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Social Science Movement – Chester Barnard applies social science approach in his 1938 analysis of organizational life in Functions of the Executive and Max Weber writes about bureaucracy and authority in 1940s.
Post-modernism, critical theory, feminist theory and other various other theories are now challenging social science theory.
A Hay's study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. Trust and confidence in top leadership has been cited as the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.
Autobiography in 5 Short Chapters ( From A Hole in the Sidewalk by Portia Nelson)
1 I walk down the street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I fall in, I am lost…I am helpless. It isn’t my fault. It takes forever to find a way out.
II I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I pretend I don’t see it. I fall in again. I can’t believe I am in the same place. But, it isn’t my fault. It still takes a long time to get out.
Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.
Inspire a shared vision - Next, share you vision in words that can be understood by your followers.
Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do...a leader shows it can be done.
Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' heart, keep the pains in your heart.
Scientific Authoritarian - people are primarily motivated by economic security; motivated by “carrot and stick”; the economic man assumption. Problem: man does not live by bread alone.
Human Relations - people have both economic and social needs; they want to be treated well and belong; the socioeconomic man assumption. Problem: managers fall into false dichotomy.
Human Resource - people are economic, social and psychological beings; they are cognitive, thinking beings. Problem: people do not want to work for a cause with little meaning, even with sufficient economic reward.