Science Book A: Chapter 3

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Science Book A: Chapter 3

  1. 1. Table of ContentsChapter: Cell ProcessesSection 1: Chemistry of LifeSection 2: Moving Cellular MaterialsSection 3: Energy for Life
  2. 2. Chemistry of Life1 The Nature of Matter• Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space.• Energy - anything that brings about change.
  3. 3. Chemistry in Life1 Atoms• Nucleus - center of atom • contains protons and neutrons (equal mass) • Proton (+) • Neutron ( ) • Electron (-) •orbits nucleus Click image to view movie.
  4. 4. Chemistry in Life1 Atoms• Electrons - involved in chemical reactions.• Atom - mostly empty space
  5. 5. Chemistry in Life1 Elements• Element • made of one kind of atom • in most simple form • each has a 1 or 2 letter symbol
  6. 6. Chemistry in Life1 Elements• Periodic table • Mass • # of Protons • Symbol
  7. 7. Chemistry in Life1 Elements
  8. 8. Chemistry in Life1 Compounds and Molecules• Compounds - made of two or more elements• There are two types of compounds— molecular compounds and ionic compounds.
  9. 9. Chemistry in Life1 Molecular Compounds• Molecular compound • Made of molecules held together by chemical bonds • Share outermost electrons • Have different properties than atoms alone
  10. 10. Chemistry in Life1 Molecular Compounds• Chemical reactions • chemical bonds break • atoms rearranged • new molecules form
  11. 11. Chemistry in Life1 Ions• Ions • Electrically charged atoms • Formed when atoms combine after becoming (+) or (-)
  12. 12. Chemistry in Life1 Ionic Compounds• Ionic Compound – molecule held together because of opposite charges attracting one another • One atom loses electron(s) • Another atom gains electron(s) • Their charge holds them together
  13. 13. Chemistry in Life 1 Mixtures• Mixture - combination of substances in which individual substances retain their own properties • Can be solids, liquids, gases, or any combination
  14. 14. Chemistry in Life1 Mixtures• Solution - 2 or more substances mixed evenly• Suspension • substance evenly spread throughout • Will sink to bottom after time
  15. 15. Chemistry in Life1 Organic Compounds• Organic Compounds • always contain carbon and hydrogen • usually are associated with living things.• Inorganic Compounds • make up nonliving things
  16. 16. Chemistry in Life1 Organic Compounds
  17. 17. Chemistry in Life1 Carbohydrates• Carbohydrates • organic molecules that supply energy for cell processes • Sugars and starches • Also part of cell structures
  18. 18. Chemistry in Life 1 Lipids• Lipids • do not mix with water • Fats and oils • Large amounts of energy • Part of cell membrane
  19. 19. Chemistry in Life1 Proteins• Proteins • made of amino acids • building blocks of cellular structure• Enzymes • Proteins that regulate chemical reactions
  20. 20. Chemistry in Life 1 Nucleic Acids• DNA • deoxyribonucleic acid • contains genetic material• RNA • ribonucleic acid • needed to make enzymes and proteins.
  21. 21. Chemistry in Life1 Inorganic Compounds• Can contain the elements nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur.
  22. 22. Chemistry in Life 1 Importance of Water• can live for weeks without food• only a few days without water.
  23. 23. Chemistry in Life1 Importance of Water• all the chemical reactions in living things take place in water solutions• most organisms use water to transport materials
  24. 24. Chemistry in Life1 Characteristics of Water• Negative part of a water molecule is attracted to the positive part of another water molecule
  25. 25. Chemistry in Life1 Characteristics of Water• temperature of water changes slowly• acts like insulation
  26. 26. Chemistry in Life1 Characteristics of Water• water freezes - ice crystals form• Ice floats – insulates water below
  27. 27. Section Check1 Question 1_______ is anything that has mass and takesup space. AnswerThe answer is Matter. Everything in yourenvironment is made of matter.
  28. 28. Section Check1 Question 2A(n) _______ is made up of only one kind ofatom. AnswerThe answer is element. An element can’t bebroken down into a simpler form by chemicalreactions.
  29. 29. Section Check1 Question 3Which best describesthe structure in thisillustration?A. atomB. elementC. molecular compoundD. ionic compound
  30. 30. Section Check1 AnswerThe answer is C. Molecular compounds formwhen different atoms share their outermostelectrons.
  31. 31. Moving Cellular Materials 2 Passive Transport• Cell’s membrane - selectively permeable • allows some things to enter or leave and keeps other things in or out
  32. 32. Moving Cellular Materials2 Passive Transport • Passive transport - movement of substances through the cell membrane without the use of energy• 3 Types • Diffusion • Osmosis • Facilitated diffusion
  33. 33. Moving Cellular Materials 2 Diffusion• Diffusion - movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration• Equilibrium – when molecules become concentrated equally in all areas
  34. 34. Moving Cellular Materials2 Osmosis—The Diffusion of Water• Osmosis - the diffusion of water through a cell membrane is called.
  35. 35. Moving Cellular Materials 2 Facilitated Diffusion• The movement of large molecules through a membrane with the help of transport proteins
  36. 36. Moving Cellular Materials 2 Active Transport• Active transport - energy is needed to move materials through a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
  37. 37. Moving Cellular Materials2 Endocytosis and Exocytosis• Endocytosis - process of taking substances into a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane
  38. 38. Moving Cellular Materials 2 Endocytosis and Exocytosis• Exocytosis - process of taking substances OUT of a cell by surrounding it with the cell membrane
  39. 39. Section Check2 Question 1What is diffusion? AnswerDiffusion is the type of passive transport inwhich molecules in a more dense arearandomly move to an area that is less denseuntil equilibrium is reached.
  40. 40. Section Check2 Question 2_______ is the diffusion of water through acell membrane. AnswerThe answer is osmosis. Cells contain waterand are surrounded by water. These watermolecules move by diffusion into and out ofcells.
  41. 41. Section Check2 Question 3Which carries oxygen throughout your body?A. red blood cellsB. white blood cellsC. sex cellsD. none of the above
  42. 42. Section Check2 AnswerThe answer is A. Oxygen molecules from thelungs diffuse into red blood cells which carryoxygen throughout your body.
  43. 43. Energy for Life 3 Trapping and Using Energy• Metabolism - The total of all chemical reactions in an organism is called.
  44. 44. Energy for Life 3 Trapping and Using Energy• Enzymes • Cause chemical reactions • Can be used over and over Click image to view movie.
  45. 45. Energy for Life3 Photosynthesis• Producers - Organisms that make their own• Consumers - Organisms that cannot make their own food
  46. 46. Energy for Life 3 Photosynthesis• Photosynthesis uses light energy to make sugars (chemical energy), which can be used as food. • Chlorophyll – green pigment found in chloroplasts that performs photosynthesis
  47. 47. Energy for Life3
  48. 48. Energy for Life3 Storing Carbohydrates• Excess sugar made is stored as starches or other carbohydrates
  49. 49. Energy for Life3 Respiration• Cellular respiration – changes chemical energy into useable energy • Movement, heat, etc. • Requires oxygen
  50. 50. Energy for Life3 Breaking Down Carbohydrates• Carbohydrates  Glucose  Useable energyCellular Respiration:
  51. 51. Energy for Life3
  52. 52. Energy for Life 3 Fermentation• Fermentation – releases smaller amount of energy when oxygen is not present • Occurs only in cytoplasm (not mitochondria)
  53. 53. Section Check3 Question 1_______ is the total of all chemical reactionsin an organism. AnswerThe answer is metabolism. All of theactivities of an organism involve chemicalreactions in some way.
  54. 54. Section Check3 Question 2Which does this equation represent?A. respiration C. photosynthesisB. fermentation D. chemosynthesis
  55. 55. Section Check3 AnswerThe answer is C. During photosynthesis, plantstake in carbon dioxide and water and combineit with light energy to make sugars, which theyuse for food.
  56. 56. Section Check3 Question 3_______ is the type of food molecules mosteasily broken down by cells. AnswerThe answer is carbohydrates. Ascarbohydrates are broken down, energy isreleased.
  57. 57. HelpTo advance to the next item or next page click on anyof the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down orforward arrow.Click on this icon to return to the table of contentsClick on this icon to return to the previous slideClick on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.
  58. 58. End of Chapter Summary File

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