Traditional rural buildings as instruments of rural development
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Traditional rural buildings as instruments of rural development

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Chris Bell discusses his research so far looking into the adaptation of traditional rural buildings for new purposes and the economic value derived from this. The research is funded by an ESRC CASE ...

Chris Bell discusses his research so far looking into the adaptation of traditional rural buildings for new purposes and the economic value derived from this. The research is funded by an ESRC CASE award in partnership with the National Trust.

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Traditional rural buildings as instruments of rural development Traditional rural buildings as instruments of rural development Presentation Transcript

  • Traditional Rural Buildings asInstruments of Rural Development Chris Bell Countryside and Community Research Institute ESRC CASE Studentship in collaboration with the National Trust
  • Outline• Research context• Methodology• Findings (including use)
  • Research ContextHeritage values:• Intrinsic value e.g. historical significance• Instrumental value – how heritage assets can be used to achieve a goal e.g. aid rural development“The historic environment is an important asset in theeconomic development and regeneration of rural areasand has the potential to make an even greatercontribution in the future.” HELM View slide
  • Traditional Rural BuildingsTraditional farm/working buildings• Ubiquitous in British countryside• Functionally redundant• Sense of place and local distinctiveness• Planning policy View slide
  • Research ContextSustainable rural economic development• What is this? - maintaining income generation and job creation• How to foster this? - Exogenous processes (external)? Endogenous processes (internal)? Both? - Local economic growth i.e. theories of export base, net income, growth poles, and immobile resources.
  • Research Context- ‘The Leaky Bucket’ – fill it faster or plug theholes “Pouring money into an area has minimum long-term impact if the wealth flows straight out again because there is nothing to hold it in the area” NEF (New Economics Foundation)Source: NEF
  • Research ContextKey research question- How well does the initial investment from the adaptive re-use of traditional rural buildings generate benefits for the local economy, in other words how well is it linked to local businesses and local people? Initial•Conversion works investment into Re-spent locally?•New use local economy Need local economic linkages
  • Methodology6 stage process:1. Literature review and conceptualisation2. Methodological design3. Primary data collection4. Data analysis, LM3 model development and computation of multipliers5. Stakeholder consultation (National Trust)6. Toolkit development (use of findings)
  • MethodologyMeasuring local economic linkages:• Adapted LM3 model incorporating elements of a simple Keynesian Multiplier analysis - focuses on first 3 rounds of expenditure - LM3 score (the multiplier) falls between 1 and 3
  • LM3 Example1.£1 enters local economy2. 80% spent in local businesses = 80p left in local economy.3. 60% of that 80p then spent in local businesses = 48p left in local economy (£1 + £0.80 + £0.48) / £1 = 2.28
  • LM3Round Activity Effect1 Grant income plus contribution Direct from National Trust or tenant2 Expenditure on contractors and Indirect materials3 Expenditure made by contractors Indirect and suppliers3 Household expenditure Induced Conversion worksRound Activity Effect1 Attributable turnover from Direct building use2 Expenditure on goods, services and Indirect labour3 Expenditure by suppliers Indirect3 Household expenditure Induced Building use
  • MethodologyPrimary data collection• 30 buildings in England• Model local economic impact of 1) conversion works, 2) building use, or both• Defining the boundary of ‘local’ - drivetime• Structured field interviews and telephone interviews
  • MethodologyBuilding locations
  • MethodologyPrimary data collection• 30 buildings in England• Model local economic impact of conversion works, building use or both• Defining the boundary of ‘local’ - drivetime• Structured field interviews and telephone interviews
  • Methodology30minute Drivetime Map for Sheringham in Norfolk
  • MethodologyPrimary data collection• 30 buildings in England• Model local economic impact of conversion works, building use or both• Defining the boundary of ‘local’ - drivetime• Structured field interviews and telephone interviews
  • DataConversion works:• 22 buildings• 14 Listed, 8 unlisted• 14 in-hand, 8 letBuilding use• 25 buildings• 15 Listed, 10 unlisted• 12 in-hand, 13 let
  • DataContractors:• 11 firms (24% response)Suppliers:• 11 firms (25% response)Householders:• 75 (13% response)
  • MethodologyImproving LM3• Estimating local expenditure beyond third round• Additionality• Displacement• Attribution• Sensitivity analysis
  • Conversion Works IncomeModel (30min drivetime)
  • Conversion Works Employment Model
  • LM3 – Conversion WorksModel category Number of models Models within categoryBuilding type 3 Animal housing, crop storage & processing, otherBuilding size 2 < 464m2, > 464m2Designation 2 Listed, UnlistedSIC class 3 Accommodation and food services, manufacturing, otherTenure 2 In-hand, letTotal 12
  • LM3 – Building UseModel category Number of models Models within categoryBuilding type 3 Animal housing, crop storage & processing, otherBusiness age 2 < 5 years, > 5 yearsBusiness size (by 2 < £75,000, > £75,000turnover)Indigenous 2 Indigenous, non- indigenousSIC class 3 Accommodation and food services, manufacturing, otherTenure 2 In-hand, letTotal 14
  • Findings - SummaryConversion Works Variable Highest Income Highest Multipliers Employment Multipliers Building type Animal housing Other Building size < 464m2 < 464m2 Designation Listed Listed SIC class Manufacturing Other Tenure Let In-hand
  • Findings - SummaryBuilding Use Variable Highest income Highest employment multipliers multipliers Building type Animal housing Crop storage and processing Business age < 5 years < 5 years Business size > £75k > £75k (turnover) Indigeneity Non-indigenous Indigenous SIC class Accommodation and Manufacturing food services Tenure Let (30min), In-hand Let (county)
  • Findings – Conversion Works Building type 30 minute drivetime n Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Animal 7 1.75 - 2.34 1.74 - 1.90 12.4 - 18.4 6.9 - 8.3housingCrop storage 5 1.49 - 1.67 1.56 - 1.61 1.5 - 1.8 3.3 - 4.2andprocessingOther 10 1.22 - 1.34 1.75 - 2.06 16.3 - 19.9 4.2 - 5.4 County Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Animal 7 1.82 - 2.63 1.91 - 2.15 12.8 - 20.6 7.5 - 9.5housingCrop storage 5 1.60 - 2.26 1.56 - 1.61 1.6 - 2.5 3.3 - 4.2andprocessingOther 10 1.37 - 1.60 2.03 - 2.46 18.3 - 23.8 4.8 - 6.5
  • Findings – Conversion Works Designation 30 minute drivetime n Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Listed 14 1.38 – 1.55 1.98 – 2.39 26.2 – 32.7 10.9 – 14.6Unlisted 8 1.29 – 1.36 1.26 – 1.29 3.3 – 3.8 5.0 – 5.6 County Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Listed 14 1.47 – 1.76 2.21 – 2.73 27.9 – 37.0 12.2 – 16.8Unlisted 8 1.43 – 1.68 1.26 – 1.29 3.6 – 4.7 5.0 – 5.6
  • Findings – Building Use Indigeneity 30 minute drivetime n Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Indigenous 11 1.33 – 1.56 1.11 – 1.12 1.1 – 1.5 60.5 – 67.4Non- 12 1.47 – 1.67 1.10 – 1.11 0.9 – 1.1 138.7 –indigenous 154.2 County Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated created (£m) (FTEs)Indigenous 11 1.37 – 1.62 1.12 – 1.12 1.2 – 1.5 60.6 – 67.5Non- 12 1.52 – 1.78 1.11 – 1.11 0.9 – 1.2 138.7 –indigenous 154.3
  • Findings – Building Use SIC Class 30 minute drivetime n Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated (£m) created (FTEs)Accommodation 7 1.49 – 2.09 1.11 – 1.11 0.9 – 1.4 88.2 – 98.2and food servicesManufacturing 9 1.49 – 1.69 1.17 – 1.18 1.0 – 1.3 27.8 – 31.2Other 9 1.38 – 1.53 1.10 – 1.10 0.8 – 0.9 99.0 – 110.0 County Income Employment Total income Total jobs multiplier multiplier generated (£m) created (FTEs)Accommodation 7 1.75 – 2.82 1.11 – 1.11 1.1 – 1.9 88.6 – 98.6and food servicesManufacturing 9 1.49 – 1.71 1.17 – 1.18 1.0 – 1.3 27.8 – 31.2Other 9 1.41 – 1.63 1.10 – 1.10 0.8 – 1.0 99.0 – 110.0
  • Using the Findings• Workshop with senior National Trust policy staff• Produce a set of principles/guidelines summarising the importance of considering local economic impact in strategic planning and when planning individual adaptive reuse projects.
  • Thank Youchristopherbell@connect.glos.ac.uk