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FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly
 

FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly

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FYN Principle #6:

FYN Principle #6:
Right Plant, Right Place

Rebecca McNair & Allison Steele
Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program
http://charlotte.ifas.ufl.edu

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FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly FYN Principle #6 - Control Yard Pests Responsibly Presentation Transcript

  • Control Yard Pests Responsibly Introduction Pests Define Identify Integrated Pest Management Prevention Cultural Biological Chemical Physical Attracting Beneficials Author: Rebecca McNair Edited By: Allison Steele
  • Cycle of Pesticide Dependency
    • Many chemical pesticides are broad spectrum, killing not only target pests but also beneficial organisms that serve as natural pest control systems.
    • NO natural controls
    Indiscriminate mortality- pests and beneficials Dependence on chemical pesticides
  •                             In the days following a pesticide treatment, pests reproduce faster than predatory insects. By killing off beneficial insects, pest populations flourish. After Thomas Weissling
  • Tolerance
    • Some damage to plants is natural. Don’t strive for a pest free yard; instead, decide on a realistic threshold of damage.
  • What is a Pest, really?
    • Pest - plant, animal, or other organism that is out of place
      • Diseases, Weeds, Insects, Reptiles, Mammals, Arthropods
      • Of all insect species in the world, less than 1 % are considered pests
    Am I a Pest? This depends on where I am feeding, in the yard or the butterfly garden.
  • Scale Aphids Mealybugs Whiteflies
  • Spider mites Nematodes Thrips
  • Plant Diseases
    • Disease occurs when an agent impairs the necessary functions of a plant
    Plant Environment Pathogen
  • Leaf Spots
    • Algal, bacterial or fungal pathogens
    • Enters through injured tissues
    • Spread by splashing water, and insects
  • Root Rot
    • Poor growth, thinning canopy
    • Yellowing and leaf drop
    • Branch or plant death
    • Roots dark and rotted, strip off easily
    • Due to excessive soil moisture
      • Poor drainage
      • Over-watering
      • Planting too deep
      • Shallow rooting
  • Environmental Stresses
    • Drought
    • Nutrient deficiency
    • Variations in pH
    • Mechanical damage
    • Cold damage
    • Excessive water or fertilizer
    Many environmental effects are mistakenly treated as pest problems. Herbicides injured this tomato plant.
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
    • IPM is the coordinated use of pest and environmental information and available pest control methods
    • To prevent unacceptable levels of pest damage by the most economical means
    • With the least possible hazard to people, property and the environment
  • Principles of IPM
    • Sustainable
    • Prevention
    • Cultural Practices
    • Biological Methods
    • Physical Methods
    • Chemical Methods
    After Dr. Norman Leppla -using a resource so that the resource is not depleted or permanently damaged
  • Prevention
    • Our most sustainable pest control method involves avoiding the introduction of pests (into our country, state or yard).
    • Buy pest-free plants
    • Select plants adapted to your yard
    • Select resistant varieties
    • Avoid notoriously problematic plants
    • Properly install and maintain plants
  • Key Plant, Key Pest Some key plants are likely to be infested by key pests. For example, Azaleas are commonly infested by lacebugs, particularly if the azalea is planted in a sunny location.
  • Scouting
    • Monitor plants routinely to aid in early detection of an insect, disease, or other problem. Look for:
    • Favorable conditions for pests
    • Signs and symptoms of pests
      • The pests
      • Damage to plant
        • Leaf spot, leaf curl, feeding
      • Frass- insect excretions
    • Presence of natural enemies
  • Cultural Practices
    • We can also avoid problems with insects and diseases through proper design, installation, and maintenance.
    Stressed plants are more susceptible to attack, like the Chinese Elm with crowded roots shown here.
  • Water Wisely
    • Water during the early morning, when leaves are already wet
    • Avoid overhead irrigation of woody ornamentals
    Many foliar diseases gain entry into plants through the water remaining on leaves.
  • Biological Control
    • The use of living organisms to control pests
    Lady beetles and their larvae feed on aphids and other soft bodied insects. They are commercially available in bulk.
    • Predators
    • Parasites
    • Pathogens
  • Attract Beneficial Insects by:
    • Not using harmful pesticides
    • Providing food
      • Nectar and pollen
      • Plant diversity
    • Providing shelter
      • Enhance vertical layers
  • Food for Thought
    • Many herbs and fragrant flowering plants attract natural enemies
    • Gaillardia
    • Milkweeds
    • Goldenrod
    • Echinacea
    • Sunflower
    • Clover
    • Cilantro
    • Dill
    • Fennel
    • Mustards
    Clover also fixes atmospheric nitrogen into a form available to other plants.
  • As A Last Resort….
    • Sometimes, major pest damage reaches a level that is unacceptable to the observer. When all previous management efforts have been ineffective, individuals may wish to apply:
    • Physical methods
    These are the least sustainable methods discussed because they are labor intensive, and often require repeated treatments.
    • Chemical methods
  • Physical Management
    • Remove pests by hand
    • Remove infested parts
    • Establish barriers to prevent pest access to plants
    Yellow sticky paper attracts whiteflies and other insects. These traps help to monitor pest populations in greenhouses.
  • Chemicals
    • Choose least harmful pesticides
      • Use selective pesticides rather than broad spectrum killers
    • Spot treat where pests are abundant, rather than the entire yard
    • Horticultural oils
    • Follow pesticide label instructions carefully
  • Management Strategies
    • “ Sap Suckers”- (aphids, soft scales, mealybugs, whiteflies, spider mites)
      • Biological controls
      • Soaps and oils
    • Caterpillars-
      • Bt
    • Plant Chewers- (grasshoppers, beetles, leaf miners)
      • Use a proper insecticide if damage warrants action
    Insect
  • Management Strategies
    • Leaf Spots-
      • Avoid overhead irrigation
      • Improve air circulation
      • Sanitize- remove infected plant parts to avoid reinfection
    • Stem Cankers/ Stem rots-
      • Change watering and pruning practices
    • Root rots-
      • Change watering practices
      • Remove infected plant and roots
    • Wilt-
      • Remove infected plant
    Disease
  • For More Information on
    • Visit: http://biocontrol.ifas.ufl.edu
    • Features: Newsletters, presentations, news releases, photo galleries, tutorials, videos, training, publications, diagnostic clinic, listserv, links and more!
  • Further Reading http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu
    • ENY 298 Landscape Integrated Pest Management
    • ENY-276 Beneficial Insects and Mites
    • CIR 642 Homeowners' Guide to Pesticide Safety
    • ENY 292 What’s Bugging Me
    • WEC-20 Dealing with Unwanted Wildlife in an Urban Environment
    • PDMG-V1-01 Characteristics of Plant Disease