Career Development and Counselling Theories

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Career Development and Counselling Theories

  1. 1. Career Development and Counselling Theories Employment Counselling Services Department of Post-Secondary Education, Training and Labour COURSE 111 NEW BRUNSWICK
  2. 2. Training Program COURSE TITLE PREREQUISITE Course 111: Career Development and Counselling Theories None Course 121: Career Development and Counselling Process Course 111 Course 131: Career Development and Counselling Challenges Course 121 Course 141: Using Labour Market Information in Employment Counselling None Course 151: Facilitating Client Learning None Course 211: Assessment Instruments Course 111 Course 311: Work Search None COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 2
  3. 3. Learning objectives and competencies  Relate models of personal development to models of career development; (C3.1.1)  Describe the main models and theories of counselling and career development; (C3.1.2; S3.1.1)  Name the main models of career change and transition; (S3.1.3)  Explain the main components of career development; (C3.1.5)  Identify the repercussions of social roles on career development; (C3.1.4)  Define a personal intervention approach, taking into account recognized theories and models in the practice of employment counselling and career development; (S3.2.1)  Develop a continuous learning plan describing the activities to be undertaken to continue their professional development COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 3
  4. 4. “Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.” Emmanuel Kant COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 4
  5. 5. Career Development: Points to Remember  The development of individual identity is influenced by many factors  Each individual is unique and develops within a particular social context  Individuals are multi-potentialed and can work in many different areas  Each individual plays many roles throughout life  The individual evolves in a world which is also constantly changing and evolving COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 5
  6. 6. Overview of the theories APPROACHES IN COUNSELLING AUTHORS Reality therapy William Glasser Rational-emotive Albert Ellis Individual psychology Alfred Adler Client-centred Carl Rogers COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 6
  7. 7. Overview of the theories… cont’d CAREER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORS Harmonizing approaches Frank Parsons: trait factor John Holland: person – environment Developmental approaches Donald Super: lifelong career development Constructivist approaches John Krumboltz: social learning Vance Peavy: socio-dynamic approach COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 7
  8. 8. Overview of the theories… cont’d COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 8 TRANSITION AND CHANGE AUTHORS Process of transition William Bridges Process of change James Prochaska
  9. 9. Our itinerary for the next few days… COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 9 Day 1 and 2 Counselling Theories Day 2 and 3 Career Development Theories Day 3 and 4 Change and Transitions
  10. 10. Definition of counselling Counselling is a way of entering into a relationship based on established principles and special knowledge in order to facilitate self-knowledge, acceptance and emotional growth and optimal development of personal resources. The final objective is to give the individual the opportunity to evolve toward a more satisfying way of life by increasing his or her own resources. British Association for Counselling COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 10
  11. 11. Definition of counselling… cont’d Counselling, a form of psychological and social coaching, designates a situation where two persons enter into a relationship in which one explicitly calls on the other by expressing a request that the other will deal with, resolve or assume one or more of the problems that concern him. Catherine Tourette-Turgis in “Le counselling”, Paris, PUF, 1996, collection Que sais-je? COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 11
  12. 12. Definition of counselling… cont’d More specifically, in their book Essential Elements of Career Counselling, Amundson, Harris- Bowlsbey and Niles (2005, p.6) describe career counselling as a process by which a counsellor works in collaboration with a client/student to clarify, specify and implement his or her career- related decisions and to adjust them as needed. Career counselling also takes into account the interaction of different roles in life with work. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 12
  13. 13. Definition of counselling… cont’d The central goal of career counselling is to help individuals make congruent work or career choices that will allow them to have a job, a career and a satisfactory life in a changing society. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 13 Brown, S.D. and Ryan Krane, N.E., 2000
  14. 14. Theories of counselling APPROACHES IN COUNSELLING AUTHORS Reality therapy William Glasser Rational-emotive Albert Ellis Individual psychology Alfred Adler Client-centred Carl Rogers COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 14
  15. 15. Alfred Adler Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority  A feeling of inferiority is “natural” for a child  This feeling disappears with the development of the personality if the need for self-affirmation is satisfied  If not, the feeling of inferiority becomes problematic and may crystallize into an “inferiority complex”  We seek to compensate for any feelings of inferiority COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 15
  16. 16. Alfred Adler Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…  The inferiority complex: • It is often unconscious and can lead to grandiose achievements or asocial behaviour  Compensation may be: • Intellectual over-development in contrast to • Physical under-development, or vice-versa COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 16
  17. 17. Alfred Adler Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…  Inferiority may be: • Organic constitutional physical: accidental or congenital physical limitation • Conventional social: differences with respect to others (child who has red hair; wears glasses, etc.)  Inferiority pushes a person to engage in certain types of compensation COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 17
  18. 18. Alfred Adler Therapy based on a feeling of inferiority…  Examples • Physical inferiority: Johnny Weissmuller – Tarzan (1904-1984): scrawny child, became a champion swimmer • Conventional social inferiority: differences in race, culture, sex, age, occupation, etc. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 18
  19. 19. Carl Rogers Person-centred approach  Fundamentally positive vision of humanity  Essential concepts for Rogers • Authenticity and congruence • Empathy • Unconditional acceptance of the client • Confidence in the client’s capacity COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 19
  20. 20. Carl Rogers Person-centred approach…  Notion of non-directiveness • The client has the right to choose his/her own vital goals • “The client knows what is wrong, in which direction she/he needs to look, what the crucial problems are and the experiences which have been deeply repressed. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 20
  21. 21. Albert Ellis Rational-emotive approach  Epictetus – Ellis’ inspiration • “What troubles men is not things but their judgement of these things” • “Death isn’t frightening, just our idea of death”  Irrational beliefs COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 21
  22. 22. Albert Ellis Rational-emotive approach…  Examples of Irrational Ideas: • To be happy, I need to receive love and approval from almost everyone around me for almost all of his present, past and future actions. • Everybody has to succeed perfectly in everything he undertakes. • It is useful and appropriate to blame yourself and/or to condemn others. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 22
  23. 23. Albert Ellis Rational-emotive approach…  People’s negative feelings are generated by their irrational beliefs about the different situations in which they find themselves.  The approach plays on two levels at once • Emotions • Reasons  Ideas are one of the causes of emotions in adults COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 23
  24. 24. Albert Ellis Rational-emotive approach…  The approach is aimed at • Recognizing emotions, accepting them and verbalizing them • Changing the cognitions (ideas) that are attached to them  Succeeds in acquiring behaviours that are more favourable to attaining one’s objectives and reduces the intensity, duration and frequency of disagreeable emotions. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 24
  25. 25. William Glasser Choice theory/Reality therapy  In reaction to the Stimulus-Response theory based on the erroneous idea that motivation is external to the person.  Replaces the Stimulus-Response theory by the choice theory, which says that… “Human are motivated intrinsically by the well-being that comes from satisfaction of their needs.” COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 25
  26. 26. William Glasser Choice theory/Reality therapy…  Needs underlying all our behaviours • Survival • Belonging • Power • Liberty • Pleasure COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 26
  27. 27. William Glasser Choice theory/Reality therapy  Any behaviour linked to satisfying my needs is chosen  The only behaviour over which I really have control is my own COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 27
  28. 28. William Glasser Choice theory/Reality therapy  Reality therapy  Humans are responsible for their behaviours, not society, heredity or their past history  Humans can change and pursue a more satisfying life  Humans act intentionally in order to modify their environment to make it conform more closely to the image of their needs. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 28
  29. 29. William Glasser Choice theory/Reality therapy…  Two components of the practice of reality therapy • Creation of a climate of trust • Use of specific techniques to ‣ Help a person discover what she/he really wants ‣ Reflect on what he/she is doing now ‣ Formulate an action plan to more effectively satisfy needs in the future COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 29
  30. 30. Lifeline… 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 Positive experiencesNegative experiences 05 45 10 50 40 35 30 25 20 15 55 60 plus Age Meaningful events or choices COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 30
  31. 31. Theories of career development CAREER DEVELOPMENT AUTHORS Harmonizing approaches Frank Parsons: trait factor John Holland: person – environment Developmental approaches Donald Super: lifelong career development Constructivist approaches John Krumboltz: social learning Vance Peavy: socio-dynamic approach COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 31
  32. 32. Trait-factor and person-environment theories  Frank Parsons (1854-1908) • Father of career counselling  The theory unites • Traits: interests, values, aptitudes and personality characteristics with • A work environment which is congruent (a “good fit”) with those traits Parson, F. (1909). Choosing a Vocation. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 32
  33. 33. Trait-factor and person-environment theories  According to Parsons’ the choice of a vocation assumes self-knowledge and knowledge of occupations  No one can decide for someone else  A person can benefit from expert advice  The counsellor’s role is to give clients accurate feedback on their strengths and weaknesses COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 33
  34. 34. Trait-factor and person-environment theories  Three elements are central • Clear self-understanding • Knowledge of occupational requirements and conditions for success, the advantages and disadvantages, the compensation and future outlook for different types of work • A fair understanding of the relationship between these two types of facts – the application of reasoning to determine “fit” between person and occupation COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 34
  35. 35. Person-Environment Fit  John Holland (1919-2008) • Personality is a basic factor in career choice • Interest inventories are really personality inventories • People often have a stereotyped vision of trades • Different tasks require different workers COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 35
  36. 36.  Typology describes persons, environments and their interactions  Different personality types look for work contexts or milieus than suit them  The six personality types correspond to six professional environments COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 36 Person-Environment Fit
  37. 37.  Six personality types (RIASEC) • Realistic • Investigative • Artistic • Social • Enterprising • Conventional COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 37 Person-Environment Fit
  38. 38. Lifelong Career Development  Donald Super (1910-1994) • Career development is:  A continuous process (childhood to old age)  Influenced by different situational (school, family, economy, etc.) and personal (needs, interests, values, etc.) factors  Composed of different roles (parent, spouse, worker, etc.)  Experienced across life cycles, each implying a transition period COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 38
  39. 39. Lifelong Career Development  Interests are the results of a learning process and have been developed through activities that have been successful because of the skills and aptitudes of the individual  Aptitude determines the distance an individual will cover whereas interest indicates the direction he will take  Self concept as well as the concept of oneself as a professional develop through learning experiences COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 39
  40. 40. Lifelong career development COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 40 The career rainbow
  41. 41. Social learning  John Krumboltz (1928- ) • 4 categories of factors influence career development: • Genetic factors and special aptitudes • Environmental factors • Learning experiences • Competencies related to tasks COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 41
  42. 42. Social learning  From these four types of influence stem two categories of generalization: • Generalization about oneself • Generalization about the environment  These generalizations have an influence on what an individual can learn and on his aspirations and actions. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 42
  43. 43. Social learning  An incalculable number of learning experiences combine to shape each person’s career trajectory.  Based on these experiences, people adopt behaviours that lead them to undertake their career (concept of action). COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 43
  44. 44. Socio-dynamic counselling  Vance Peavy (1929-2002) • Socio-dynamic counselling is a method of planning one’s life. It includes the following three elements: ‣ A perspective on contemporary post-industrial society and life and on the social construction of self in contemporary society ‣ A philosophy of the helping relationship ‣ A series of counselling practices based on the first two elements. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 44
  45. 45. Socio-dynamic counselling  The concept of career seen as a vocation is replaced by that of life seen as a career.  Problem-solving is seen as a “tinkering” process using the models that are the most appropriate to the client’s needs and in which both the helped and the helper are considered to be experts. COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 45
  46. 46. Socio-dynamic counselling  Socio-dynamic counselling does not look primary at changing people’s behaviour; it defines itself more as a process of “making sense”.  It’s goal is to mobilize intelligence and creativity to answer these two questions • How do I want to live my life? • What do I do now? COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 46
  47. 47. Daisy Theory  Part 1: (20 minutes) small groups • These groups are the same teams who were the trainer’s alter egos during the presentations of the theories in career development ‣ Read the case ‣ Share your understanding of the case ‣ Plan the intervention  Part 2: (40 minutes) large group • Case study ‣ Present the intervention plan by team ‣ Identify the differences  Part 3: (10 minutes) feedback on the activity COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 47
  48. 48. Transition and Change  Transition and change are closely related  Transition is associated with an event (losing a job) or a non event (not getting an expected promotion) leading to transformations COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 48
  49. 49. Transition and Change  Situational perspective: event regarding a situation • Change is external and visible • Transition is internal and defined as the psychological process allowing an individual to adapt to change  Developmental perspective: evolution of an individual during his/her life • Change is defined as a series of developmental cycles • Transition is defined as a boundary zone between two cycles COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 49
  50. 50. Typology of life events that can trigger a transition BIOLOGICAL EVENTS SOCIAL EVENTS PSYCHOLOGICAL EVENTS UNFORSEEABLE EVENTS COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 50
  51. 51. Transition and change TRANSITION AND CHANGE AUTHORS Process of transition William Bridges Process of change James Prochaska COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 51
  52. 52. William Bridges Process of transition Current state Desired state Loss Renewal Disengagement Disidentification Disenchantment Disorientation Neutrality Action Introspective reflection Anxiety Confusion (NEW BALANCE)(IMBALANCE) RENEWALNEUTRALLOSSES RENEWAL COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 52
  53. 53. James Prochaska Stages of change COURSE 111 – Career Development and Counselling Theories – November 2010 53 Contemplation Ending Precontemplation Preparation ActionMaintenance
  54. 54. Conclusion  Knowledge acquisition consolidation exercise  Taking Charge: online self-evaluation  Evaluation of how the training went Thank you very much!

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