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  • 1. Plant Reproduction Click to Enter ClickBiology
  • 2. INSTRUCTIONS • Ensure that you complete all activities and worksheets when instructed to do so. The pad icon will indicate when you should fill in your worksheet. • Work your way through the presentation by clicking on the background to move to the next page or to activate an animation. The mouse icon will indicate that a click will activate an animation or require buttons to be pressed in the quizzes. • You can navigate around the presentation by using the arrow links that appear when you place your cursor on the lower left hand part of the screen. • Some slides have embedded movies which will start when you click on the image. The video camera symbol tells you when a movie is available. There is sound so you may want to wear headphones if people are working near you.ClickBiology • You can return to the home page by clicking on the clickbiology icon. • At the end of the module there is a test that will provide a results page which you will print off and hand in to your teacher. • The speaker symbol means that there are some audio explanation available for the slide ClickBiology
  • 3. Plant Reproduction Home Page1 4 Flower structure Seed dispersal2 5 Pollination Germination3 6 Fruit development Test ClickBiology
  • 4. Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 5. Click image to view a video on plant reproduction If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://vimeo.com/1594037?pg=embed&sec=1594037 ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 6. Use the diagram below to complete the labels on the flower structure worksheet stigma antherstamen style carpel filament ovary ovule petal sepal receptacle peduncle ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 7. Complete the functions table by clicking on the labels to discover their functions stigma antherstamen style carpel filament ovary ovule petal sepal receptacle peduncle ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 8. Flower Structure Quiz Click the correct answer• What is the name of the structure labelled X in the diagram? carpel sepal X stamen peduncle ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 9. Flower Structure Quiz• Where is pollen made? stigma sepal anther ovary ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 10. Flower Structure Quiz• Where is the ovule found in a flower? petals style nectary ovary ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 11. Flower Structure Quiz• Which parts of the flower are labelled below: X X = style, Y = stigma X = filament, Y = anther Y X = stigma, Y = style X = anther, Y = filament ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 12. PollinationThe pollen grain contains the male sex cell (gamete) ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 13. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the antherto the stigma Click to view the animation• This is an example of cross-pollination as the pollen travels from one flower to a different flower. This is desirable in plants as it promotes variation. ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 14. Pollen can be carried between flowers by insects or by wind • Use the information in the next two slides to complete the table comparing the adaptations of wind and insect pollinated flowers. ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 15. Insect-pollinated flowers are adapted to attract insects to them to enable transfer of pollen Pollen has barbs for nectar and a hooking onto scent present insect fur Anthers positioned to rub pollen onto insectsSticky stigmato collect pollen Brightly coloured petals ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 16. Wind-pollinated flowers are different in structure because they do not have to attract insects to them but do need to be exposed to the wind.Pollen grains are very Anthers are exposed to thesmall and light. They wind so that pollen canoccur in very large easily be blown awaynumbers Stigma are feathery to catch pollen carried on wind Petals are small and green as there is no No scent or nectary need to attract insects ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 17. Self-pollination occurs when pollen falls from the anther onto the stigma of the same flower • Click to show animation of self- pollination • Self-pollination is not desirable as it reduces variation ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 18. Flowers will prevent self-pollination by either having stigma above stamen or… ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 19. …by having stamen and stigma mature at different times.• Complete the sections in your worksheet describing self- pollination and cross-pollination. Explain the mechanisms employed by plants to prevent self-pollination. ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 20. Click on the icons below to view the summary videos on pollination If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste Pollination (9 minutes) this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bZ3J4UWwd2Q If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you canInsect pollination (1 minute) watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ge3EM8AERV0 ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 21. Pollination Quiz Click the correct answer• Pollination is the transfer from….? the stigma to anther style to stamen ovule to filament anther to stigma ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 22. Pollination Quiz• The two mechanisms for pollination are? Wind and water Insect and wind Insect and water Wind and birds ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 23. Pollination Quiz• Cross-pollination… Increases variation Decreases variation Is only performed by insects Is only performed by wind ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 24. Pollination Quiz• Flowers are adapted for wind-pollination by… Having bright petals and a scent Having a nectary Having feathery stigmas Having sticky stigmas ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 25. Fertilisation and Fruit Development ClickBiologyFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 26. Once pollination occurs a tube grows from thepollen grain down through the style to the ovule stigma style carpel ovary Click to view the ovule animation Note: Petals not shown in order to simplify diagram ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 27. Fertilisation occurs when the male gamete fuses with the ovule (the female gamete) Click to view the Complete the animation fertilisation section of the worksheet (you will need to refer to your text book) ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 28. Watch this short introductory video to review fertilisation (1 minute) If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a new browser window and you can watch the video then, url: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pVhH2GPlckE ClickBiology
  • 29. Seed Dispersal ClickBiologyFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 30. Watch the video on seed dispersal (lasts just under 10 minutes)If the hyperlink does not work then copy and paste this url into a newbrowser window and you can watch the video then, url:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbQ1jWl3AOM ClickBiology
  • 31. After fertilisation the petals, stamen and sepals fall off.The ovule turns into a seed, the fertilised egg insidedevelops into an embryo plant. Cotyledon:Testa: Food storetough seed coat Plumule:Micropyle: Embryo shootHole made by Embryopollen tube plant Radicle: Embryo root ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 32. Water leaves the seed, it dehydrates and becomesdormant because metabolic reactions stop.The ovary develops to become a fruit. Fleshy wall seed of the ovary (yes, you are eating an adapted ovary when you crunch into an apple! ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 33. Seeds need to be dispersed away from the parentplant in order to reduce competition for space,light, nutrients and water.• Seeds can be dispersed by:• Wind• Water• Mechanical• Animals Fill in the worksheet on the reasons and mechanisms for seed dispersal ClickBiology
  • 34. Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer• Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture water mechanical wind animal ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 35. Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer• Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture mechanical animal water wind ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 36. Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer• Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture water wind animal mechanical ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 37. Seed dispersal quiz Click the correct answer• Which mechanism for dispersal is used by the seed shown in the picture animal mechanical water wind ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fertilisation Seed Dispersal Germination Test
  • 38. Germination ClickBiologyFlower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 39. The seed contains the embryo plant and cotyledons (starch stores) Testa Water enters the seed through the micropyle and activates enzymes. Plumule(embryo shoot) The water also softens the testa to allow it to split. Radicle(embryo root) Label the diagram of the seed Micropyle Cotyledon ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 40. Enzymes are used in seed germination Plumule The enzymes break starch down into starch maltose and then glucose. The glucose is used in respiration amylase to provide energy for secretedembryo plant growth ab so rbe d maltose RadicleThis is the first part to grow out of theseed as it needs toabsorb more water ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 41. Whilst germinating the plant uses food stores in the cotyledon to provide energy for growthlight The seedling can now photosynthesise and make its own food germination Plant growth and development soil ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 42. Changes in dry mass of the germinating seed: Answer the Click to Seed loses weight as it uses listen to an question on the up starch stores in the explanation worksheet cotyledons as the seedling cannot photosynthesise yet Dry mass/g Weight increases as the seedling can photosynthesise and Dry mass is the plant grows mass of solid matter with all water removed Days ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 43. Conditions required for germination Summarise the findings of the experiment shown below:Click tolisten to an Pyrogallol (absorbs oxygen) No lightexplanation Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen Oxygen present present present present No oxygen moist dry moist moist moist 4oC Warm Warm Warm Warm A B C D E ClickBiology Flower Structure Pollination Fruit Development Seed Dispersal Germination
  • 44. ENDwww.clickbiology.com ClickBiology