exploded. Pike has mortally hit by rocks in the explosion.  The American forces then spent the next couple days burning the town of York to the ground. Brig. General Zebulon Pike
  45. 45. Seige of Fort Meigs (28 April – 09 May, 1813)  After the loss of Frenchtown, Harrison consolidates his forces at a newly built Fort Meigs.  He initially had a force of 4,000 Soldiers, but the Kentucky Militia enlistments expired. He lost close to 2,000 of his force.  Harrison quickly got 300 more from Cincinnati, but the threat of British General Procter coming from the north was real.  Procter had a British/Indian force of about 2,000 and started a siege on April 28, 1813.  The fort held for the first few days and Harrison sent a small force to spike the British batteries. It didn’t break the seige.  On May 5, 1813, Harrison sent a force close to 1,000 to attack the British batteries. They did secure the batteries but got caught by Indians coming from the woods. Only 150 survived.  On May 7, 1813, the British arranged a prisoner exchange and withdrew on May 9, 1813.
  46. 46. Capture of Fort George (May 27, 1813)  After York was burned, supplies for Fort George diminished.  General Dearborn felt that Fort George was ripe for the picking.  He sent 1,200 men under Lt. Col Winfield Scott to attack do an amphibious assault on Ft. George.  Scott’s forces landed while being attack by bayonet by the British. But, Americans had the numbers and outflanked the British forces and then took the fort.
  47. 47. Battle of Sackett’s Harbor (May 29, 1813)  Navy Captain Isaac Chauncey was sent to Sackett’s Harbor in late 1812 to build a     fleet to attack the British on Lake Ontario. Captain Chauncey was with a squadron of his ships at the Capture of Fort George. The British thought they could now attack Sackett’s Harbor. The British sailed from Kingston to Sackett’s Harbor but ran into a group of ships sailing to Sackett’s Harbor to reinforce the fort. They attacked and captured or killed all of the American reinforcements. That delay did give time for the Americans to prepare and reinforce their defenses at Sackett’s Harbor. The British attacked on May 29, 1813 but the Americans repelled them.
  48. 48. June and July 1813  On June 1st, HMS Shannon defeats and captures the USS      Chesapeake off of Boston and Captain Lawrence dies. He says “Don’t Give Up the Ship” while dying. On June 6th, the British defeated the Americans at Stoney Creek. Americans held back the British from Norfolk, VA on June 22nd. British repelled a force of Americans attacking at Beaver Dams, Ontario on June 24th. On June 26th, the British did win a battle in Hampton, VA just four days after the loss at Norfolk. The Creek Indians under Red Stick won a battle at Burnt Corn in Alabama on July 27th.
  49. 49. August 1813  On August 2st, Americans held back a British attack at Fort Stephenson in Ohio.  Admiral Perry finishes his Lake Erie fleet on August 4th.  On August 30th, the Creek Indians attack forces at Fort Mims just outside Mobile, AL and killed or captured all American forces in the Fort Mims Massacre. Fort Mims Massacre
  50. 50. Battle of Lake Erie (Sep 10, 1813)  Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry built       nine ships to battle the British on Lake Erie. The British had seven ships on the lake. They met off Put-In-Bay in the early morning. The British had the advantage being up wind and longer range guns. They attacked the USS Lawrence (Perry’s flagship) and sunk her. The HMS Detroit and the HMS Queen Charlotte collided after the Lawrence sunk giving Perry an advantage and ability to sink both ships. Perry transfers to the USS Niagara and then leads the Americans to a dramatic victory. The Americans now control Lake Erie.
  51. 51. Battle of the Thames (Oct 5, 1813)  On October 5th, American Forces led by Maj     Gen William Henry Harrison made an attack into Canada across from Detroit. Maj Gen Proctor had already been withdrawing his British forces back further into Canada before hearing of the loss on Lake Erie. It was a major defeat for the British and Harrison had regained control of the Northwest Territory. Harrison had a 3 to 1 man advantage. Tecumseh (Leader of the Shawnee Nation) died in this battle. Ended the British push into America in the Northwest Territory and Proctor was courtmartialed. It also stopped Native American attacks in the Northwest Territory. Death of Tecumseh
  52. 52. Battle of Chateaugay (Oct 25-26, 1813)  Americans wanted a two pronged invasion into Canada. One north of Lake Champlain and one just north of Sackett’s Harbor and both were supposed to attack at the same time  Maj Gen Wade Hampton could not wait anymore for Maj Gen James Wilkinson to attack north of Sackett’s Harbor and led his invasion force in the Four Corners at Chateaugay, NY.  One third of Hampton’s 4,000 man force (NY Militia) decided to not cross the border into Canada.  British Lt Col Charles de Salaberry had intel from local farmers of the impending American invasion and was prepared to meet the Americans.  De Salaberry met the Americans at a ford in the river and repealed the Americans back with just over 1,400 British and Indian forces.  It was a decisive British victory.
  53. 53. Battle of Crysler’s Farm (Nov 11, 1813)        Maj General Wilkinson had an American force of close to 8,000 start an invasion in Canada down river (St. Lawrence) from Sackett’s Harbor. They were supposed to meet with Hampton’s force coming from the east. But they were defeated at Chateaugay. The American forces left on Oct 17, 1813. They crossed the St. Lawrence into Canada in early Nov 1813. On the morning of the Nov 11, 1813, the British force of only 800 met the Americans. The Americans only had about 2,500 engage with about 1,000 being stragglers. The British held their ground and were motivated by initial victories. British Brig Gen Leonard Covington was quoted as saying “Come on, my lads! Let us see how you will deal with these militiamen!” The British eventually forced the retreat of the American forces. This battle is called the “Battle that Saved Canada!”
  54. 54. Creek War (1813-1814)  After the massacre at Fort Mims in Alabama, Maj General Andrew Jackson (who has been wanting to get into the war somehow) assembled an army of 2,500 Tennessee Militia to take on the Creek in the Mississippi Territory.  Brig General John Coffee was assigned to Jackson and was sent to the Creek town of Tallushatchee (NE Alabama) and surrounded the town on Nov 3, 1813. Coffee won overwhelmingly.  General Jackson then marched his troops to another Creek town of Talladega and decisively won there on Nov 9, 1813.  At the end of the year, a large number of Jackson’s troops had their enlistments end they went back to Tennessee. Jackson did recruit about 900 “raw” troops and attempted to keep fighting in Mississippi Territory (now eastern Alabama). They engaged the Creek near the Emuckfau and Enotachopco Creeks. It was almost a total lost. Red Stick missed out on a chance to crush all of Jackson’s force.  Jackson recruited more troops and allied Native Americans forces. He pushed south in the Mississippi Territory (near central Alabama) and surrounded the Creeks on the bend of the Tallapoosa River (Horseshoe Bend) and definitely ended the Creek War with a victory on Mar 27, 1814.  On Aug 9, 1814, the Creek ceded half of present central Alabama and southern Georgia at the Treaty of Fort Jackson.
  55. 55. Burning of Newark and Buffalo  On Dec 10, 1813, the Americans pull out of Ft. George and retreat back across the Niagara River to Ft. Niagara. The British were pressing from the west and there was talk of bringing American Forces all the way east to attack Kingston. The Americans burn the town of Newark to prevent reinforcement of Ft. George.  Ft. Niagara is not is good condition with destruction from attacks in 1812 and 1813 have not been repaired. The British feel it can be captured easily and they do so on Dec 18, 1813.  The British then burn the villages of Lewiston, Black Rock and Buffalo to the ground as they take revenge for the burning of Newark from Dec 19-31, 1813.
  56. 56. April – June 1814  On Apr 11, 1814, Napoleon abdicates control of France and      goes into exile on the island of Elba. The British start sending more troops to North America. On Apr 20, 1814, HMS Orpheus defeats USS Frolic. USS Peacock defeats HMS Epervier on Arp 29, 1814. On Jun 18, 1814, Napoleon is finally finished at the Battle of Waterloo. Great Britain puts all focus on North America. USS Wasp II defeats HMS Reindeer on Jun 28, 1814. Brig General Winfield Scott sets up a major training program in Buffalo, NY. Unable to get blue material for uniforms but gets grey material. “Long Grey Line”
  57. 57. Battle of Chippawa (Jul 5, 1814)  On Jul 3, 1814, the Americans led by Winfield      Scott cross the Niagara River and capture Fort Erie with about. British were confused and thought Ft Erie was held by the British and didn’t panic about Americans coming towards Chippawa. When a total force of 3,500 American and Iroquois started to cross the Chippawa Creek, the British was surprised. They were more surprised that the grey uniformed Soldiers were not militia but trained regulars. Scott advanced his force is a “U” shape around the befuddled British force. British retreated back to Ft. George. First overwhelming victory in the Niagara Region.
  58. 58. Battle of Lundy’s Lane (Jul 25, 1814)  Maj Gen Jacob Brown and Brig Gen Winfield Scott decided to push north after taking Ft. Erie and winning in Chippawa and holding Queenston. But, there was still no Naval support from Commodore Chauncey for he was still holding his force in Sackett’s Harbor.  Lt Gen Gordon Drummond took control of British force at Ft. George. He ordered the British force at Ft. Niagara to head south and then cross the Niagara.  The Americans were pinned between Ft. George and British forces coming from the south. It forced a battle at a road called Lundy’s Lane.  It was a “knock down- drag out” battle with both sides getting around 800 casualties each including injuries to Maj Gen Brown and Brig Gen Scott (forced Scott out of the battle).  American forces were forced back to Ft Erie.  It was a British victory but in proved the British that the Americans were going to fight hard.
  59. 59. Peace Negotiations Begin  On Aug 8, 1814, peace negotiations begin in Ghent, Kingdom of the      Netherlands. Russia wanted to host the talks but it was decided on Ghent. They did participate as intermediaries. After Napoleon being defeated, the British wanted to start to find a way to end the war. Lack of trade with America was hurting the British Economy. Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, and Albert Gallatin led the American representation. The British initial position was to create a Indian State (from Ohio to Wisconsin) and that the Americans do not have Naval Forces on the Great Lakes. The American leverage only came from the victory on Lake Erie and at Chippawa. The British were starting a three pronged invasion to secure their leverage as well: push towards Washington D.C., south from Canada down towards Lake Champlain, and New Orleans.
  60. 60. British Strategy in 1814
  61. 61. August 1814  The Creeks sign the Treaty of Fort Jackson on Aug 9th.  The British Siege of Fort Erie begins on August 13th.  The British take Pensacola in West Florida on Aug 14th.  The British land near Benedict, Maryland on Aug 19th.  The Americans lose the Battle of Bladensburg just outside of Washington D.C. on Aug 24th. The Americans had almost 2,000 more Soldiers in the battle but retreated when the fighting got tough. It was quoted as being "the greatest disgrace ever dealt to American arms.“ They pushed towards Washington…
  62. 62. The Burning of Washington D.C.  British General Robert Ross had initially not     planned to burn the American capital. He sent messengers to negotiate peace but the Americans shot him. Ross then ordered the burning of federal buildings only with looting forbidden. Admiral George Cockburn wanted to destroy a Washington newspaper that criticized him. He did not burn the building for fear of fire spreading to other buildings, but destroyed it brick by brick. The British burned the Library of Congress and Thomas Jefferson later sold his whole library to replace the books lost. The burning of the federal buildings was in retaliation to the burning of the parliament building in York in April 1813.
  63. 63. Hurricane of Providence  The British tried to set fire to 150 barrels of gunpowder at an abandoned American fort. The nitwits ended up setting off the whole kit and kaboodle at once and killed 30 of their own men while wounding another 44. Seems these guys were their own worst enemy. Then the wind picked up and the rain started to fall in buckets. Just in the nick of time before the entire city was burned to the ground, a hurricane showed up. The fires were put out throughout Washington DC and Ross ordered a full scale retreat back to their ships.  The British never returned and Washington DC was saved from total destruction by this so-called “Hurricane of Providence.”  It also slowed progress to Baltimore and gave Baltimore time to prepare for the British.
  64. 64. Battle of Plattsburgh (Sep 11, 1814)  As part of the British three pronged strategy, Lt Gen George Provost was sending a large invasion force on 11,500 into New York State.  Americans only had a force of about 1,500 to defend.  The only way to stop the British is to have naval control of Lake Champlain.  The British had the long gun advantage, but Commodore Thomas Macdonough had a plan to draw the British Naval Force in into Plattsburgh Bay.  Batteries from shore and the anchored American ships with a wind advantage forced the British to close in and the slowly were defeated and turned away.  With no naval control of Lake Champlain, the British had to turn the invasion force back to Canada.
  65. 65. September 1814  On Sep 4th, Secretary of War John Armstrong after the burning of Washington resigns and James Monroe takes over his duties.  On Sep 12th, the Americans hold an assault on Mobile (Alabama).  The American slow down the British towards Baltimore with the Battle of North Point on Sep 12th. Battle of North Point
  66. 66. Battle of Baltimore (Sep 13-14, 1814)  After North Point, the British marched 4,300 troops towards Baltimore.  The Americans retreated to a defensive line just around the City of Baltimore. They had about 100 cannon and about 10,000 troops ready to defend.  The American defenses were more formidable than the British thought.  The British found a weakness on the right flank, but the higher command decided to have the troops got back on the British ships.  Ft. McHenry was the only thing stopping British ships from coming into Baltimore harbor. Also, the Americans sunk merchant ships to block the harbor.  The British bombarded Ft. McHenry for 27hrs. The fort held and the British decided to sail away.  A lawyer was onboard a British ship during the bombardment trying to rescue Dr. William Beanes. He saw the overnight bombing and woke the next day to see the fort still standing. Francis Scott Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner.
  67. 67. Battle of Baltimore
  68. 68. November 1814  Americans evacuate Fort Erie and bring the forces     back to Buffalo on Nov 5th. Maj Gen Jackson starts his defense of the South with the capture of Pensacola on Nov 7th. Jackson reinforces Mobile on Nov 11th. Jackson leaves to defend New Orleans on Nov 22nd. On Nov 25th, the British fleet leaves Jamaica for New Orleans.
  69. 69. Peace Treaty of Ghent (Dec 24, 1814)  After victories at the Battle of Plattsburg and holding      of Baltimore, the Americans gain some more leverage. The British want the end of the war, but still pressed to attack New Orleans for some more leverage. The Americans and British decide on terms. The borders remain the same as at the start of the war. All prisoners are released. British promise to return any slaves taken during the war (eventually just pay $1.2million for them).
  70. 70. Battle of New Orleans (Jan 8, 1815)  Maj Gen Jackson continued to set up earthworks and consolidated Regulars, Militia, Locals, Indians, and Pirates to defend New Orleans.  There was a British attack on Jan 1st that showed a weakness on Jackson’s left line, but British General Pakenham decided not to advance.  The British advanced on Jan 8th and marched straight at a highly reinforced line of earthworks.  At the end of the day, the British had 2,042 casualties: 291 killed (including Generals Pakenham and Gibbs), 1,267 wounded (including General Keane) and 484 captured or missing. The Americans had 71 casualties: 13 dead; 39 wounded, and 19 missing.  Jackson becomes a hero to America.  The Treaty of Ghent was signed two weeks earlier and neither side in New Orleans knew.
  71. 71. Battle of New Orleans
  72. 72. Outcomes of the War of 1812  The borders remained the same as when the war started      status quo ante bellum. The U.S. Navy grew and became a world recognized force. The Canadians held back the American advances and led towards their independence as their own nation. The indigenous Indian nations lost their claim to an independent nation and were eventually pushed out by the US government. The U.S. Army became an important force and a standing army was maintained including Winfield Scott making the US Military Academy one of the best in the world. Trade resumed to all nations in Europe that wanted to trade with the US.

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