5 Introduction to management 18 Important time management
6 Time management 19 Timetables and schedules
7 Essential areas 20 Format of timetable/schedule
8 Success areas 21 Use of planner
9 Setting up goals and priorities 22 Realistic targets
10 ABC Analysis 23 Rewarding yourself
11 Pareto analysis 24 Do not waste time
13 The Eisenhower method 25 Reasonable time allocation
26 Task allocation by importance
14 POSEC method 27 Conclusion
15 Time management strategies
16 Implementation of goals
17 Achieving the targets
INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT
1. Management in business and organizations means to coordinate
the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using
available resources efficiently and effectively.
2. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or
directing, and controlling an organization or initiative to accomplish a
3. Management defined as the organization and coordination of
the activities of an enterprise in accordance with certain policies
and in achievement of clearly defined objectives
Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising
conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities,
especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity
WHAT IS TIME MANAGEMENT ?
Time management doesn’t “just happen”
for anyone – it is a skill that must be
worked on, and that most people find to
be a life-long challenge
The major themes arising from the literature on time management
include the following:
• Creating an environment conducive to effectiveness
• Setting of priorities
• Carrying out activity around those priorities
• The related process of reduction of time spent on non-priorities
AREAS WHERE TIME MANAGEMENT IS ESSENTIAL
† BUSINESS ORGANISATIONS
† SPACE RESEARCH PROJECTS
† PROFESSIONAL MANAGEMENT
† MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
† EXAMINATION AND EVALUATIVE TESTS
TIME MANAGEMENT IS CRITICAL TO OUR SUCCESS IN…
∂ … getting your work done and achieving the targets and goals in proper m
∂ … maintaining your mental and physical health
∂ … investing in and keeping good relationships with other people
∂ … allocating some time for your friends and family
∂ … reducing the tension and fear of not getting the work done
∂ … achieving all your priorities which you have set
SETTING UP GOALS AND PRIORITIES
This is the FIRST critical step is time management.
Goals can be recorded and may be broken down into a project,
an action plan, or a simple task list. For individual tasks or for goals, an
importance rating may be established, deadlines may be set, and
priorities assigned. This process results in a plan with a task list or a
schedule or calendar of activities. This is done in various ways, as
The Eisenhower Method
Any one method
or all methods or
any two or three
methods can be
the work you
A B C analysis
A technique that has been used in business management for a long
time is the categorization of large data into groups. These groups are
often marked A, B, and C—hence the name. Activities are ranked upon
these general criteria:
A – Tasks that are perceived as being urgent
B – Tasks that are important but not urgent,
C – Tasks that are neither urgent nor important.
(This list could also include tasks that are
urgent but not important.)
Each group is then rank-ordered in priority. To further refine priority, some
individuals choose to then force-rank all "B" items as either "A" or "C". ABC
analysis can incorporate more than three groups
This is the idea that 80% of tasks can be completed in 20% of the
disposable time. The remaining 20% of tasks will take up 80% of the time.
This principle is used to sort tasks into two parts. According to this form
of Pareto analysis it is recommended that tasks that fall into the first
category be assigned a higher priority.
The 80-20-rule can also be applied to increase productivity: it is assumed
that 80% of the productivity can be achieved by doing 20% of the tasks.
Similarly, 80% of results can be attributed to 20% of activity. If productivity
is the aim of time management, then these tasks should be prioritized
higher. This view of the Pareto Principle is explored further in The 4-Hour
Workweek by Timothy Ferris.
It depends on the method adopted to complete the task. There is always
a simpler and easier way to complete the task. If one uses a complex
way, it will be time consuming. So, one should always try to find out the
alternate ways to complete each task.
THE EISENHOWER METHOD
This method is said to have been
used by U.S. President Dwight D.
Eisenhower, and is outlined in a
quote attributed to him: What is
important is seldom urgent and
what is urgent is seldom important.
All tasks are evaluated using the
criteria important/unimportant and
urgent/not urgent and put
in according quadrants.
Tasks in unimportant/not urgent quadrants are dropped, tasks in
important/urgent quadrants are done immediately and personally, tasks
in unimportant/urgent quadrants are delegated and tasks in
important/not urgent quadrants get an end date and are done
POSEC is an acronym for Prioritize by
Organizing, Streamlining, Economizing
your life by
may not like
to do, but
should do or
like to do, but
The method dictates a template which
emphasizes an average individual's
immediate sense of emotional and
monetary security. It suggests that by
attending to one's personal
responsibilities first, an individual is
better positioned to shoulder collective
TIME MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
∫ Blocks of work time and breaks
∫ Dedicated work spaces
∫ Prioritize your activities
∫ Achieve "stage one"--get something done!
∫ Weekly reviews
∫ Achieve "stage one"--get something done!
∫ Postpone unnecessary activities until the work is done!
∫ Identify resources to help you
∫ Use your free time wisely
IMPLEMENTATION OF GOALS
Once you have decided your goals and targets, the next step is
to implement the work that you have targeted.
To implement such work, a to-do
list or a planner works the best.
A task list (also to-do list or things-to-do) is a list of tasks to be
completed, such as chores or steps toward completing a project. It is
an inventory tool which serves as an alternative or supplement
of goals is the
ACHIEVING THE TARGET
Remember, work hard to achieve your targets
which you decided in the first step.
This the third and final step for effective time
EVERYTHING IS IMPOSSIBLE UNTIL YOU MAKE IT
IMPORTANT TIME MANAGEMENT TIPS
¥ USE PLANNER
¥ MAKE SCHEDULES AND TIME TABLES
¥ SETUP REALSITIC TARGETS
¥ REWARD YOURSELF
¥ DO NOT WASTE TIME
¥ REASONABLE TIME ALLOCATION
¥ IMPORTANT TASKS FIRST
TIME TABLES AND SCHEDULES
Time tables and schedules help you
to know which thing needs to be done
when and so on
There are various timetables such as
• Period time table
• Exam time table
• Games time table
• Study time table, etc.
Wake up 7.30 a.m.
breakfast 8.15 a.m.
To work 9.30 a.m.
Lunch 12.30 p.m.
Meeting 6.30 p.m.
Home 8.00 p.m.
Dinner 8.30 p.m.
Sleep 10.30 p.m.
PROFORMA OF A SCHEDULE/TIMETABLE
USE OF PLANNER
Planner is a multi purpose book or diary
used by students and businessmen
to record their daily routine schedule.
Planner comes very handy
when you need to note some
event or some task. It can also
be used as a to-do book.
Use of planner makes you more systematic and tidy. It will help
you to complete all your targets without any delay. It mainly
helps the human mind to forget small things which come across
the daily routine of everyperson.
Set realistic targets for your self to achieve.
Realistic means something that you can
Achieve within the allocated time .
Often people in excitement and hurry
set unrealistic targets which they can’t
achieve and at the end they face
failure and disappointment
Realistic targets, if achieved, will boost your morale and confidence
and will help you and motivate you to work even more harder which
would result into increase in you efficiency.
Reward yourself after every target that you
completed. It will motivate you to perform
better and faster.
Reward can be of any sort. it can some
food, a drink, a walk outside, watching a
By rewarding yourself, you won’t feel
tired of doing anything as you
know that you will get something
good of your choice to enjoy. Thus,
rewards work as self motivating tonics
and confidence boosters.
One thing should be kept in mind that you should not get carried away
by such rewards. Rewards should be small & limited and should be
earned only when a task is completed and not otherwise.
DO NOT WASTE TIME
Do not work hard, work smart
These are some tips for avoid time
• Do not overload on work
• Put off quick tasks
• Let daily developments drive
• Do not spend more time on
• Try to reinvent the wheel
• Find alternatives for repetitive
• Avoid disturbance as much as
REASONABLE TIME ALLOCATION
Time allocation is the allocation of time to
different tasks and activities.
The measurement of such allocations
may be used analytically in studies
of human behaviour.
Scheduling and time management may
be used to plan and control the amount
of time allocated to various activities, so
as to improve productivity and satisfy
multiple goals and targets.