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Paul Hebert - Saturday Closing Plenary
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Paul Hebert - Saturday Closing Plenary

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  • 1. Barcodes, Organelles, Genomes Paul Hebert Justin Schonfeld Sujeevan Ratnasingham
  • 2. Sequence Data for Arthropod Species Genomes - 46 Mitochondrial Genomes - 214 Barcodes - 121,000
  • 3. Probing Arthropod Mitochondrial Genomes With DNA Barcodes1. Nucleotide Composition2. Amino Acid Evolution3. Structural Change
  • 4. A/T % in Arthropod Mitochondrial Genomes vs COI 90% 85% 80%Genome Sequence 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50% 55% 60% 65% 70% 75% 80% COI
  • 5. Nucleotide Composition of COI in Arthropods Crustaceans Scale Insects 100000 10000 1000# of Species 100 10 1 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 AT Composition (%)
  • 6. Nucleotide Composition of COI in 17 Insect Orders% of Species % AT
  • 7. Nucleotide Composition of COI in Two Insect Orders 10,000 8,000 Hymenoptera LepidopteraSpecies 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 % AT
  • 8. Barcode Region as a Sentinel for Mitochondrial Evolution Amino Acid Substitutions Insertions & Deletions
  • 9. Amino Acid Divergence in COI Versus Other Mitochondrial Proteins 1.0 0.8Correlation with COI 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 atp6 atp8 nd1 nd2 nd3 nd4 nd4l nd5 nd6 co2 co3 cytb
  • 10. Amino Acid Divergences in the Barcode Region for Different Families of Hymenoptera
  • 11. Amino Acid Divergences in the Barcode Region for Two Insect Orders Lepidoptera Hymenoptera
  • 12. # of Indels in Mitochondrial Genes of Two Insect Orders>30 Lepidoptera 25 Hymenoptera 20 15 10 5 0 atp6 nd1 nd2 nd3 nd4 nd41 nd5 co1 co2 co3 cytb
  • 13. Indels in the barcode region forLepidoptera and Hymenoptera 3 bp 6 bp 9 bp
  • 14. Varied Rates of Protein Evolution & Indels in Barcode Region
  • 15. Haplodiploid Diploid
  • 16. Insect Phylogeny and HaplodiploidyHaplodiploidSome Haplodiploid
  • 17. DiploidHaplodiploid
  • 18. Amino Acid Divergences at COI for Diploid Hemiptera
  • 19. Amino Acid Divergences at COI for All Hemiptera Diploid Haplodiploid
  • 20. Haplodiploidy Greatly Accelerates Mt EvolutionWHY? It aids co-evolution of nuclear and mitochondrial genomesBASIS FOR CO-EVOLUTION 10% of nuclear gene products are exported to the mitochondrion. Nuclear and mitochondrial gene products interact strongly Male haploidy provides perfect screening system for nuclear variants improving mitochondrial performanceEVIDENCE FOR CO-EVOLUTION Molecular analysis shows residue by residue substitutions Studies on cybrids
  • 21. Evidence for Co-evolution ATP generation in Cybrids 0% 0% 80 % 80 %Lower Primate mt Orangutan mt Chimpanzee mt Gorilla mt Human Nucleus +
  • 22. Does the accelerated rate of mtDNA evolution inhaplodiploids provide insight into general patterns of mtDNA evolution?CONSIDER: 1. Land Plants 2. Cnidarians 3. Fungi 4. Protists
  • 23. Consider Land Plants
  • 24. Consider Land Plants A Three Particle Problem
  • 25. Consider Land Plants A Three Particle Problem
  • 26. Consider Corals A Three Particle Problem
  • 27. Consider Other Cnidaria A Two Particle Problem
  • 28. Consider Fungi A Two Particle Problem
  • 29. Consider Non-Photosynthetic Protists A Two Particle Problem
  • 30. Consider Photosynthetic Protists A Three Particle Problem
  • 31. Consider Seaweeds A Three Particle Problem But some Haplodiploids
  • 32. Fast Runners
  • 33. Why Does Haplodiploidy Evolve?Might rapid mitochondrialevolution convey an advantagein Red Queen situations? Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!
  • 34. Churchill Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae Eriophyidae
  • 35. San Diego Cynipidae Cynipidae Cecidomyiidae Tenthredinidae
  • 36. Adelaide EriococcidaeThysanoptera EriococcidaeEulophidae Eriococcidae
  • 37. Consider Parasitoids
  • 38. Mitochondrial genomes are fractals
  • 39. Interactions among genomic compartments impact molecular evolution
  • 40. These interactions can explain the lack of a universal barcode marker
  • 41. The Red Queen may drive genomic structure
  • 42. Horizontal Genomics – We have only begun!
  • 43. Consider Mosses and Ferns A Three Particle Problem But Haplodiploids