Nicolas Puillandre - Opening Plenary


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Large scale species delimitation method for hyperdiverse groups

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Nicolas Puillandre - Opening Plenary

  1. 1. LARGE SCALE SPECIES DELIMITATION METHOD FOR HYPERDIVERSE GROUPS Nicolas Puillandre Guillaume Achaz, Sarah Samadi [email_address] [email_address]
  2. 2. … Species hypotheses Barcode database ?
  3. 3. Species delimitation: the easy way Lophiotoma acuta Lophiotoma jickelli Turris garnonsii Turridrupa bijubata Gemmula unilineata Most species already known, characters and criteria congruent intra-interspecific limit deduced from the other species Gemmula bianca n. sp.
  4. 4. Problem I : &quot;The grey zone&quot; de Queiroz 2007 &quot;Species concepts&quot; <ul><li>The characters do not differenciate at the same rythm </li></ul><ul><li>All the criteria will not lead to the same species hypotheses </li></ul>Species = hypotheses validated or rejected with the addition of new data: Criteria: Similarity, Biological (direct and indirect), Phylogenetic Characters: DNA, Morphology, Ecology, Geography… Methods: Cross tests, Morphospecies, Trees/networks, Genetic structure, Distances
  5. 5. Problem II: Hyperdiverse and largely unknown groups Conoidea Scratching Convulsions, death Hyperactivity Hypersensitivity Depression, paralysis Rollings Tremor Chill, death 4,000 described species, probably more than 15,000
  6. 6. Lophiotoma acuta Turris garnonsii Problem II: Hyperdiverse and largely unknown groups
  7. 7. Problem III: The shell I. cingulifera I. devoizei I. musivum X. legitima Kantor et al. 2008 Zool. Sc. cranaos punicea badifasciata consors tippetti stenos paratractoides atractoides neocaledonica netrion solomonensis episoma Puillandre et al. 2010 Syst. & Biodiv. <ul><li>Convergence </li></ul><ul><li>Phenotypic plasticity </li></ul>
  8. 8. How to propose species hypotheses in this context ? <ul><li>Problem I: &quot;The grey zone&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Problem II: Hyperdiverse and largely unknown groups </li></ul><ul><li>Problem III: The shell </li></ul>DNA sequences Exploratory method (without a priori hypotheses) A new method based only on DNA sequences: ABGD, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery
  9. 9. ABGD Puillandre et al 2011 Mol. Ecol. ? 0.08 0.09 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.05 Nb. of specimen pairs Genetic distances x Rank i x Derivative (x) Rank i x
  10. 10. ABGD Derivative (x) Rank i x Puillandre et al 2011 Mol. Ecol. Recursive approach Prior threshold p p Estimated θ θ Posterior threshold P P N groups Final partition p # of groups Look for &quot;next peak&quot;
  11. 11. Application to the Turridae Taïwan (1 specimen) Philippines (281) Solomon (54) Chesterfield (32) Norfolk (32) Vanuatu (600) <ul><li>Sequencing of the COI gene (Barcode fragment) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis with ABGD and GMYC (Pons et al. 2006) </li></ul>
  12. 12. INTEGRATIVE TAXONOMY PSH = Primary Species Hypotheses 85-103 PSH ABGD GMYC 87 SSH Phylogeny COI Phylogeny 28S Genetic structure Bathymetry Locality Morphology SSH = Secondary Species Hypotheses
  13. 13. Application to the Turridae
  14. 14. Conclusion ABGD, for hyperdiverse and unknown groups: easy, fast and reproducible Recursive approach to take into account variation in evolutionary rates But… <ul><li>Problems in the grey zone: overlap coalescent/speciation </li></ul><ul><li>Several a priori thresholds can lead to several species partitions </li></ul>INTEGRATIVE TAXONOMY: Need to turn Primary Species Hypotheses into Secondary Species Hypotheses
  15. 15. Acknowledgments Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris Sarah Samadi Marie-Catherine-Boisselier Philippe Bouchet Annie Tillier Celine Bonillo Josie Lambourdière Magalie Castelin Yuri Kantor City University of New-York Mandë Holford Maria-Vittoria Modica Université Paris 6 Guillaume Achaz Sophie Brouillet Amaury Lambert Atheris Laboratories, Geneva Reto Stöcklin Philippe Favreau