DNA Barcodes Reveal Incredible Dipteran Diversity at a Site in Canada’s Arctic Jinjing Wang, Valerie Levesque-Beaudin,  Pa...
Jinjing Wang in Churchill
Place of Diptera in Insect Biodiversity 161 families 152244 species
Characters Used in Diptera Taxonomy
<ul><li>Pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Pests & Natural Enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Disease Vectors </...
Churchill Northern Studies Centre Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Sub Arctic Low Arctic High Arctic
Barcoding All Multicellular Eukaryotes at Churchill <ul><li>Barcoding Biotas - iBOL </li></ul><ul><li>>150 researchers and...
Previous Knowledge of Diptera of Churchill 32 Families; 280 Species
<ul><li>How many species of Diptera are there in Churchill? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Diptera species composition differ ...
Field Collections 2004-2010
Collection Methods Year Period Malaise trap Pan trap Hand- sweep Pitfall Light trap Liver  trap 2004 July-August Yes   Yes...
June-August 2010 Malaise Traps
June-August 2010 Malaise Traps
<ul><li>For  the ecological analysis (5 localities), 3 specimens of each provisional morphospecies per Malaise trap sample...
<ul><li>BINs (Barcode Index Number = barcode cluster) used as provisional species </li></ul><ul><li>BIN accumulation curve...
Number of Specimens 56 Families; 1817 BINs 1600 1800 0 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 120...
Taxonomic Group Specimens Barcoded Species/ Barcode clusters Diptera 15,700 1,800 Hymenoptera 10,700 1,300 Lepidoptera 3,3...
BIN composition of Diptera families from Churchill    Family  BINs Specimens Singletons Doubletons Slope Chironomidae  379...
 
Observed and estimated diversity at 5 locations sampled  during 2010 via Malaise trapping   Site Families BINs Specimens S...
Observed and estimated diversity at 5 locations sampled  during 2010 via Malaise trapping   Site Families BINs Specimens S...
Temporal distribution of Diptera BIN richness collected in 2010 using all methods
Venn diagram showing BIN composition overlap among 5 locations sampled in a standardize way in summer 2010
Similarity in species composition of Diptera among five locations measured by Sørensen’s Similarity Index
The proportion of BINs found in 1, 2 and 3 periods at each location sampled in 2010 by Malaise trapping
1817 Increase in species/BIN richness after this study
1817 Increase in species/BIN richness after this study Churchill is Home to >1% of Diptera Biodiversity? Churchill 1.8K BI...
Place of Diptera in Insect Biodiversity? 161 families 152244 species
 
Experience plays an important role in sampling Example of Muscidae Amateur Expert
Number of BINs in each location in each period for 5 locations from 2010
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Sally Adamowicz - Invertebrates Plenary

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DNA Barcodes reveal incredible dipteran diversity at a site in Canada's Arctic.

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Sally Adamowicz - Invertebrates Plenary

  1. 1. DNA Barcodes Reveal Incredible Dipteran Diversity at a Site in Canada’s Arctic Jinjing Wang, Valerie Levesque-Beaudin, Paul Hebert, Ding Yang, Sarah Adamowicz
  2. 2. Jinjing Wang in Churchill
  3. 3. Place of Diptera in Insect Biodiversity 161 families 152244 species
  4. 4. Characters Used in Diptera Taxonomy
  5. 5. <ul><li>Pollination </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Pests & Natural Enemies </li></ul><ul><li>Infectious Disease Vectors </li></ul><ul><li>……………… </li></ul>Importance of Diptera
  6. 6. Churchill Northern Studies Centre Churchill, Manitoba, Canada Sub Arctic Low Arctic High Arctic
  7. 7. Barcoding All Multicellular Eukaryotes at Churchill <ul><li>Barcoding Biotas - iBOL </li></ul><ul><li>>150 researchers and students </li></ul><ul><li>>50K specimens, >6K species </li></ul>
  8. 8. Previous Knowledge of Diptera of Churchill 32 Families; 280 Species
  9. 9. <ul><li>How many species of Diptera are there in Churchill? </li></ul><ul><li>How does Diptera species composition differ among tundra, fen, and boreal forest sites? </li></ul><ul><li>Build a DNA barcode library for Diptera from Churchill </li></ul>Research Questions
  10. 10. Field Collections 2004-2010
  11. 11. Collection Methods Year Period Malaise trap Pan trap Hand- sweep Pitfall Light trap Liver trap 2004 July-August Yes   Yes     Yes 2005 July-August Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes   2006 July-August Yes   Yes       2007 July-August Yes   Yes Yes     2008 July-August Yes   Yes Yes     2009 July-August Yes Yes Yes Yes     2010 June-August Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  
  12. 12. June-August 2010 Malaise Traps
  13. 13. June-August 2010 Malaise Traps
  14. 14. <ul><li>For the ecological analysis (5 localities), 3 specimens of each provisional morphospecies per Malaise trap sample were barcoded. </li></ul><ul><li>From other localities, 3 specimens of each provisional morphospecies per site were barcoded. </li></ul><ul><li>All the samples were extracted and sequenced in the CCDB according to standard DNA barcoding protocols. </li></ul>Specimen Sorting and DNA Barcoding
  15. 15. <ul><li>BINs (Barcode Index Number = barcode cluster) used as provisional species </li></ul><ul><li>BIN accumulation curves were drawn for the order and for families having >100 DNA barcodes. The rate of accumulation of new BINs in the last 10 specimens was calculated. A threshold of 0.01 was used to assess whether a family was well sampled. </li></ul>Biodiversity Assessment
  16. 16. Number of Specimens 56 Families; 1817 BINs 1600 1800 0 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 2000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000
  17. 17. Taxonomic Group Specimens Barcoded Species/ Barcode clusters Diptera 15,700 1,800 Hymenoptera 10,700 1,300 Lepidoptera 3,300 275 Coleoptera 2,300 250 Trichoptera 2,700 85 Ephemeroptera 650 40 Other insects 2,800 350 Collembola 1,050 100 Arachnids 5,600 775 Crustaceans 1,500 170 Molluscs 580 50 Annelids 1,200 130 Other marine invertebrates 340 60 Vertebrates 220 24 Plants 900 310 Seaweeds 270 65 Total 50,000 5,800
  18. 18. BIN composition of Diptera families from Churchill   Family BINs Specimens Singletons Doubletons Slope Chironomidae 379 1977 165 52 0.084 Sciaridae 140 448 65 28 0.147 Mycetophilidae 120 409 67 12 0.164 Cecidomyiidae 110 157 85 13 0.456 Phoridae 106 418 52 13 0.125 Muscidae 97 1573 21 14 0.014 Anthomyiidae 92 839 28 14 0.034 Empididae 75 958 20 8 0.021 Syrphidae 69 923 16 10 0.018 Ceratopogonidae 68 243 26 14 0.098 Dolichopodidae 63 902 12 10 0.016 Chloropidae 48 808 10 4 0.013 Tipulidae 41 457 8 4 0.018 Sciomyzidae 41 425 8 4 0.019 Scathophagidae 32 568 8 6 0.012 Ephydridae 31 408 13 2 0.032 Tachinidae 31 118 10 3 0.087 Simuliidae 20 577 3 4 0.006 Limoniidae 20 176 7 3 0.041 Culicidae 18 772 5 3 0.007 Tabanidae 14 314 4 0 0.012 Pipunculidae 12 127 3 2 0.026 Calliphoridae 10 153 1 0 0.007
  19. 20. Observed and estimated diversity at 5 locations sampled during 2010 via Malaise trapping   Site Families BINs Specimens Singletons Doubletons Chao2 Mean Landing Lake Tundra 35 253 631 163 45 548.21 Launch Road Fen 25 183 439 124 29 448.1 Twin Lake Fen 29 214 484 139 43 438.66 Ramsey Creek Boreal Forest 31 300 741 190 55 628.18 Twin Lake Boreal Forest 33 192 451 129 35 402.22 Total 45 677 2746 344 117 1182.71
  20. 21. Observed and estimated diversity at 5 locations sampled during 2010 via Malaise trapping   Site Families BINs Specimens Singletons Doubletons Chao2 Mean Landing Lake Tundra 35 253 631 163 45 548.21 Launch Road Fen 25 183 439 124 29 448.1 Twin Lake Fen 29 214 484 139 43 438.66 Ramsey Creek Boreal Forest 31 300 741 190 55 628.18 Twin Lake Boreal Forest 33 192 451 129 35 402.22 Total 45 676 2746 344 117 1182.71
  21. 22. Temporal distribution of Diptera BIN richness collected in 2010 using all methods
  22. 23. Venn diagram showing BIN composition overlap among 5 locations sampled in a standardize way in summer 2010
  23. 24. Similarity in species composition of Diptera among five locations measured by Sørensen’s Similarity Index
  24. 25. The proportion of BINs found in 1, 2 and 3 periods at each location sampled in 2010 by Malaise trapping
  25. 26. 1817 Increase in species/BIN richness after this study
  26. 27. 1817 Increase in species/BIN richness after this study Churchill is Home to >1% of Diptera Biodiversity? Churchill 1.8K BINs Earth 152K species
  27. 28. Place of Diptera in Insect Biodiversity? 161 families 152244 species
  28. 30. Experience plays an important role in sampling Example of Muscidae Amateur Expert
  29. 31. Number of BINs in each location in each period for 5 locations from 2010
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