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Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling
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Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling

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Discover the five major factors that contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) as a result of manual materials handling (MMH) activities. Focus will be placed upon quantifying these factors in …

Discover the five major factors that contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) as a result of manual materials handling (MMH) activities. Focus will be placed upon quantifying these factors in order to understand how to identify which tasks are particularly harmful at a workplace, and what parts of the body are most at risk while performing these tasks. Specific, relevant case study materials will show participants how they can apply practical assessment processes in the workplace so that organizations can focus on reducing the physical demands associated with manual materials handling activities—one of the major causes of the majority of MSD claims in Canada.

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  • 1. Working Through the Risks of Manual Materials Handling Dhananjai Borwankar, Technical Specialist October 3rd, 2012 Produced By: www.ccohs.ca
  • 2. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS) Who we are: • A federal not-for-profit corporation • Governed by a council representing: – Workers – Government – Employers Our mandate: • Promotion of the total well-being of working Canadians.CCOHS © 2012 Page 2 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 3. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health & Safety (CCOHS) What we offer: • Training and education • H&S management systems • Access to various databases (chemical and legislative) • Guide books and publications • Podcasts • Other special projectsCCOHS © 2012 Page 3 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 4. Overview Introduction • Defining the term “Musculoskeletal Disorder” • The musculoskeletal system Physical Demands • Criteria How Do Injuries Occur • Tolerance vs Demands Assessment ToolsCCOHS © 2012 Page 4 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 5. IntroductionMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) A musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) is when there is some sort of damage to a part of the musculoskeletal system. CCOHS © 2012 Page 5 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 6. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscles Tendons Ligaments Nerves CCOHS © 2012 Page 6 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 7. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscles Tendons Cartilage Ligaments Nerves Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html# CCOHS © 2012 Page 7 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 8. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscles Tendons Ligaments Nerves Courtesy of http://www.mybwmc.org/library/3/100225 CCOHS © 2012 Page 8 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 9. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscle Muscles Muscle Tendons Tendon Ligaments Tendon Nerves Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html# CCOHS © 2012 Page 9 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 10. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscles Tendons Ligaments Ligament Nerves Courtesy of http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints.html# CCOHS © 2012 Page 10 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 11. IntroductionThe Musculoskeletal System Consists of: Bones Cartilage Muscles Ligaments Tendons Nerves CCOHS © 2012 Page 11 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 12. IntroductionNow that we understand what ourmusculoskeletal system consists of, we need toknow how work places demands on these partsof our bodies. CCOHS © 2012 Page 12 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 13. Physical DemandsMain Criteria: Force and Contact Stress Repetition Fixed or awkward body positions Environmental Factors CCOHS © 2012 Page 13 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 14. Physical DemandsForce: When you exert pressure on something, pressure is placed back onto your body. CCOHS © 2012 Page 14 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 15. Physical DemandsContact Stress Contact between the body and hard or sharp work objects. Stress intensifies with • Little padding • Small contact area • Long duration CCOHS © 2012 Page 15 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 16. Physical DemandsRepetition: Repetition – using the same body parts without giving them a chance to rest Repetition is defined using three variables: • Frequency • Duration • Intensity Movements are bundled into cycles CCOHS © 2012 Page 16 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 17. Physical DemandsRepetition: Cycle of movements • Reach for bottles • Grasp bottles • Move bottles to box • Place bottles in box CCOHS © 2012 Page 17 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 18. Physical DemandsPosture: Posture simply refers to body positions Posture falls into two categories: • Good, or “ideal” • bad or “awkward” CCOHS © 2012 Page 18 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 19. Physical DemandsPosture: CCOHS © 2012 Page 19 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 20. Physical DemandsPosture: CCOHS © 2012 Page 20 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 21. Physical DemandsPosture: Static Loading Holding body positions for extended periods of time • Muscles are kept tense • Blood flow is restricted • Rate of local muscle fatigue increases CCOHS © 2012 Page 21 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 22. Physical DemandsEnvironmental Factors: Lighting, Temperature, Vibration Lighting • Postures Temperature • Lack of feeling Vibration • Whole body • Hand-arm CCOHS © 2012 Page 22 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 23. Physical DemandsQuantifying Physical Demands: Force and Contact Stress Repetition Fixed or awkward body positions Environmental Factors CCOHS © 2012 Page 23 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 24. How Injuries OccurCCOHS © 2012 Page 24 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 25. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) Development • Cumulative Loading - slowly (weeks, months or years). – Wear and tear over time • Peak Loading – After a single particularly taxing event. – One time exertion CCOHS © 2012 Page 25 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 26. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading Tissue Load Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 26 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 27. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading Tissue Load Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 27 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 28. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading Tissue Load Tolerance Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 28 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 29. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading Tissue Load Tolerance Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 29 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 30. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Cumulative Loading Tissue Load Tolerance Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 30 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 31. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak Loading Tissue Load Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 31 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 32. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak Loading Tissue Load Tolerance Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 32 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 33. How Injuries OccurMusculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) – Peak Loading Tissue Load Tolerance Loading Pattern Time CCOHS © 2012 Page 33 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 34. Where to begin?Now that we know the basic way in whichphysical demands are placed upon individuals,and how injuries occur, we just need a tool tohelp guide our assessments.CCOHS © 2012 Page 34 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 35. Where to begin?There are lots of options: RULA and REBA • Designed for unpredictable postures in health care • http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/REBA.pdf • http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/RULA_r1.pdf Rodgers Muscle Fatigue Index • Assessment of amount of fatigue in muscles during 5 min. of a work pattern. • http://personal.health.usf.edu/tbernard/HollowHills/Rodgers_MFA_M20.pdf Washington State Tools • Hazard and Caution Zone Checklists and Lifting Calculator http://www.lni.wa.gov/Safety/Topics/Ergonomics/ServicesResources/Tools/def ault.asp • Cost calculator: http://www.pshfes.org/Resources/Documents/Ergonomics_cost_benefit_calcul ator_instructions.pdf Liberty Mutual Manual Materials Handling Tables (Risk to the back) • http://libertymmhtables.libertymutual.com/CM_LMTablesWeb/taskSelection.do ?action=initTaskSelection CCOHS © 2012 Page 35 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 36. Where to begin?Tools continued… NIOSH Lifting Equation (assessing who can lift) • http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/niosh/assessing.html Worksafe BC auto calculators (Lifting/lowering, pushing/pulling) • http://www2.worksafebc.com/calculator/llc/default.htm • http://www2.worksafebc.com/ppcc/default.htm MAC and ART Tools (Lifting, Carrying, Team Lifting, Seated Work) • http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg383.pdf European Agency for Safety and Health (Lifting, Carrying, Team Lifting, Seated Work) CCOHS © 2012 Page 36 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 37. HSE’s ApproachRisk filters exist for various Manual Handling activities: Lifting, Lowering, and Carrying Pushing and Pulling • Guidance based on load weight being pushed • Should be altered for slope Seated handling • Different guidance values for men and women CCOHS © 2012 Page 37 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 38. HSE’s ApproachStep 1:Use of Risk Filters. This is the filter for lifting tasks. CCOHS © 2012 Page 38 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 39. HSE’s ApproachReduction of lifting lowering limits due to twisting and high frequency activities Twisting: • reduce limits by 10% if twisting 450 or more, • reduce limits by 20% if twisting 900 or more CCOHS © 2012 Page 39 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 40. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 40 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 41. HSE’s ApproachThe use of risk filters should not be considered lifting/carrying/pushing/pulling limits!These are only used to differentiate between high risk and low risk activities. This will help you use your time more wisely.Once the high risk activities are taken care of, youshould go back and try to improve the otheractivities. CCOHS © 2012 Page 41 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 42. HSE’s ApproachStep 2: Complete a full assessment.Part of the full assessment can be done with the MAC tool: Step 1: Load and Frequency Step 2: Posture: • Arm distance • Trunk twisting and asymmetry Step 3: Room to move Step 4: Grip Step 5: Environment CCOHS © 2012 Page 42 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 43. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 43 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 44. ExampleAssume 2 hours per day.CCOHS © 2012 Page 44 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 45. HSE’s Approacha.) Load/Freq.CCOHS © 2012 Page 45 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 46. HSE’s Approacha.) Load/Freq.CCOHS © 2012 Page 46 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 47. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 47 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 48. HSE’s Approachb.) Horizontal arm distance.CCOHS © 2012 Page 48 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 49. HSE’s Approachb.) Horizontal arm distance.CCOHS © 2012 Page 49 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 50. HSE’s Approachc.) Vertical arm distance. CCOHS © 2012 Page 50 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 51. HSE’s Approachc.) Vertical arm distance. CCOHS © 2012 Page 51 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 52. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 52 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 53. HSE’s Approachd.) Trunk twisting and bending Twisting or lateral bending only – amber with a #1 Twisting and lateral bending – red with a #2e.) Postural Constraints No restriction – green and #0 Restricted movement – amber and #1 Severe restriction – red and #3CCOHS © 2012 Page 53 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 54. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 54 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 55. HSE’s Approachg.) Grip on load CCOHS © 2012 Page 55 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 56. HSE’s Approachg.) Grip on load CCOHS © 2012 Page 56 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 57. HSE’s Approachh.) Floor Surfacei.) Environmental Extremes in temperature, strong air movement or poor lighting – score 1 More than one risk factor – score 2 CCOHS © 2012 Page 57 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 58. HSE’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 58 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 59. HSE’s ApproachSummary of MAC tool results:Overall score: 19CCOHS © 2012 Page 59 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 60. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachWhat do they do? Work with government, employers and workers to promote risk prevention culture. Analyze scientific research and statistics on workplace risk Anticipate new and emerging risks Identify and share information, good practices, and advice.CCOHS © 2012 Page 60 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 61. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachAssessment methodology similar to HSE’s approach • Perform a screening assessment – observational prioritization. • Perform a more in depth assessment for activities that are high risk in the screen assessment.CCOHS © 2012 Page 61 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 62. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachKey-Indicator-Method (KIM) Based on a dose model: duration multiplied by intensity. Takes biomechanical, metabolic and individual aspects into account. Individual sheets available for • Lifting, holding, and carrying • pushing and pullingCCOHS © 2012 Page 62 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 63. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachKey-Indicator-Method (KIM) – Lift, Hold, Carry Step 1: Identify time risk rating Step 2: Identify weight risk rating Step 3: Identify posture risk rating Step 4: Identify working conditions Step 5: Evaluate total risk • WorksheetCCOHS © 2012 Page 63 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 64. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 64 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 65. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachTime Rating Calculation Calculation based upon 1 lift every 9 – 14 seconds • = average of 1 lift every 12 seconds. • = 5 lifts per minute • = 600 lifts in 2 hours. • Rating = 500 to 1000 pieces per day = “8”CCOHS © 2012 Page 65 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 66. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 66 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 67. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 67 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 68. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 68 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 69. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachLoad Rating Each package is 25 kg. The person in the video is a male, therefore use the male column. The load score for 25 kg = “4”CCOHS © 2012 Page 69 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 70. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 70 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 71. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachCCOHS © 2012 Page 71 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 72. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachWorking Conditions Rating Because the individual is constricted, they are forced to twist while lifting. Score = “1” CCOHS © 2012 Page 72 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 73. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work’s ApproachSummary of KIM tool results:Overall Score: (4 + 8 + 1) x 8 = 104 Anything above 50 is a concern!Specific Areas of concern: Frequency Load weight Postures used CCOHS © 2012 Page 73 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 74. Comparison of ToolsMAC Tool Advantages • Visual • Includes grip • Detailed posture Disadvantages • Long • Only for specific activities CCOHS © 2012 Page 74 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 75. Comparison of ToolsMAC Tool KIM Tool Advantages Advantages • Visual • Visual • Includes grip • Threshold scores • Detailed posture • One page Disadvantages Disadvantages • Long • Posture less • Only for specific descriptive activities • No grip considered CCOHS © 2012 Page 75 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 76. Comparison of ResultsMAC Tool Problem areas: • Weight • Frequency • Postures CCOHS © 2012 Page 76 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 77. Comparison of ResultsMAC Tool KIM Tool Problem areas: Problem areas: • Weight • Weight • Frequency • Frequency • Postures • Postures CCOHS © 2012 Page 77 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 78. Summary There are a variety of methods available to assess manual material handling risk The choice of the method depends on the activity being performed Screening methods help to prioritize and focus resources.CCOHS © 2012 Page 78 of 81www.ccohs.ca
  • 79. Questions?Contact Information: Dhananjai Borwankar Technical SpecialistCanadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety 1-800-668-4284 (ext. 4541) CCOHS © 2012 Page 79 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 80. Resources1. http://kidshealth.org/parent/general/body_basics/bones_muscles_joints .html#2. The Health and Safety Executive: Manual Handling Assessment Chart, http://www.hse.gov.uk/msd/mac/3. The Health and Safety Executive. (2008). Manual Handling Assessment Charts. London, England.4. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work: The Kim Tool – Key Item Method. http://osha.europa.eu/en/topics/msds/slic/handlingloads/19.htm5. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. (2004). Risk Assessment by using Key Item Method in Practice Examples for Assessment and Answers to frequently asked Questions. Bilboa, Spain. CCOHS © 2012 Page 80 of 81 www.ccohs.ca
  • 81. Resources6. Chengular, S.N., Rodgers, S.H., & Bernard, T.E. (2004). Kodak’s Ergonomic Design for People at Work. (2nd ed.). Hoboken New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.7. Hignett, S., McAtamaney, L. (2000) Applied Ergonomics, 31, 201 – 2005. CCOHS © 2012 Page 81 of 81 www.ccohs.ca

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