Extensive Cryptic Diversity in Indo-Australian Rainbowfishes Revealed by DNA Barcoding ❊  Akademi Perikanan Sorong, Papua ...
Interest for Rainbowfish <ul><li>Rainbowfish = suborder Melanotaenioidei (129   species) </li></ul>30,000 years ago 50,000...
Objectives <ul><li>DNA-barcoding to unravel species diversity in New Guinea (centre of biodiversity); </li></ul><ul><li>In...
Study area and sampling localities 105 Localities 35 IRG specimens Iriatherina Glossolepis Chilatherina Melanotaenia 4 Gen...
Methods and Analysis Expedition 2007-2010 Vogelkop Peninsula Half Northern New Guinea Breeding Specimens Commercial source...
Results and discussion <ul><li>350 Barcodes (Melanotaeniidae) </li></ul><ul><li>53 species  </li></ul><ul><li>4 genera </l...
Mixed COI cluster <ul><li>8 species Melanotaenia (e.g  M.parva & M.angfa ) </li></ul><ul><li>3 species Glossolepis ( G.leg...
Cryptic lineages detected <ul><li>14 Melanotaenia </li></ul><ul><li>1 Chilatherina </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptic lineages all ...
Mixed conspecific & Congeneric  Min. K2P = 0 Genetic divergence and taxonomic levels Overlap between within and among spec...
Fig. 2. Distribution of the K2P distances to NN Intraspecific divergence Overlap between within species genetic distances ...
Large scale pattern of genetic divergence Include 9 australian species Clade III Clade IV Clade II Clade I <ul><li>Min. II...
<ul><li>Clades IA,IB and II are most diverse </li></ul>Relationship among clades Clade IA Clade IB Clade II Clade III Clad...
<ul><li>Canonical fish : 0.012/Myr (Panamian  </li></ul><ul><li>isthmus) + references. </li></ul>Datation <ul><li>Geologic...
Lengguru Arch Vogelkop and the role important of Lengguru Arch <ul><li>Most rugged area covered massif karstic area  </li>...
Conclusion <ul><li>Utility of DNA-barcoding (species recognition & cryptic species) </li></ul><ul><li>Vogelkop diversity o...
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Alta Kadarusman - Vertebrates Plenary

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Extensive cryptic diversity in Indo-Australian rainbowfishes revealed by DNA Barcoding

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Alta Kadarusman - Vertebrates Plenary

  1. 1. Extensive Cryptic Diversity in Indo-Australian Rainbowfishes Revealed by DNA Barcoding ❊ Akademi Perikanan Sorong, Papua Barat, Indonesia § Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France # Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) ‡ Badan penelitian dan Pengembangan Kelautan dan Perikanan Kadarusman ❊ § , Hubert N § , Hadiaty R.K # , Sudarto ‡ , Paradis E § ., Pouyaud L § .
  2. 2. Interest for Rainbowfish <ul><li>Rainbowfish = suborder Melanotaenioidei (129 species) </li></ul>30,000 years ago 50,000 years ago Pearl for aquarium trade Diversity & Systematic confusion Threats on Papuan Melanotaeniids <ul><li>Robust & Easy to reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution : Madagascar, Sulawesi, Indo-australian </li></ul><ul><li>Great diversity morphology (form & Coloration) </li></ul><ul><li>Melanotaeniidae: 7 genera, 76 species-subspecies </li></ul><ul><li>West Papuan Rainbowfish diversity underestimated </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete diagnose </li></ul><ul><li>Need revision systematic (biometric & molecular) </li></ul><ul><li>Over-catch </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation of habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction Invasive species (5 species) </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened species: Papua (9), Vogelkop (7) </li></ul>(15) (61)
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>DNA-barcoding to unravel species diversity in New Guinea (centre of biodiversity); </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating COI data with multiple locus in an ongoing works on systematic and </li></ul><ul><li>biogeography for conservation purposes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Study area and sampling localities 105 Localities 35 IRG specimens Iriatherina Glossolepis Chilatherina Melanotaenia 4 Genera 53 Nominal Species New Guinea Vogelkop Cape York Port Moresby
  5. 5. Methods and Analysis Expedition 2007-2010 Vogelkop Peninsula Half Northern New Guinea Breeding Specimens Commercial sources Rainbowfish Association-IRG Genomic DNA Extraction + PCR + Sequencing Sequences Alignment BOLD module Divergence: K2P Graphic representation : NJ Tree Deposited: GenBank + BOLD Datation Geology-based calibration + some published Mitochondrial molecular clock Phylogenetic Species 1. validate 2. define Diagnostic morphological characters
  6. 6. Results and discussion <ul><li>350 Barcodes (Melanotaeniidae) </li></ul><ul><li>53 species </li></ul><ul><li>4 genera </li></ul><ul><li>15 new lineages (new localities) </li></ul>Highlight four major clades : I: Vogelkop Peninsula New Guinea mapsof.net Include 9 australian species IA: Main Vogelkop IB: Bomberai II : Kuweri Lengguru III : South NG + Australia IV : North NG
  7. 7. Mixed COI cluster <ul><li>8 species Melanotaenia (e.g M.parva & M.angfa ) </li></ul><ul><li>3 species Glossolepis ( G.leggetti & M. rubripinnis) </li></ul><ul><li>40 species have non-overlapping cluster </li></ul>New Guinea Vogelkop Australia
  8. 8. Cryptic lineages detected <ul><li>14 Melanotaenia </li></ul><ul><li>1 Chilatherina </li></ul><ul><li>Cryptic lineages all endemic </li></ul>Vogelkop peninsula Bomberai Lengguru Ayamaru Nominal species Cryptic lineages
  9. 9. Mixed conspecific & Congeneric Min. K2P = 0 Genetic divergence and taxonomic levels Overlap between within and among species K2P distances (closely related species) Genetic Divergence : Congeneric 14x higher than Conspecific Fig. 1. Distribution of the K2P distances 350 individuals 69 species analyzed
  10. 10. Fig. 2. Distribution of the K2P distances to NN Intraspecific divergence Overlap between within species genetic distances and distances to NN (closely related species)
  11. 11. Large scale pattern of genetic divergence Include 9 australian species Clade III Clade IV Clade II Clade I <ul><li>Min. III vs IV = 10.5% ± 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Max. I vs II = 13.7% ± 1% </li></ul><ul><li>II vs III= same </li></ul><ul><li>Divergence among clades very similar </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Clades IA,IB and II are most diverse </li></ul>Relationship among clades Clade IA Clade IB Clade II Clade III Clade IV <ul><li>Considered as center of Melanotaeniids diversity </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Canonical fish : 0.012/Myr (Panamian </li></ul><ul><li>isthmus) + references. </li></ul>Datation <ul><li>Geological age uplift Lengguru Arch : </li></ul><ul><li>9-12 Myr (divergence among all clades). </li></ul>11.4 myr 8.8 myr Min.subs R: 27.4 and 21 Myr Canonical ‘fish’ : - Estimated : 11.4 and 8.8 Myr - Fixed: 0.012 subst./Myr Can. Verteb. Subs R: 11.4 and 5.3 Myr Uplift Lengguru Arch : - Fixed : 12 and 9 Myr - Estimated: (0.009 and 0.015 subst./Myr Clade III Clade IV Clade IA Clade IB Clade II Synthetic cladogram among clades (lengguru)
  14. 14. Lengguru Arch Vogelkop and the role important of Lengguru Arch <ul><li>Most rugged area covered massif karstic area </li></ul><ul><li>Origin first cladogenetic events </li></ul><ul><li>Kuweri rainbowfish: a witness of evolution </li></ul>Ayamaru plateau Raja Ampat Is
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Utility of DNA-barcoding (species recognition & cryptic species) </li></ul><ul><li>Vogelkop diversity overlooked: 30 lineages among 15 nominal species </li></ul><ul><li>Papua remains less explored ichthyologically, endemism is underestimated </li></ul><ul><li>Threatened species: PNG (13), Papua (9) Vogelkop (7), Australia (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Promoting domestication trial (IRD & KKP) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Thanks

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