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  • Bass, Bernard, From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision, Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1990 The first two of Bass’s theories explain the leadership development for a small number of people. Transformational Leadership Theory is the most widely accepted theory today. Why is Transformational Leadership theory superior to the Trait Theory and the Great Events Theory? When a person is deciding if he respects you as a leader, he does not think about your attributes. He observes what you do so that he can know who you really are. He uses this observation to tell if you are a honorable and trusted leader, or a self serving person who misuses her authority to look good and get promoted. Self serving leaders are not as effective because their employees only obey them, not follow them. They succeed in many areas because they present a good image to their seniors at the expense of their people.
  • Insecurity – Dr. Egnor’s office. This is Nancy speaking. I deprive someone of their identity in order to enhance my own. Teacher’s that make their students memorize their lectures and don’t allow student’s opinions in order to have more identity for themselves. Our identities depend on our role. Life is a battleground – the universe is not out to get us; we need to strive to be more cooperative and communal. Everything rests with me – this leads to workaholism, burnout, stressed and strained and broken relationships, and unhealthy priorities. If I’m not making noise, nothing is happening. However, we do not have to carry the whole load. Fear – we want order and make lots of rules and procedures which may prevent dissent, innovation, challenge, change to happen. Chaos is the precondition to creativity. If there is no creativity the organization is half dead. Denial of death – the scientific community honors the death of an idea because it produces new learning. Best organizations encourage people to take risks that may sometimes lead to failure because they understand that from failure we can learn. Death is natural and is not the final word, but allow new life to emerge. Important that we deal with our own inner lives in order to help others. How do we do this? We do “inner work” such as journaling, reflective reading, spiritual friendship, and meditation. We need to love each other.
  • It is okay to have fears, but we do not have to be afraid. Leaders have lots of fears, but you should not be your fears and you do not need to lead from fear. We should lead from our inner place of trust and hope so that we can create a world that is more hopeful and trustworthy.
  • So basically, you must be trustworthy and you have to be able to communicate a vision of where you are going.
  • James M. Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner (1987). The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  • Power refers to a capacity that person A has to influence the behavior of another (person B), so that he or she (person B) acts in accordance with A’s wishes. This power is a capacity or potential as it implies a potential that need not be actualized to be effective. That is, a power may exist, but does not have to be used to be effective. For example, a teacher has certain powers over students, but that power does not have to used to be effective. The mere knowledge of an teacher's power by student has some influence over him or her. Coercive Power - A person with coercive power can make things difficult for people. These are the persons that you want to avoid getting angry. Employees working under coercive managers are unlikely to be committed, and more likely to resist the manager. Reward Power - Able to give special benefits or rewards to people. You might find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her.  Legitimate Power - The person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests.  Expert Power - This person earns respect by experience and knowledge. Expert power is the most strongly and consistently related to effective employee performance. Referent Power - You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.

Transcript

  • 1. Leadership Dr. Clark Egnor Marshall University
  • 2. How do you become a leader?
    • Some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. This is the Trait Theory.
    • A crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. This is the Great Events Theory.
    • People can choose to become leaders. People can learn leadership skills. This is the Transformational Leadership Theory. It is the most widely accepted theory today.
  • 3. Desert Survival
    • Do NOT vote
    • Do NOT make early, quick, easy agreements and compromises.
    • Do NOT complete internally.
    • DO listen and pay attention to what others have to say.
    • DO encourage others, particularly the quieter ones, to offer their ideas.
  • 4. History of Leadership Study
    • Classical Movement - In 1911, Frederick Taylor formalized his ideas in Principles of Scientific Management which focused on improving worker efficiency.
    • Human Relations Movement - Hawthorne Studies in 1920s by Mayo and Roethlisberger, examined relationship between physical conditions of work and productivity.
  • 5. History of Leadership Theory
    • Social Science Movement – Chester Barnard applies social science approach in his 1938 analysis of organizational life in Functions of the Executive and Max Weber writes about bureaucracy and authority in 1940s.
    • Post-modernism, critical theory, feminist theory and other various other theories are now challenging social science theory.
  • 6. Practices vs. Principles
    • Practices are the what to do’s – specific applications that fit specific circumstances.
    • Principles are the why to do’s – the elements upon which applications or practices are built.
    • “ Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime.”
    • Be a light, not a shadow.
  • 7. Some of our Shadows
    • Insecurity – we identify ourselves with the external, such as institutional identity or a specific cultural role.
    • Life is a battleground – “wins and losses,” “do or die” tactics, and “allies and enemies.”
    • Everything rests with me – if it’s going to be done right, I am the one who needs to make it happen.
    • Fear – fear of natural chaos of life.
    • Denial of death – fear of negative evaluation, fear of public failure.
  • 8. Lead with Love
    • Love is this – that two solitudes border, protect, and salute one another. - Rainer Maria Rilke in Letter to a Young Poet.
  • 9. Four Dimensions of the Center
    • Security – our self-worth, identity, self-esteem and person strength
    • Guidance – the direction we receive in life
    • Wisdom – our sense of balance and understanding of how our values relate to correct principles
    • Power – our capacity to act and our strength and courage to accomplish something.
  • 10. Four Levels, Four Principles
    • Personal Level – my relationship with myself
    • Interpersonal Level – my relationship and interactions with others
    • Managerial – my responsibility to get a job done with others
    • Organizational – my need to organize people: to recruit them, compensate them, build teams, solve problems, and create strategies and systems.
  • 11. Personal Trustworthiness
    • Character – what you are as a person
    • Competence – what you can do
    • Both character and competence are required to be trustworthy
    • How does one improve their trustworthiness?
  • 12. Interpersonal Trust
    • Trustworthiness is the foundation of trust.
    • Why is trust important for effective leadership?
    • Outcomes of trust in a relationship are clear communication, empathy, synergy, and productive interdependency.
  • 13. Trust and Leadership
    • A Hay's study examined over 75 key components of employee satisfaction. Trust and confidence in top leadership has been cited as the single most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in an organization.
  • 14. Effective Communication
    • Effective communication by leadership in three critical areas was the key to winning organizational trust and confidence:
    • Helping employees understand the organization's overall mission.
    • Helping employees understand how they contribute to achieving key objectives.
    • Sharing information with employees on both how the organization is doing and how an employee's own division is doing - relative to strategic objectives.
  • 15. Principle-Centered Leaders
    • Continually learning
    • Service-oriented
    • Radiate positive energy
    • Believe in other people
    • Lead balanced lives
    • See life as an adventure
    • Synergistic
    • Exercise for self-renewal
  • 16. The Seven Habits
    • Be proactive – ability to choose your response.
    • Begin with the end in mind – you decide what to do with the time, talent, and tools you have to work with
    • Put first things first – focus on the highly important, but not necessarily urgent
    • Think win/win – security comes from principles, not something or someone else
    • Seek first to understand, then to be understood – listen with empathy (need to respect) and make yourself understood (need courage)
    • Synergize – not comprise, but find mutual solutions that are better than the original proposal
    • Sharpen the saw – improve and renew yourself constantly
  • 17.
    • Autobiography in 5 Short Chapters ( From A Hole in the Sidewalk by Portia Nelson)
    • 1 I walk down the street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I fall in, I am lost…I am helpless. It isn’t my fault. It takes forever to find a way out.
    • II I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I pretend I don’t see it. I fall in again. I can’t believe I am in the same place. But, it isn’t my fault. It still takes a long time to get out.
  • 18.
    • III I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I see it is there. I still fall in.  It’s a habit My eyes are open. I know where I am. It is my fault.  I get out immediately.
    • IV I walk down the same street. There is a deep hole in the sidewalk. I walk around it.
    • V I walk down another street.
  • 19. The Leadership Process
    • Challenge the process - First, find a process that you believe needs to be improved the most.
    • Inspire a shared vision - Next, share you vision in words that can be understood by your followers.
    • Enable others to act - Give them the tools and methods to solve the problem. Model the way - When the process gets tough, get your hands dirty. A boss tells others what to do...a leader shows it can be done.
    • Encourage the heart - Share the glory with your followers' heart, keep the pains in your heart.
  • 20. Primary & Secondary Greatness
    • Secondary Greatness – achieved with positive personality traits (social status, position, fame, wealth, talent, etc.) and human relations techniques.
    • Primary Greatness – achieved with goodness of character.
  • 21. Primary Greatness
    • Integrity – value we place on ourselves.
    • Maturity – our emotional strength which requires courage balanced with consideration.
    • Abundance mentality – able to share recognition, credit, power or profit and think win/win.
  • 22. Power and Leadership
    • Coercive Power - Power that is based on fear.
    • Reward Power - Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable.
    • Legitimate Power - The power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy of an organization.
    • Expert Power - Influence based on special skills or knowledge.
    • Referent Power - Influence based on possession by an individual or desirable resources or personal traits.
    • Also, Connection Power, Information Power and PCL Power.
  • 23. 10 Power Tools
    • Persuasion – telling why as well as what.
    • Patience – staying committed to goals.
    • Gentleness – not forceful when dealing with followers.
    • Teachableness - you don’t have all the answers.
    • Acceptance – giving benefit of the doubt.
    • Kindness – caring in relationships.
    • Openness – giving full consideration
    • Compassionate confrontation – correcting with care
    • Consistency – actions consistent with character
    • Integrity – actions match words and feelings.
  • 24. Circle of Influence
    • Revolves around trust.
    • Low trust = high control.
    • High trust = low control.
    • With high trust, you don’t have to supervise, because followers supervise themselves.
    • Circle of influence grows as we build more trust because people are supervising themselves.
  • 25. Management Paradigms
    • Scientific Authoritarian - people are primarily motivated by economic security; motivated by “carrot and stick”; the economic man assumption. Problem: man does not live by bread alone.
    • Human Relations - people have both economic and social needs; they want to be treated well and belong; the socioeconomic man assumption. Problem: managers fall into false dichotomy.
    • Human Resource - people are economic, social and psychological beings; they are cognitive, thinking beings. Problem: people do not want to work for a cause with little meaning, even with sufficient economic reward.
  • 26. PC Leadership Paradigm
    • People are not just economic, not just a resource or assets, not just social and psychological beings.
    • People are also spiritual beings – they want meaning – a sense of doing something that matters.
    • This paradigm accounts for all the principles of the others (efficiency, kindness, fairness), but leads to greater effectiveness.