Air to Water Low Temperature Heat Pump


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Air to Water Low Temperature Heat Pump

  1. 1. Air to Water Heat PumpIntroduction<br />
  2. 2. Air to Water Heat Pump<br />Split System<br />Monobloc<br />DHW<br />Solar Thermal<br />
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  5. 5. Introduce an electric hydronic system that heats and cools the space, and can supply domestic hot water.Eco-efficient air-to-water heat pump hydronic system.Introduced in Europe in 2005, a unique combination using existing technology.<br />
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  19. 19. Table of Contents<br /><ul><li> 1. Introduction to ATW Heat Pump
  20. 20. 2. System Layout and Applications
  21. 21. 3. Balance Point Strategies
  22. 22. 4. Programming for Energy Savings</li></li></ul><li>Drivers to a Changing Heating Market<br />The Heating Market is Changing<br />Energy prices : ever rising prices of fossil fuels due to increasing demand and reduced availability<br />Ecological concern : efforts to reduce emmissions of green house gases and energy consumption<br />Changing legislations, incentives : to support the drive towards major changes in energy consumption habits for the purpose of achieving ecological targets in an effort to slow down, stop or even reverse climate change.<br />
  23. 23. WithDAIKIN ALTHERMA product, DAIKIN has entered the true HEATING market<br /><Initial U.S.Target market><br />In 2006 DAIKIN entered the EU-heating market using an air to water heatpump<br />In 2009, Daikin AC will launch this technology in the U.S<br />Hydronic Heat Common<br />Hybrid Altherma or G/F<br />Rebate Opportunities<br />Heat Pump acceptable<br />Cheap Electricity<br />Rebate Opportunities<br />NW<br />Cold Region<br />1.Savings on running costs by high COP <br /> compared with Gas/Oil boilers<br />2. Friendly for the environment<br />3.Differentiation with cooling function against boilers<br />NE<br />NW<br />Product differention<br />Water heating market<br />Heat source market:<br />DAIKIN original strategy:<br />1<br />Savings on running costs<br />30 to 50°C86 to 122°F<br />Enter the LOW temperature heating market by development of an HFC-based H/P<br />Mainly new houses<br />-40% compared to fuel boilers-25% compared to gas boilers<br />Low temp:<br />2009<br />2<br />Floor heating<br />Environmently friendly<br />60 % savings on CO2-emissions<br />Capitalize on initial product scope to strengthen opportunity in wider heat pump market with HT solutions<br />Easy installation<br />3<br />50 to 80°C122 to 176°F<br />Enter the HIGH temperature heating market by using a Cascade System (R-410A to R-134). Orignally a CO2-based H/P was going to be used. Issues with high operating pressures ruled this option out at this time. <br />Mainly refurbishment<br />High Temp.:<br /><ul><li> No need for chimney- No need for fuel storage tank- No need for connection to gas supply</li></ul>2010<br />Radiator<br />
  24. 24. Selection conditions<br /> <br />Typical conditions for the heating LWT are:<br /> <br />86 to 95°F (at design conditions) for floor heating<br />86 to 113°F (at design conditions) for fan coil units and<br />104 to 122°F (at design conditions) for low temperature radiators<br /> <br />Typical conditions for cooling LWT are:<br /> <br />41 to 71°F (at design conditions) for fan coil unit<br /> <br />
  25. 25. Why an ATW Heat Pump<br />“All-thermal” functions embedded: heating, domestic hot water, cooling = all year comfort<br />Or<br />“Alternative thermal” system, friendly for the environment, using renewable energy sources<br />3 functions:<br />Unique concept in the EU market<br />cooling<br />Domestic hot water<br />heating<br />Main product functions<br />TOTAL CONCEPT FOR CLIMATE CONTROL IN RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS<br />
  26. 26. Benefits for the End-User<br />General<br />Only one energy supply needed (single invoice)<br />Comfortable heating system<br />Compared to gas/oil<br />No risk for gas or oil leaks, no risk for CO contamination<br />Improved installation possibilities (no combustion ventilation, no combustion exhaust gas evacuation, no oil storage)<br />Possibility of cooling<br />Compared to direct electrical heating<br />Efficiency 2 to 4 times higher<br />More capacity available for same power input<br />Compared to geothermal heat pumps<br />No expensive drilling or excavation works, small installation footprint outdoors<br />
  27. 27. ATW Heat Pump Overview<br />
  28. 28. Daikin Altherma™ - THE 3 IN 1 GUARANTEE – FOR ABSOLUTE COMFORT<br />Daikin Altherma™ is a unigue system that heats, produces domestic hot water and can even cool spaces. Altherma™ offers maximum year round comfort.<br />The air/water heat pump is an interesting alternative for classic gas or fuel oil heating that offer unique benefits:<br /><ul><li>Uses renewable energy sources (extracts heat from outside air)
  29. 29. Delivers considerable savings in energy costs
  30. 30. Delivers a significant contribution in the fight against CO2 emissions
  31. 31. Provide heating, cooling and domestic hot water</li></ul>User Interface<br />Room Thermostat<br />Outdoor Heat Pump<br />Indoor Unit (Hydro Box)<br />Solar Kit<br />Domestic Hot Water Tank<br />
  32. 32. Daikin Altherma Split Type Overview<br />Ideal concept for a new house<br />HYBRID system in combination with ALTHERMA<br />120 to 180 m²1292 to 1938 ft²<br />Size of house: <br />Domestic hot water tank<br />Stainless steel3 sizes: 150, 200, 300 l(40, 53, 79 gallon)<br />HE / CO<br />Solar Kit<br />HE / (CO) (*)<br />(*) floor cooling has limited capacity (approx 20 W/m²)<br />Solar kit = interface between solar panel and Altherma domestic hot water tank<br />Floor heating<br />Water temp: 30~35°C~40 86~95°F~104<br />Hydro-Box<br />Domestic Hot Water Tank<br />Outdoor Unit<br />blank<br />
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  34. 34. Daikin Altherma LT Monobloc Overview<br />Solar collectors<br />Room thermostat<br />Fan coil unit<br />LT radiator<br />Under floor heating<br />Outdoor unit<br />Domestic hot water tank<br />
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  36. 36. Comparison LT Split – LT Monobloc<br />
  37. 37. Heating mode<br />Cooling mode<br />T ambient<br />T ambient<br />77°F/25°C<br />109°F/43°C<br />-4°F/-20°C<br />59°F/15°C<br />Hydrobox Leaving Water Temperature<br />77°F/25°C<br />122°F/50°C<br />45°F/7°C<br />68°F/20°C<br />Sanitary mode<br />T ambient<br />Booster<br />heater<br />109°F/43°C<br />95°F/35°C<br />-4°F/-20°C<br />77°F/25°C<br />194°F/90°C<br />122°F/50°C<br />Hydrobox Leaving Water Temperature<br />Sanitary Tank Outlet Temperature<br />Operating range<br />
  38. 38. Booster<br />Heater<br />Sensor<br />Heat Exchanger<br />Domestic hot water tank design<br />DHW tank maximizes <br />energy savings & <br />warm water capacity <br />Optimal placement of:<br />Heat exchanger,<br />Temperature sensor &<br />Booster heater <br />Control strategy<br />Next slide<br />Leaving water from Heat pump<br />Return water<br />
  39. 39. Domestic hot water control strategy<br />DHW priority setting can be adjusted<br />Powerful DHW mode : both heat pump and booster heater are in operation for quick hot water preparation<br />Booster heater control : <br />Adjustable delay timer : allow heat pump to heat up the water as high as possible (118.4 -122°F) before operating the booster heater<br />Booster heater priority : simultaneous operation of back-up heater and booster heater can be disabled, booster heater has priority<br />Scheduled timer : booster heater operation can be controlled by scheduled timer<br />Comfort settings : <br />Max DHW running time : maximum continuous operation in DHW mode (to avoid cooldown of rooms)<br />Anti-recycling time : minimum time between two successive DHW operations (to allow recovery of temperature in heated rooms)<br />Thermal disinfection mode<br />Heat up the tank daily / weekly to avoid bacteria infection (default setting 158°F)<br />
  40. 40. Domestic hot water recovery times<br />Static Recovery Times (47°F/8°C outdoor ambient)<br />
  41. 41. ATW Heat Pump Technology<br />
  42. 42. Heat generation by heat pumps<br />No heat “generation”, only move heat from the outside to the inside.<br />
  43. 43. Expansion valve<br />Condenser<br />Evaporator<br />Comp<br />Electric power<br />Heat pump principle<br />
  44. 44. Heat Pump Concept<br />Capture heat from the outside air and transfer it to the inside of the building.<br />Example:<br />48,000 BTU heat pump will use 27.97 amps @ full load <br />ERLQ048/ EKHBX054<br />Producing 50,700 BTU of heat @ 54ºF/12°C outdoor w/ 113° LWC<br />( 44.8 kBTU at 45ºF/7°C outdoors) <br />( ( 31.6 kBTU at 19ºF/-7°C outdoors) 65.8% of Rated Capacity <br />Electric heat of 51,182 BTU or a 15kW heat strip<br />@ 230 volts would consume 65 amps <br />Electric Heat uses 2.33 times the power<br />Which is more efficient, <br />Creating the heat energy or just bring it inside???<br />CO2 emissions - 0<br />No heat “generation”, only move heat from the outside to the inside.<br />
  45. 45. Compressor Technology<br /> DC – Digitally Commutated<br /> Inverter Drive<br />
  46. 46. Optimized Sine Wave<br /><ul><li>Advantage:
  47. 47. Smoother motor rotation
  48. 48. Improved motor efficiency</li></ul>Inverter output current wave<br />Rough wave<br />Smooth wave<br />
  49. 49. The DC-motor Principles<br /><ul><li>Stator = Coil
  50. 50. Rotor = Permanent Magnets</li></ul>Neodymium<br />Ferrite<br />Commutation by means of<br />Inverter AC Wave Input<br />
  51. 51. The DC-motor Principles<br />Reluctance brushless DC compressor<br />DC = Digitally commutated<br />Rotating stator field<br />Curved<br />Iron Rotor<br />Neodymium<br /> Magnets<br />Electrical field in the <br />stator not the rotor<br />no need for brushes<br />
  52. 52. +V<br />T(sec)<br />-V<br />60 Hz Frequency <br />Inverter Box<br />Inverter Drive System<br /><ul><li>The inverter control adjusts the supply frequency
  53. 53. Thus the rotational speed of the compressor is controlled
  54. 54. Exactly the right amount of refrigerant gas is pumped to meet the cooling requirements</li></ul>Multi-Step Principle<br />+V<br />Load<br />T(sec)<br />17capacity steps VRV-s<br />22 capacity steps on WC<br />37 capacity steps VRV<br />-V<br />Frequency 52 to 210 (Hz)<br />
  55. 55. Multiple Step Control<br /><ul><li>Standard HVAC system
  56. 56. 1 to 2 stages of capacity
  57. 57. Uses mechanical unloading techniques
  58. 58. VRV uses inverter technology
  59. 59. Electronic inverter varies compressor rotational speed in steps</li></ul>Unloader, Two Speed or<br />Two Compressors<br />Multi-Step Control Principle<br />Load<br />Load<br />50%<br />100%<br />52~210Hz<br />Compressor capacity<br />Applied frequency<br />
  60. 60. Other Inverter Benefits<br /><ul><li>Very low startup amperage
  61. 61. No locked rotor amps
  62. 62. No stress on windings or compressor frame
  63. 63. No “light flicker”
  64. 64. Lubrication of bearings increases before speed increases
  65. 65. System pressures increase gradually reducing noise and stress on piping
  66. 66. Quiet compressor startup
  67. 67. Idea for backup generator and photo voltaic solar applications</li></li></ul><li>Inrush Current<br />Non<br />Inverter<br />5 to 6 times RLA<br />132 amps<br />Rush Current<br />Current<br />22 amps<br />Running <br />Current<br />0 amps<br />Time<br />When starting up, Inverter raises frequency smoothly, eliminating the rush current. <br />31.9 amps ?<br />Current<br />No heat “generation”, only move heat from the outside to the inside.<br />Running <br />Current<br />4 amps<br />Time<br />0 amps<br />Altherma Inverter<br />
  68. 68. Balance Point Strategies<br />Mono-Valent<br />Mono-Energetic<br />Bi-Valent<br />
  69. 69. System Applications<br />Ideal for New Construction<br />Ideal for New Construction<br />Mono-Energetic<br />Mono-Valent<br />Best balance between investment cost and running cost, results in lowest Lifecycle Cost<br />100% Heat pump coverage : selection of bigger capacity and higher investment cost heat pump<br />
  70. 70. System Applications<br />Ideal for Refurbishment/Upgrade<br />Bi-Valent<br />Space Heating with an Auxiliary Boiler<br />Space heating application by either the Daikin Altherma Hydrobox or by an Auxiliary boiler connected in the system. <br />An auxiliary contact decides whether the Hydrobox or the boiler will operate.<br />The auxiliary contact can be an outdoor temperature thermostat, an electricity tariff contact, a manually operated contact etc.<br />Domestic Hot Water in such an application is always produced by the System Tank connected to the Hydrobox, including when the boiler is in operation for space heating.<br />
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  76. 76. ATW Heat Pump Application /Installation Requirements<br />
  77. 77. Installation Requirements<br />Distance between outdoor and hydro-box (Outdoor & Monobloc).<br />Distances related to water pipe installation (Outdoor & Monobloc).<br />Refrigerant piping (Outdoor).<br />Attention points on the water circuit.<br />Installation Examples<br />
  78. 78. *Standard minimum 16.4 ft. With factory charge<br />10 ft if recharging outdoor is performed.<br />To guarantee a minimum temperature difference between outlet PHE and inlet tank<br />To avoid big temperature change when switching from sanitary to cooling ( hot draft)<br />Installation Requirements<br />ERLQ036, 048, 054BAVJU (Outdoor)<br />246 ft<br />10 ft*<br />98.4 ft<br />10 ft<br />32.8 ft<br />
  79. 79. Installation Requirements<br />10 ft<br />32.8 ft<br />39.4 ft in length.<br />To avoid big temperature change when switching from DHW to cooling ( hot draft)<br />To guarantee a minimum temperature difference between outlet PHE and inlet DHW tank<br />
  80. 80. Installation Requirements<br />Required Oil Trap ERLQ036, 048, 054BAVJU <br />Since there is a possibility of oil held inside the riser piping flowing back into the compressor when stopped and causing liquid compression phenomenon.<br />Install trap at each difference in height of 32.8 ft is required.<br /><ul><li>Trap installation spacing. </li></ul>A Outdoor unit<br />B Indoor unit<br />C Gas piping<br />D Liquid piping<br />E Oil trap<br />H Install trap at each difference in height of 10 m<br />Oil trap is not necessary when the outdoor unit is installed in a higher position than the indoor unit.<br />Caution: Requirements for a trap<br />
  81. 81. Refrigerant Piping Size & Additional Refrigerant Charging <br />Installation Requirements<br />ERLQ036, 048, 054BAVJU ~ EKHBH/EKHBX054BA3/6VJU<br />
  82. 82. Installation Requirements<br />Water Circuit <br /><ul><li>Installation of shut-off valves at inlet and outlet of hydro-box.
  83. 83. Installation of drain valves at the lowest places
  84. 84. Air vents at the highest level
  85. 85. All field piping must withstand the water pressure</li></ul>Water volume<br />ERLQ036, 048, 054AVJU + EKHB/EKHX054BA3/6VJU EDLQ/EBLW036,048,054A6VJU<br /><ul><li>Minimum water volume
  86. 86. Heating only model: 5.3 gals.
  87. 87. Heating / Cooling model: 5.3 gals.</li></li></ul><li>
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  98. 98. ATW Heat Pump Interface Control<br />
  99. 99. Remote Controller <br />Booster heater symbol<br />Back up heater symbol<br />Heating/Cooling on/off<br />Pump on symbol<br />Space heating operation<br />Space cooling operation<br />Compressor on symbol<br />Silent mode operation<br />Weather depending control<br />DHW heating operation<br />Temperature setpoint adjusment<br />DHW water temperature setpoint adjusment<br />Controller reference<br />
  100. 100. Questions?<br />Thank you for your attention<br />