Mapping interview transcript records: theoretical, technical and cartographic challenges - Dr Scott Orford


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•Background to research
•Geo-tagging interview transcripts
•Geo-visualization and mapping
•Spatial metrics
•Some emerging issues
•Use of QGIS in localities research

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Mapping interview transcript records: theoretical, technical and cartographic challenges - Dr Scott Orford

  1. 1. Mapping interview transcriptrecords: theoretical, technical and cartographic challenges CCRI Gloucester University 14.02.2013 Dr Scott Orford WISERD, Cardiff University
  2. 2. Overview• Background to research• Geo-tagging interview transcripts• Geo-visualization and mapping• Spatial metrics• Some emerging issues• Use of QGIS in localities research• Conclusions
  3. 3. WISERD WISERD• Major investment in research infrastructure in Economic and Social Sciences across Wales• Major innovations in qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods• Establish flexible and integrated sets of data relating to Wales• Strategy for generating research grant bids and sustainability• Links with WAG, ONS and Local Authorities across Wales• Links with Other Centres and Programmes in Cardiff
  4. 4. Emerging research• Collaborative Qualitative GIS research project involving both GI professionals and qualitative researchers from backgrounds with little association with spatial literacy or mapping• Attempt to understand the different geographies that policy makers make use of in their day-to-day work• Context of Welsh devolution where some policy areas devolved to WG some still remit of Westminster• Provide empirical support to theoretical concepts of relational space (Jones, 2009)• GIS augmented traditional qualitative analytical methods
  5. 5. Locating the research Conventional Qual-GIS GIS Spatial “Visual GISting” Humanities (Gregory & Hardie, 2011)
  6. 6. WISERD Localities A55 Corridor (Bangor)Central and WestCoast Region Heads of Valleys(Aberystwyth) (Cardiff)
  7. 7. Interviews• In-depth interview 120 stakeholders across 3 localities who have links to 8 policy areasCrime, public space & policing Education and young people Environment, tourism andLanguage, citizenship & identity leisure Economic development andHealth, wellbeing and social care regenerationHousing and transport Employment and training
  8. 8. Transcipts• Interviews recorded and transcribed by professional company Min Max Ave Std Pages 11 235 34 25 Words 4828 48301 12306 5942• Analysed in CAQDAS package (Atlas.ti)• Parsed through qualitative meta-data generator using Web Services to geo-tag places and semantically tag words
  9. 9. WISERD Qualitative meta- data generator
  10. 10. Linked to ESDA Qual-GIS (WISERD GeoPortal)
  11. 11. Part of WISERD GeoPortal Text User account Full metadata search management GIS tools & Reporting for surveys Spatial search Map layers Innovative metadataQualitative visualisation fordata mapping qualitative data (here(place names showing word cloudsStatus barin interview and place nametranscripts) charting)
  12. 12. • Place names geo-tagged with page, line number and word number in transcript• Also, all transcripts manually geo-tagged to allow success of automated geo-tagging to be evaluated
  13. 13. Geo-tagging• Place names in the transcripts identified and extracted with page and line number• geo-tagged to a single point using the OS 1:50,000 scale gazetteer Place names Min Max Ave Std Counts 8 269 73 48 % words 0.60 0.27 0.60 0.27 Ave per page 0.42 8.00 2.43 1.46
  14. 14. Problems of geo-tagging place names (Southall, et al. 2011)• Identifying place names in transcripts• Place name spelling mistakes in transcripts (esp Welsh place names)• Vernacular names with no official geography• Confounding place names with different geographical features• Multiple places with the same name (geotag)
  15. 15. GeoVisualization• Geo-visualization is an important aspect of Qualitative GIS and a function that has been used to justify and promote its use (Knigge & Cope, 2009)
  16. 16. Conventional dotmapping usingproportional sizedcircles for each placementioned in thetranscripts
  17. 17. A kernel densitysurface of theplaces mentionedin the transcripts ofall the stakeholdersfrom the localauthority ofCeredigion
  18. 18. Centrographic Mapswherepoint locations arereplaced by statisticalsummaries of thelocations such asstandard deviationalellipses and meancentres
  19. 19. Spatial Metrics• GIS allows the construction of basic spatial metrics• Can augment quantitative measures generated through analysis of coding of interview transcripts• Provide support for discursive narratives of geographical themes in transcripts
  20. 20. Percentage of places mentioned in each LocalAuthority according to the local authority of the stakeholder intervieweeWelsh Local Blaenau Merthyr CynonAuthorities Gwent Ceredigion Gwynedd Tydfil Pembrokeshire Taff WrexhamBlaenau Gwent 62.6 3.9 1.6Ceredigion 0.5 66.3 1.2 1.5 8.7 3.2Gwynedd 2.4 63.8 0.3 0.2 0.3 4.0Merthyr Tydfil 2.7 0.6 71.2 7.9Pembrokeshire 2.4 12.6 0.5 0.5 75.4 0.8Rhondda CynonTaff 3.7 7.5 60.2Wrexham 0.5 4.3 1.0 73.8
  21. 21. Average Euclidean distances from centre of Local Authority to places mentioned in transcript Mean Standard Count Local Authority Locality (km) Deviation (places) C Merthyr Tydfill 11 24 584 Rhondda Cynon C Taff 15 23 1044 B Wrexham 16 35 321 C Blaenau Gwent 17 36 751 A Ceredigion 30 33 704 A Pembrokeshire 34 39 423 B Gwynedd 37 37 1002
  22. 22. Average Euclidean distances from centre of Local Authority to places mentioned in transcript Mean Standard Policy Area (km) Deviation Count Crime, public space and policing 15 23 69 Language, citizenship and identity 21 32 121 Health, wellbeing and social care 23 27 68 Housing and transport 27 29 116 Employment and training 28 29 83 Education and young people 42 37 247 All Policy Areas 30 33 704
  23. 23. Discussions• QGIS negotiate issues such as data sharing, confidentiality, disclosure and what can and cannot be presented to people outside of the team.• Added value to conventional qualitative analysis• Value of the spatial metrics that could not be created in the CAQDAS• Some spatial patterns uncovered in CAQDAS analysis but only treated discursively• Cannot analyse or interpret maps / spatial metrics in isolation of transcripts or context of interview - complimenting qualitative research (mixed methods)• What is relevant in the geo-tagged data
  24. 24. Research Process Interviewees Geo-visualisation /Transcripts GIS spatial metrics Geo-tagging
  25. 25. Future Research• Analysis of automated geo-tagging software• Development of non-disclosive cartographic techniques• Further analysis of maps and spatial metrics and how they can be interpreted meaningfully in the context of interviews• EQUALISA - transcript mapping and exploratory tool
  26. 26. Acknowledgements• This paper is based on research supported by the Wales Institute of Social and Economic Research, Data and Methods (WISERD), funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) (Grant Reference: RES-576-25-0021) and the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales (HEFCW)