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    Chacon future online_learn Chacon future online_learn Presentation Transcript

    • The Next Evolutionary Step in Online Learning Fabio Chacon, Ph D Chacon Ph.D.
    • Recent Evolution of Distance Education 1910- 1910-2010 Technology Dominant systems 1. Correspondence studies Postal system Photocopy machines 2. Prerecorded media Recording systems for audio and video 3. Two-way audio & graphics Computer network, software Television classroom 4. One-way video Broadcasting (cable, satellite) Telephone /Satellite TV array Telecommunication array, 5. Two-way audio & video network (leased telephone lines, ISDN, fiber optics, microwave) 6. Desktop/laptop communications Multimedia computer (camera, microphone), TCP-IP, high-speed network. World-wide access t resources hi h d t k W ld id to
    • Which of these media prevailed in DE?
    • General principles G l i i l  Technology has been the motor of change in distance education (DE)  Prior to d ti by DE, technologies h P i t adoption b DE t h l i where widely accepted in society  Many technologies were b i fl adopted and M t h l i briefly d t d d later discarded  “Survival” f technologies is determined b “S i l” of t h l i i d t i d by ecological laws
    • Which are some of these laws? (Shaw and Chacon, 2010)  Reduction of transactional distance  Equivalence  Industrialization  Convergence  Requisite variety (multimodality vs. single modality)
    • More recent technologies Technology Medium 9. E-Book Digitized book, approaching to multimedia Requires special reader Allows hypertext and search Increased use by e-learning programs 10. Mobile, hand-held devices Worldwide extended use Text, image and voice messaging Use of push technologies Capabilities near personal computer Mobile learning (on the go)
    • Emerging technology: immersive environments or virtual reality i t it l lit
    • Persona = Avatar P A t Plus  Gesture communication  Enhanced social presence p  Skills learning (incipient) Minus  Longer learning curve  Technical requirements  Communicational “noise”  Financial aspects
    • Virtual training environment
    • Ecological b i E l i l barriers = 101 / 10 = 101 / 10 pins = 101 / 2
    • Ecological b i E l i l barriers = noise/signal = asynchronous world y = mouse + keystrokes = mouse + keystrokes
    • ¿What is then an instructional medium? di ?  Device(s) able to transport and manipulate information in different formats  Enables user to perform operations with information (read, edit, store, create, etc.)  Physical form adapted to preferred use  Capabilities and standards converge across media  Physical differences become marginal to users
    • Human dimension (Palloff & Pratt): Virtual Learning Community (VCL) C Community = social group th t can b it i l that be distinguished from a category or conglomerate  Traditional concept = group with a territory base  Modern concept= group with diffuse limits, distributed in di t ib t d i a geographic space and with hi d ith capability for interaction
    • What is a virtual community? Wh t i it l it ?  Still a social group, with a sort of territory group  The territory is electronic/virtual so all intervening objects, processes and people are digitally represented  Virtual communities support and strengthen knowledge acquisition (Palloff and Pratt)  Three integrative forces: goals, interaction and common language g g
    • Communities in online courses C iti i li  Wheel-type interaction  Networked interaction  Low cohesion  High h i Hi h cohesion  Focus medium to high  High focus  Social learning p g prevails  Cognitive l C iti learning i  Frequent affective prevails elements  Occasional affective  Engagement, Engagement joy elements  Lingers on after the  Disappears with the course course Functionality Solidarity F. Chacón
    • Principles Pi i l  Learning community is difficult to achieve in a distance course  However, However it is one key factor of success  In the formation of the virtual community there are factors of:  Course organization  Instructor  Students  Learning Management System F. Chacon
    • WEB 2.0 How media contribute to the emergence of learning g g communities?
    • p podcasting g
    • wikis iki
    • social networking t ki
    • social bookmarking g
    • blogging
    • Criteria f S l ti C it i for Selecting Tools T l  Effectiveness  Availability  Cost  Convenience  Comfort  Learning/communication styles g y  “Culture” of the institution/locale
    • The digital divide
    • Congo - 2010 C Classroom for 125 students and one teacher
    • The great forces of change in DE at the beginning of the decade of the 2010 d d f h 2010s  Technology  Virtual communities Virt al comm nities  The new pedagogies Let us examine them, briefly y
    • Future Technology gy  The bandwidth is unlimited  The Th processing power is unlimited i i li it d  Computers will become more specialized  Personal media will be (more) embedded in everyday life  Converging: Operating systems, CMS / LMS, libraries, student information systems, etc.  Keywords: simplicity, integration and modularity  Learning systems are tailored to the user and not vice versa.
    • Future Communities  The community technologies around us are creating a new culture of learners g  Today students prefer to work in teams in peer- to-peer situations within a structured environment that affords a fair amount of flexibility  We are getting closer to a new apprenticeship era fostered by virtual communities  Universities and colleges must b ready f U i iti d ll t be d for “edgeless design”, recognizing that students belong to various communities of practice
    • An Example A E l Queensland University of Technology (Australia)
    • To what extent does technology and virtual t h l d it l communities change the nature of learning?
    • Inquiry-based How might technology Construction support active learning? Conceptual understanding C t l d t di Taking tests Inquiry-based education Problem-solving Constructivism Narrative Literacy Mediated learning Game authoring Discovery learning y g Techno computing skill-learning Techno-computing skill learning Learning as conversation Fieldwork Problem-based learning Communication Reflective practice Collaboration Learning identities Meta-cognition Conceptual networks Experiential learning Manipulation skills Learner-oriented approach Informal interests Social constructivism Self-worth Situated learning g Modelling Scenarios Evaluating evidence
    • Is there a change in the nature of learning? • what it takes to learn’ will not change • what is learned is changing • how it is learned is changing • technology makes more feasible the idea of learning as an active, interactive, adaptive, personalized, situated, collaborative process •Collaborative learning is social learning: modeling, vicarious reinforcement, enactive learning, self- efficay, self-regulation
    • Source:
    • The Th trends d  Large-scale Large scale programs  More than 100,000 students  Decentralized systems  Large investments in technology  Industrialized model predominant  There seems no growth limit
    • Source: ing.aspx
    • Example E l 2009: Top U.S. Higher Education Online Institutions by Enrollment Totals Institution 2009 Online Enrollment Online Enrollment Totals Growth from 2008 to 2009 University of Phoenix Online 310,400 22% Kaplan University 68,200 47% DeVry 56,300 26% Strayer University 54,300 25% American Public Education 53,600 49% Bridgepoint Education 45,500 101% Walden University 40,500 17% UMassOnline 40,000 18% Liberty University 36,200 15% Education Management 34,800 54% Capella Education 33,900 26% Grand Canyon Education 32,600 53% University of Maryland University 30,400 30 400 17% College Source: The Worldwide Market for Self-paced eLearning Products and Services: 2009- 2014 Forecast and Analysis , Ambient Insight, February 2010.
    • The trends  System Integration  Convergence between CMS / LMS, student information system and library support systems  There are still many gaps that indicate areas of Th till th t i di t f possible development  Rapid changes in technology and software make it difficult to integrate – e.g. mobile learning blues  The greater the integration, the lower the cost g g ,
    • The Trends  The standardization of courseware and learning objects  Goal: Integration of courses and free resources platform l tf  Achievement: Large repositories of learning objects (MERLOT MIT Open Courseware (MERLOT, Courseware, Ariadne, etc.).  SCORM standard emerges as more finished g
    • The trends  The market trend  Book publishers have great influence on how resources are used in distance courses  Competence makes the systems try to be more efficient (improved effectiveness/cost)  Large-scale operations force institutions to think the course as a product in all aspects  CMS/LMS are highly competitive and use tactics to "hook" the user
    • The trends  Mobile learning  Is becoming the new generation of distance education  Based on an enormous capacity for cellular and satellite networks spread across the world lli k d h ld  Communication devices and personal organization have become more sophisticated and replace the computer  This revolution is accompanied by new ways of delivering old media: e-book, pod cast, web cast, d l ld d b k d b text messaging and picture mail  Accelerated convergence has solved some technical problems
    • The trends  Globalization  Harmonization of degree levels is spreading g p g across the world  Several countries have become educational centers for the world: USA Canada, Australia, USA, Canada Australia India, South Africa ...  A small group of CMS/LMS has catapulted itself g p / p to the great majority of countries  Two major operating systems dominate the personal computer market with the possibility of a third (Linux)  English has become the lingua franca of global g g g education, followed by Spanish (Chinese is the most spoken)
    • Today's News: The College of 2020  It will certainly be a hybrid model  Offer of educational program is governed by the principle of convenience  Universities that have resisted eLearning will have to mutate or be minimized  Students expect to have access to content and activities through personal mobile devices  Colleges and universities must be ready to offer all possible options
    • Today’s News: The third p y phase of eLearning  Near monopoly of Blackboard Inc has caused a resurgence of open source d f software  Enrollment i online programs i growing E ll in li is i faster than HE in general (17% in the US in 2009)  The student-teacher interaction and student student student-student interaction in virtual environments are getting closer to real time  Sophisticated measurement tools enable a 360 º assessment of the student
    • The Th next evolutionary step t l ti t  The technology  Ubiquitous computing  Two or three devices supported instead of one  Seamless integration between devices  Asynchronous communication dominates  Convergence of three macro-systems: LMS, SIS and the Library  Integration with Web 2 technologies (more open)  C oud computing Cloud co pu g will e a ce co abo a o enhance collaboration
    • New Network Map Jonathan Mott (2010)
    • Networked services Jonathan Mott (2010)
    • The Th next evolutionary step t l ti t  The course  A branched structure rather than a sequence  Collaborative and experiential  Social-cognitive learning models prevail  Engagement and student retention is the key  Multiple resources available in multiple digital formats  Downloadable courses preferred to only web- based  Agents keep track of students and facilitate communications
    • The Th next evolutionary step t l ti t  The program/institution p g  Provisions to counteract the digital divide  Small footprint, large extension  Many tasks are outsourced  Tight interaction with publishers and open repositories  Multi-language programs and staff (prevalence of English, English Spanish and Chinese)  Student retention and graduation strategies in place  Catering multiple needs of students: connections to students’ lives, jobs, and communities
    • THE END