Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
FYN Principle #7 - Recycle
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

FYN Principle #7 - Recycle

1,010

Published on

FYN Principle #7: …

FYN Principle #7:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,010
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
44
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • Transcript

    • 1. Recycle Yard Waste Why Recycle? Yard Waste Define Uses Recycled Mulch Recycled Grass Composting at Home Assembling Pile Materials to Use/Avoid Maintaining Pile Harvesting Pile Earthworm Farming Author: Rebecca McNair Edited by: Allison Steele
    • 2. Why Recycle?
      • Retains the nutrients in your landscape
      • Saves money on fertilizer, mulch and waste disposal
      • Florida law prohibits disposal of yard waste in lined landfills
    • 3. The Legal Definition
      • Yard trash is defined by the 1988 Florida Solid Waste Management Act as “vegetative matter resulting from landscape maintenance and land clearing operations.” It includes…
        • Tree and shrub trimmings
        • Leaves and palm fronds
        • Grass
        • Stumps
    • 4. Florida’s Municipal Waste Stream in 1998 (FDEP Solid Waste Report, 2000) Landfilled 56% Combusted 16% Recycled 28% In 1998, yard waste made up 12% of the municipal waste stream, or 3.5 million tons.
    • 5. Recycling Solutions
      • Overview:
      • Mulching
      • “ Grasscycling”
      • Composting
      • Earthworm farming
    • 6. Recycled Mulch
      • Choose by-product alternatives such as Melaleuca mulch:
        • Harvested from invasive plant stands
        • Reduces destruction of natural wetland areas in Florida
        • Slow decomposition
        • Suppresses weeds
        • Not eaten by termites
    • 7. Yard Waste = Mulch= $
      • Leaves and pine needles can remain under trees for a “self mulching” area
        • Cost of one bag Pine Nuggets = $3.00
        • Reducing garbage, Priceless!
    • 8. Utility Mulch
      • Many municipalities offer free utility mulch
      • A by-product of pruning trees near power lines
      • Be aware of variable quality and consistency
      • You may need to partially compost to kill any weeds, seeds, or insect pests
    • 9. Grasscycling
      • Grass clippings can be left on the lawn
        • Saves money- This is equivalent to about one fertilizer application per year!
        • Saves time
      • Remove only 1/3 of the grass blade
        • Grasscycling does not result in thatch build-up. Thatch is stem and root overgrowth caused by over-fertilization and over-watering .
    • 10. Composting
      • Disposes of food and yard wastes through natural processes
      • Enhances the soil on your property
      • Releases essential elements to plants
    • 11. What is Compost?
      • Rich, black, sweet-smelling, crumbly, soil-like substance comprised of decomposed organic matter
    • 12. Composting at Home
      • Overview:
      • Selecting a Location
      • Choosing a Container
      • Assembling the Pile
      • Maintaining the Pile
      • Harvesting Finished Compost
    • 13.
      • Level ground
      • Well-drained surface
      • Near a source of water
      • At least 2 feet from any structure
      • Close to source of materials
      Selecting A Location
    • 14. Choosing A Container
      • Pile method
      • Bin
    • 15. Pile Method
      • No container is used; organic materials are simply mounded in a pile
      A layer of soil, leaves, or finished compost on top of fresh kitchen wastes will help deter pests.
    • 16. Compost Bins
      • Purchase a compost bin or build your own. Consider:
      • Appearance
      • Size- at least 1 cubic yard
      • Accessibility- to add materials and remove finished compost
      • Ability to mix materials inside
      • Creature access
    • 17. A bin is not necessary, but useful for deterring pests and keeping the pile neat.
    • 18. Compost Happens
      • Microorganisms (microbes) initiate decomposition under favorable environmental conditions. They need:
        • Food
        • Oxygen
        • Moisture
        • Temperature
    • 19. Assembling the Pile
      • For faster decomposition, follow these steps:
        • Put twigs or small branches on the bottom of the pile to allow air to circulate
        • Layer materials, alternating nitrogen and carbon layers
        • End with a carbon layer
        • Add water to moisten, not soak
    • 20. “ Browns”
      • Carbon-rich materials
      • Energy source for microbes
      • Typically low in moisture
      • Degrade slowly
      • Bulky materials help aerate
      • May cause nitrogen deficiencies in plants
        • If insufficient nitrogen is present for microbial breakdown
    • 21. “ Greens”
      • Nitrogen-rich materials
      • Microbes use for protein synthesis and reproduction
      • High moisture content
      • Degrade rapidly
      • Compact easily
      • Can be a source of foul odors
    • 22. Compostable Materials
      • Nitrogen-Rich
      • Grass clippings
      • Manure
      • Vegetable food scraps
      • Coffee grounds
      • Hair
      • Carbon-Rich
      • Straw
      • Shredded branches
      • Uncolored Paper
      • Pine needles
      • Leaves
    • 23. C:N Ratios
      • The carbon to nitrogen ratio determines the decomposition rate of organic materials
        • Grass clippings ~ 20:1
        • Fruit waste ~ 35 :1
        • Leaves ~ 60 :1
        • Straw ~ 100 :1
        • Wood ~ 600 :1
      • 30:1 is ideal, obtained by adding one part browns to one part greens
      S LOW RAPID
    • 24. Particle Size
      • Size of particles also affect the rate of decomposition
        • Break twigs and small branches
        • Shred newspaper and palm fronds
        • Grind stumps
        • Coarsely chop larger pieces of vegetable matter
    • 25. Materials to Avoid
      • Do NOT add:
        • Meat or dairy products
        • Oils or mayonnaise
        • Plants recently treated with pesticides
        • Seed-laden weeds
        • Pressure treated wood
      Animal products create odor problems and attract pests.
    • 26. Provide Oxygen
      • Without oxygen (anaerobic conditions), microbes produce foul smelling compounds
        • Alcohols and organic acids that are detrimental to plants
        • Referred to as “sour”
      • Incorporate bulky materials like twigs, pine needles, wood chips and straw to provide air space
      • Turn pile immediately if odor is detected
    • 27. Provide Moisture
      • Microbes need moisture for their bodies
      • Water pile when needed
        • 45% ~ 65% moisture content
        • “ Squeeze test” -Squeeze compost in your hand: moisture should coat your hand, but not drip
      • To lower moisture content:
        • Protect from heavy rains
        • Add dry material and turn pile
    • 28. Temperature
      • The metabolic activity of microbes will raise the temperature of the compost
        • This kills weed seeds and pathogens
        • A critical mass is needed, ideal pile size is 3 ft. x 3 ft. x 3 ft.
      • Microbes can survive a range of temperatures, but an optimal temperature for decomposition is about 125º F
        • Microbial activity starts to decline around 130 º F
    • 29. Maintaining the Pile
      • Turn pile occasionally
        • Breaks up materials
        • Increases rate of decomposition
        • Exposes weed seeds, insect larvae, and pathogens to lethal temperatures in the core of the pile
      • Add “greens” to the center of the pile
      • Pile “browns on top, or layer with fresh “greens” in the center
    • 30. Factors Affecting Decomposition Rates:
        • Presence of microorganisms
        • Oxygen
        • Moisture
        • Temperature
        • Type of materials
        • Particle size
        • Size of the pile
        • Frequency of turning
      Review
    • 31. Harvest Compost
      • Collect mature compost when it is dark, soil-like, and earthy smelling
      • Screen compost
      • Remove larger pieces and return those to the compost pile
    • 32. Use Compost
      • Apply to plant beds as a soil amendment
      • Use as mulch
      • Blend with sand, peat, and perlite for a potting media
      Layer 1”-2” of compost underneath decorative mulch to save money and improve soil fertility.
    • 33. Vermiculture - Earthworm Farming
      • Red wigglers, Eisenia foetida and brown-nose worms, Lumbricus rubellas recycle thin layers of food scraps and paper
        • Worms eat decaying food and paper
        • Excrete castings, rich in nutrients
        • Temperatures lower than compost pile
    • 34. Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
      • Fact Sheet AE 23: Construction of Home Compost Units
      • SL 114: Converting Yard Waste into Landscaping Assets
      • Circular 958: Backyard Composting of Yard Waste
      • Circular 455: Earthworm Biology and Production
      • Circular 1053: Culture of Earthworms for Bait or Fish Food
    • 35.
      • The following presentation was made possible through a grant from FL DEP and EPA. Special thanks to the following reviewers for their valued contributions:
        • FL114 ELM Design Team and the FYN Subcommittee
        • Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, UF
        • Agriculture Education and Communication Department
        • Environmental Horticulture Department
        • Entomology and Nematology Department
        • Soil and Water Sciences Department
        • Florida Cooperative Extension Service in: Alachua, Broward, Clay, Hillsborough, Lake, Miami-Dade, Orange, Pinellas, Sarasota, and Volusia Counties
        • Florida Organics Recycling Center for Excellence
        • The Center For Wetlands, UF
        • United States Department of Agriculture
        • FL Department of Agriculture and Consumer Sciences: Division of Plant Industry
      Thanks for your attention!

    ×