5 Types of Autism Spectrum Disorders


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5 Types of Autism Spectrum Disorders

  1. 1. Photo Courtesy of BubblesMakeHimSmile.com By Carmen Chau
  2. 2. ASPERGER’S DISORDER  Most common type of Autism .  Usually misdiagnosed as Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD).  Children are unskilled in communication and any type of social interaction.  Carry repetitive motions and are fixated on patterns of all types.  Often clumsy due to their under developed motor skills.Photo Courtesy of helpingpsychology.com  They carry a talent that they focus specifically on and are thought to be very skilled at.  It is claimed that Albert Einstein may have carried this characteristic.
  3. 3. KANNER’S SYNDROME  Known as the “Classic Autistic Disorder.”  Named after Dr. Leo Kanner who described and studied it in the 1930s – 40s.  Carry very limited emotional connection with anyone.  Very routine-based – wants everything to be the same including: clothing, food, music, and TV shows.  Deeply affected by noise, bright lights and smells.  Generally considered to be low-functioning, but how well their mind works is unknown due to their poor social and communication skills. Dr. Leo KannerPhoto Courtesy of www.autismuk.com
  4. 4. PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDER – NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFICIED (PDD-NOS)  Used to describe children who have most of the same symptoms as classic autism.  They require the same interventions and treatments.  Differences between PDD-NOS and autism are minor. Only doctors and researchers are able to differentiate.Photo Courtesy of Center for Autism Spectrum Disorders – www.casd.binghamton.edu
  5. 5. RETT’S SYNDROME  Rare type of autism and appears to only happen to girls.  First discovered by Dr. Rett.  Patients often have muscle atrophy and carry repetitive hand motions.  Very low-functioning and will require care for most of their lives.  This type of autism has been diagnosed since the 60s, but in the 1990s, the gene that was said to have caused this condition was found.Photo Courtesy of Civitan International Research Center – www.circ-uab.information.com
  6. 6. CHILDHOOD DISINTEGRATIVE DISORDER  Very rare and strikes children who appear to have normal development from birth.  Changes usually take place between 2-4 years of age.  Do not potty train, will lose the ability to interact with other children and will lose interest in play.  They will regress and eventually lose the motor skills they had once mastered.  Communication skills will disappear and will even stop talking at one point.Photo Courtesy of www.special-needs.families.com
  7. 7. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION: AGE OF SKILL LOSS FROM ASDThis chart displays the regression of the age at their skill loss due to Autism Spectrum Disorder. It is evident that thetype of disorder was not a factor given that the majority of them had lost their skills between 13 and 18 months of age.Some parents were even reporting loss of skills after their child reached 36 months of age. According to theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, (DSM-IV), children with an autism diagnosis aresupposed to have shown symptoms before age 36 months. (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Furthermore,regression was said to have taken place frequently during the toddler years. Photo Courtesy of Interactive Autism Network (IAN Community) - http://www.iancommunity.org/cs/ian_research_reports/ian_research_report_jun_2008