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Rebecca Johnson - Opening Plenary
 

Rebecca Johnson - Opening Plenary

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    Rebecca Johnson - Opening Plenary Rebecca Johnson - Opening Plenary Presentation Transcript

    • Can DNA Barcoding help stop the budgiesmugglers? The future of barcoding as acrime fighting tool in wildlife forensicsRebecca N. Johnson, Andrew King, Robert MasonAustralian Museum Genetics LaboratoryiBOL November 28th 2011 rebecca.johnson@austmus.gov.au
    • Case Study: The Case of theBudgie Smuggler!! But budgiesaren’t listed on CITES?! Photo © Australian Museum
    • The Australian Museum –our 1st museum Founded 1827 Current site 1857
    • Wildlife Forensic Science at the Australian Museum - Sydney• Systematics and Biodiversity Research • Conservation genetics • Population genetics • Phylogenetics • Wildlife Forensics
    • Wildlife forensic science – What is it?• Wildlife crime (flora, fauna)• Management decisions• Society for Wildlife Forensic Science- Sept 2009• Non-human forensic work in Australia is not handled by law enforcement authorities
    • Vouchered specimens from the AM collection An excellent source of validated reference material >18 million specimensPhotos © Australian Museum
    • Morphological Wildlife forensicscience
    • DNA-based Species Identification- CITES species - Quarantine Photo © Australian Museum
    • The utility of DNA Barcoding for Wildlife Forensic Science• Voucher specimens, sequencequality, assessment of variation(intraspecific/interspecific)• Standardized practices, protocols,gene regions
    • The utility of DNA Barcoding for Wildlife Forensic Science CRollandi Pbankanens • Standardized practices – Pvaiuli combined with good taxonomy 58 99 unknown Pbrachiali • Validated gene regions - 100 Aleucogast Probability: 99 Aaureus False –ve / False +ve True –ve / True +ve 92 Prepom5a 96 Prepom5b Ccyanea • High node support value -> 100 78 Pomacentri likelihood species match Pcoelestis10
    • The utility of DNA Barcoding for Wildlife Forensic Science• Voucher specimens, sequencequality, assessment of variation(intraspecific/interspecific)• Standardized practices, protocols,gene regions• WF Science – a young discipline
    • Case Study: Fish tissue identification 2006 a Single case from NSW waters: • 87 shark fins = MNI 22 sharks • DNA analysis required for species ID
    • Australian Legislation – shark fins http://www.dpiw.tas.gov.au/inter.nsf/WebPages/ALIR-4YB2L3?open#SharkFinRemoval
    • ‘Shark-finning’ • Removal of fins at sea and torso discarded (can be alive) • Indiscriminate taking of species, size, gender and ageWPY 2010: “Desecration in Paradise” by Thomas Haider, Austria
    • Shark fin product• Typically white cartilaginous• Most expensive part of the animal
    • Case Study: Fish tissue identification Following DNA analysis:1. Spinner Sharks (x2 Near threatened)2. Dusky Whalers (x2 Vulnerable)3. Tiger Shark (x1 Near threatened)4. Blue Sharks (x9 Vulnerable)5. Shortfin Makos (x8 Near threatened) © Rob Harcourt © Rob Harcourt
    • Case Study: Fish tissue identification Single case from NSW waters: • Guilty pleas • Charges: Contravene condition of fishing concession (Fisheries Management Act Cth 1991) • Conviction recorded • Fines of AUD$23,100
    • Case Study: R v Della Zuana Identification of eggs smuggled into Australia Eggs were irradiated due to high quarantine riskPhoto © Australian Customs Service 2006
    • Photos © AFP
    • R v Della Zuana - DNA analysis:1. DNA obtained despite irradiation2. Eggs found to be from 6 different parrot species and one species of cockatoo: • 21 eggs from family Psittacidae (6 spp.) • Assorted Macaw’s and African grey Parrots • 2 eggs from family Cacatuidae (1 sp) • Salmon-crested Cockatoo (CITES I) © Parrots of the World 2nd Ed
    • R v Della Zuana - Result• The accused pleaded guilty to charges of illegal importation (brought under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, Cth 1999) for import and trade in CITES listed endangered species.• The accused was sentenced to 2 years in jail and $10,000 fine.• He was deported upon release.
    • Can DNA Barcoding help stop the budgie smugglers?• A maturing discipline• Standardised practises• New techniques• Deterrent - Cruel, costly, endangers species’ survival, threatens biodiversity
    • Acknowledgements:• Australian Museum: Cassie Vockler, Amanda Hay,Mark McGrouther• Australian Customs Service: Jeff Vandamme, MickO’Malley• NSW Fisheries: Brendan Sinnett, Peter Chan
    • rebecca.johnson@austmus.gov.au Thank you www.australianmuseum.com.au