Io t features_and_architecture_2009

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Io t features_and_architecture_2009

  1. 1. Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the future integrating communicating objects (RFID, captors/sensors...)Part I: Features and architecturePart I: Features and architectureAlexandru Serbanati
  2. 2. Cattid Labs22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  2 future integrating communicating objects 
  3. 3. IoT Features and Architecture IoT and definitions (RFID, WPANs, mobiles)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  3 future integrating communicating objects 
  4. 4. Internet of Things… definitions (1) “A world where things can automatically communicate to computers and each p other, providing services for the benefit of human kind ” kind. Ian Smith (President AIM UK)  ( ) CASAGRAS Coordinator22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  4 future integrating communicating objects 
  5. 5. Internet of Things… definitions (2)“A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through the exploitation of d bj h h h l i i f data capture and d communications capabilities.This infrastr ct re incl des e isting and e ol ing Internet and infrastructure includes existing evolving network developments.It will offer specific object identification sensor and connection object‐identification, capability as the basis for the development of independent f federated services and applications. These will be pp characterised by a high degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity and interoperability.” Anthony Furness, CTO of the European Centre of Excellence for AIDC CASAGRAS Technical Coordinator CASAGRAS Technical Coordinator 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  5 future integrating communicating objects 
  6. 6. Internet of Things… definitions (3) “A world where physical objects are seamlessly integrated i i d into the i f h information network, and where i k d h the physical objects can become active participants in business processes Services are available to interact processes. with these smart objects over the Internet, query and change their state and any information associated with them, taking into account security and privacy issues.” Stephan Haller, Development Architect SAP AG SAP AG22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  6 future integrating communicating objects 
  7. 7. Internet of Things… definitions (4)“The IoT concept was initially based around enabling technologies such as Radio Frequency Identification ( h l i h di d ifi i (RFID) ) or wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN), but nowadays spawns a wide variety of devices with different computing and communication capabilities – generically termed networked embedded devices (NED). […] More recent ideas have driven the IoT towards an all encompassing vision to integrate the real world into the Internet [ ]” I […]” Future Internet Assembly/Real World Internet Future Internet Assembly/Real World Internet22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  7 future integrating communicating objects 
  8. 8. My definition“A global network infrastructure, linking physical and virtual objects through the exploitation of d bj h h h l i i f data capture and d communications capabilities. This infrastructure includes existing and evolving Internet and network developments It developments. will offer specific object‐identification, sensor and connection capability as the basis for the development of independent federated services and applications. These will be characterised by a high degree of autonomous data capture, event transfer, network connectivity and i f k i i d interoperability.” bili ” Alexandru Serbanati:‐) Alexandru Serbanati: ) 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  8 future integrating communicating objects 
  9. 9. Internet of Things… so what’s that?What s that?What’s that? Cars Laptops Mobiles Augm. Reality Internet Internet of Things Pallets Servers Personal Computers Domotic sensors22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  9 future integrating communicating objects 
  10. 10. Internet of Things – Smart Objects An information network of smart objects An information network of objects that • Can connect to other IoT devices directly or  through the IoT infrastructure • Produce, use and/or transmit data to other  devices • Are highly autonomous and can interact  with physical or virtual environments and  other IoT devices22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  10 future integrating communicating objects 
  11. 11. IoT evolution Disconnected objects Identified objects Addressable objects Smart Objects (1) Agents‐based devices A t b dd i Smart Objects (2) Services provided directly by SO Ontology‐based SO22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  11 future integrating communicating objects 
  12. 12. Smart objectsFor this reason, objects shall:• Be uniquely identifiable and addressable• Have communication means (better if Have communication means (better if  wireless, mesh‐network‐like)• Produce, use and/or transmit data to other  / devices (as previously stated)• Have their own processing power• Usually are energetically autonomous (batteries Usually are energetically autonomous (batteries,  solar panels, kinetic…) or are cable powered22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  12 future integrating communicating objects 
  13. 13. IoT Features and Architecture Current Scenario (RFID, WPANs, mobiles)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  13 future integrating communicating objects 
  14. 14. Current scenario – AutoID • RFID• Printed ID (barcode, Qrcode, datamatrix, …) Printed ID (barcode, Qrcode, datamatrix, …)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  14 future integrating communicating objects 
  15. 15. Current scenario – passive RFID Technology Range (average – max*) NotesRFID  LF (134.2 or 125 kHz)RFID LF (134.2 or 125 kHz) 10 60cm 10‐60cm Resilient to water interf. Resilient to water interf. Used in animal trackingRFID HF (13.56MHz) 15‐70cm Personal ID, Building accessNFC (RFID HF) 3‐8cm Secure technology for  identification and  paymentsUHF (868MHz/900MHz) 1‐7m Logistics22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  15 future integrating communicating objects 
  16. 16. Current issues ‐ RFID• Need for a nearby reader…• With short range…• One‐way information flow… O i f ti fl• No context‐awareness…• Delivering only presence/sensor information… … not so autonomous … but it has to start somewhere 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  16 future integrating communicating objects 
  17. 17. Current scenario – WSANs• Computing devices with Computing devices with  onboard sensors or actuators• Form a network and  can access other  networks Laptops Mobiles (through gateways) (th h t ) Servers Personal Computers22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  17 future integrating communicating objects 
  18. 18. DisambiguationWS(A)N: Wireless Sensor (and Actuator) NetworkDefines the features and function of a network(LR‐)WPAN: (Low Rate) Wireless Personal Area NetworkDefines the type of (standard which is implemented by) the f yp f ( p y) network. In this case the IEEE 802.15.4 defines the PHY and MAC layers. yZigBee/SunSPOT are implementations of the IEEE802.15.4These COULD be use for creating WS(A)Ns but they don’t NEED to and not all WS(A)Ns are LR‐WPANs ( ) 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  18 future integrating communicating objects 
  19. 19. Current issues –WS(A)Ns• Reduced programmability • Reduced intelligence/autonomity Reduced intelligence/autonomity• Little security, and not for nomadic devices (devices should connect to the same network  if they need security features) if they need security features)• Low data rate• Limited scalability22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  19 future integrating communicating objects 
  20. 20. Current scenario – Mobile (One of the most under‐estimated technologies available for building up IoT!!) • Network connected – Could even provide gating for BT devices Could even provide gating for BT devices • Mobile and autonomous (by definition) • Onboard input – From sensors (GPS, microphone) From sensors (GPS, microphone) – From users • O b d Onboard output (messages, vibracall, …) ( ib ll ) • Good processing power p gp22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  20 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  21. 21. Current issues – Mobile• Not designed for collecting data WideNoise application fr Mobile devices host lots of other e components, not usable for IoT purposes, while th h hil they have only a l rom WideTag, as on Apple St reduced amount of features that could be used (i.e. adapted!) for such purposes. p p tore22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  21 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  22. 22. Current scenario – RFID ArchitectureKey features: ey eatu es:• Centralized Business Logic/ L i /• 1 way data/event flow Storage(info could be sent to readers, not objects)• Readers could be connected  Readers to central business logic  to central business logic through Intranets• Readers could be mobile Tagged objects(and use long range connections… but yet 1way)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  22 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  23. 23. Current scenario – LR‐WPAN Architecture IEEE802.15.4 ReducedKey features:Key features: Function Device• Morphologically dynamic Full Function Gateway Device• Addressability by BIZ proc!• 2 way* communication 2 way communication Business• I/O interface (sensors/actuators, …) Logic/ Storage• Internet is (eventually) used only  for tunneling for tunneling*1way data/event flow + 1way command flow to actuators*1way data/event flow + 1way command flow to actuatorsSensors don’t issue commands nor do they use data from the BIZ proc 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  23 future integrating communicating objects 
  24. 24. Current scenario – General Architecture Architectures are still heavily centralized: c tectu es a e st ea y ce t a ed: • Data flow or events, usually start from the peripheral part of th network and are i h l t f the t k d used/processed in the central part • In WSANs, communication is 2 ways, but still from the center to the periphery and vice versa. Peripheral devices don’t use the information they produce the produce, intelligence is centralized22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  24 future integrating communicating objects 
  25. 25. Current scenario – the role of Internet In nowadays applications, Internet is only  used to connect applications at higher  dt t li ti t hi h levels… not smart objects. Usually objects and business logic pertain to  different networks different networks Actual  source  source Business et Interne of data/ Logic/ Actuators/ Storage Objects Reader‐/Gateway‐ based application based application Transition from IPv4 (32bit) to IPv6 (128 bit) is underway as the current address space is quite over.22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  25 future integrating communicating objects 
  26. 26. Current scenario – Internet of Things • A unified approach is missing u ed app oac s ss g • Lack of unifying vision • Lack of unifying protocol • Exception: RFC 4944 aka 6LoWPAN aims at defining a frame format for sending IPv6 packets over LR WPANs and also ancillary LR‐WPANs conventions for header compressions in such context h22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  26 future integrating communicating objects 
  27. 27. Current use cases (2)Precision agriculture “Precision agriculture may be considered a development in which the reference to precision implies higher resolution in farming and agricultural management using higher and greater quality volumes of data acquired and processed through greater exploitation of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC), communications technologies and prospectively the functionality being defined for the Internet of Things.” CASAGRAS 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  27 future integrating communicating objects 
  28. 28. Current use cases (1)ArchRock: WSN in the VineyardA hR k WSN i th Vi d Real‐time  Vineyard Data Time saving, Remote  Accurate  A t Transpiration Correlation and  Decision  Analysis Making Sap flow Sap flow http://www.archrock.com/pics/applications/vineyards.jpg 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  28 future integrating communicating objects 
  29. 29. Current use cases (2)Adv. Patient Management Data flow optimization Process automation and  optimization Real‐time Structured data data Inter‐related data 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  29 future integrating communicating objects 
  30. 30. IoT Features and Architecture Future Scenario (Devices, Environment, Architecture)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  30 future integrating communicating objects 
  31. 31. Future Scenario: Future Devices Future devices will likely: y • Have more processing power • Be able to interact with the environment • Have more battery power Have more battery power • Their communications will have better  spectrum‐ and operation‐power‐efficiency t d ti ffi i • Be smaller and very mobile y22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  31 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  32. 32. Smart objects and future environmentSmart objects will be everywhereMoving around with usMoving around with usPermeating our environment and our lifeAutonomously interacting with itGathering and providing sensible informationGathering and providing sensible informationAt higher sampling and transmission rates22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  32 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  33. 33. Services and future environment Smart objects implementation of service  oriented architectures will likely be a key  y enabler of IoT. Services will slowly move  from – Centralized services Centralized services  – Distributed services – Autonomous and offline service  provisioning22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  33 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  34. 34. Future Scenario: IoT architectureIoT architecture:• Common worldwide  infrastructure infrastr ct re – Providing communication  infrastructure – Core services (object  ( j resolution, long range  routing, security, …) g y ) IoT architectural classification and Smart Object area 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  34 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  35. 35. Future Scenario: IoT architecture• Locally autonomous  y devices in the peripheral  area: – Core services don’t need  to be involved in each  t b i l di h interaction – Autonomous peripheral  routing, service discovery  and provision IoT architectural classification and Smart Object area 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  35 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  36. 36. Future Scenario: architecture issues• Open questions: how will  service discovery work? • Routing to nomadic  g nodes providing  needed services needed services • Location‐based service  provision IoT architectural classification and Smart Object area 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  36 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  37. 37. Future Scenario: use cases • Devices will be all around us and there us… will be lots of them (collecting more and more sensible d ) ibl data) • The number of Internet connected devices (even those that are not directly involved in the IoT scenario) will be much larger – the density of connected devices and, consequently, th chance of fi di a nearby tl the h f finding b connection will also increase22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  37 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  38. 38. Future public use case (1) Three years passed since the introduction of  mandatory traffic‐boxes aboard brand new  cars. Such sensors gather information from  cars. Such sensors gather information from IMUs, distance sensors, GPS and in some  cases are directly connected to the car s  cases are directly connected to the car’s information system.22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  38 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  39. 39. Future public use case (2) Collected information is processed and data  about traffic condition is then sent  anonymous to the National Traffic Agency  anonymous to the National Traffic Agency through a medium range wireless  communication interface ( WLAN) communication interface (~WLAN) The information collected centrally regards  mainly traffic condition and road condition. 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  39 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  40. 40. Future public use case (3) The same wireless interface is used for car‐ to‐car communication. Safety routines alert the drivers of accidents  Safety routines alert the drivers of accidents or dangerous situations ahead.  – Traffic‐boxes analyze the driving pattern – If strange, an alert to other traffic‐boxes is issued – If other traffic‐boxes detect strange patterns in  the same position (given by GPS, A GPS,  the same position (given by GPS, A‐GPS, Galileo…) drivers are alerted – Accident events and dynamics are propagated Accident events and dynamics are propagated22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  40 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  41. 41. Future private use case (1) Marienne is jogging in the park in a summer  afternoon. She used to carry nothing with her  while running, but, since she bought a virtual  trainer, she always wears a jogging belt and a  training bra.  The integrated IMUs in the belt and in the bra  accurately measure all motion components and,  accurately measure all motion components and netsweat.com thanks to complex algorithms, derive, not only  the amount of energy she expends, but also if  the amount of energy she expends but also ifwww.n the movements she makes are correct. 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  41 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  42. 42. Future private use case (2)Marienne’s belt and bra filter and process the raw data from the array of sensors and send it wirelessly to a training application running on to a training application running  on her mobile, that she keeps in an armband.The device further l bTh d i f h elaborates the d h data and dprovides a real‐time graph and some otherdata to be displayed on the display integratedin her sunglasses data. The display also g p ysignals her that Scot is in the surroundings. www.vuzix.com www vuzix com22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  42 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  43. 43. Future private use case (3) She s She’s not so surprised as before starting the as, session, she turned “visible” on her social network and authorized the training program to share her training routine and position. Mobile Instead of using the expensive broadband Voce connection of h mobile, given the l i f her bil i h low d data‐ WWAN rate needed, she decided to use the mobile to WPAN connect to the electricity company’s h l i i ’ pervasive connection for the purpose. WBAN22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  43 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  44. 44. Future private use case (4) Marienne acquired a bundle from the electricity and power company which also provides outdoor close‐range connectivity. It was very convenient as the company also provided her the wired infrastructure for her house control system and wired broadband connectivity. She believes that it was convenient for the company too as, thanks to the li carrier, all h k h line i ll the services used a common infrastructure.22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  44 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  45. 45. Thank you!! Thank o !! Q Q&ACarlo Maria Medaglia g carlomaria.medaglia [ t] uniroma.it g [a ]Alexandru Serbanati a.serbanati [a t] uniroma1.it 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  45 future integrating communicating objects 
  46. 46. IoT workshop day1, September the 22nd9.30 am - 12.30 amStrategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the future integratingcommunicating objects (RFID captors/sensors ) - Part I: Features and (RFID, captors/sensors...)architectureCarlo Maria Medaglia, Professor, University of Rome "Sapienza"(KeyNote Speaker Peter Friess - European Commission)2.00 pm - 3.30 pmStrategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the future integrating g y g gcommunicating objects (RFID, captors/sensors...) - Part II: Services andtechnological issues/ enablersAlexandru Serbanati, IOT Project Manager, RFID Lab, University of Rome"Sapienza"4.00 pm - 5.30 pmThe IOT as a New Business Opportunity: The WideTAG Case StudyLeandro Agro, Co - Founder, WideTAG22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  46 future integrating communicating objects 
  47. 47. Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the future integrating communicating objects (RFID, captors/sensors...)Part II: Service and issues/enablersPart II: Service and issues/enablersAlexandru Serbanati
  48. 48. DecentralizationSyste sSystems will be smart and pervasive  be s a t a d pe as e • Devices will need data from other devices • Devices could be called upon by other  devices to execute commands • For scalability purposes, devices will need to take charge and handle interactions autonomously, without a central application and without involving the core l d h l h area of the communication infrastructure22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  48 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  49. 49. Need for a common interfaceInhomogeneous systems will need to interact • Need for network level interfaces • Need for common software interfaces to grant device‐to‐device interoperability Solution? WEBSERVICES? WEBSERVICES like solution based IoT  IoT – Services on a lightweight protocol li ht i ht t l22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  49 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  50. 50. User Services and IoT services The term “service” is used for high level level, benefit creating activity that does not result in ownership. In IoT it will be provided by business systems to their users and will involve information or event transfer. The term “IoT service” is properly used for IoT service a software capable of providing a standard interface with other computing devices across the IoT network.22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  50 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  51. 51. Infrastructure services The term “infrastructure service” is used infrastructure service referring to an IoT service run by the governance or managing body of the IoT IoT, providing smart objects critical information for the operation of the IoT itself. Examples: • Resource identification • R ti /h d Routing/handover for nomadic devices f di d i • Security infrastructure22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  51 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  52. 52. Service architecture ‐ today sel Art by Tiago Hois Business Logic/ user Storage Gateway22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  52 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  53. 53. Service architecture ‐ today Business Logic/ Storage Art by Tiago Hoisel user22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  53 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  54. 54. Service architecture – One step farther • Objects have given tasks • Objects autonomously  g gather data from known  sources in order to  Internet of Things accomplish their tasks  (v0.5) • g Existing communication  infrastructure Gateway• Next step: autonomous  • Requests sent directly to  identification of needed  user  pertinent smart object resources thanks to infra  resources thanks to infra node services 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  54 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  55. 55. Service architecture ‐ today22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  55 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  56. 56. IoT Services• Remote control – (environment, hazardous  or restricted areas, remote service portability)• Complex decisions – (before raising an Complex decisions (before raising an  intrusion alarm, check if there were  earthquakes) h k )• Distributed medical or leisure apps. Distributed medical or leisure apps.• Remote service access – e.g. a car  updating the National Traffic Service with info  on the current highway on the current highway22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services  56 of the future integrating communicating objects 
  57. 57. Service architecture – two steps further• If the Edge or Core  If the Edge or Core areas could not be  reached• Service Discovery: Each network  Service Discovery: Each network should provide an IoT service for the  identification of available services in  that ((W)PAN) network that ((W)PAN) network• Devices in the network should work on,  providing their IoT services on a local basis  22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  57 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  58. 58. IoT peripheral services ‐ ExamplesNew “web”‐services for new networks(Aka “Why should the network work on?”)• Network Storage – not all devices will have storage  Network Storage not all devices will have storage capabilities; moreover, network storage in decentralized  networks should be redundant. networks should be redundant• Environment control – only needs local data• Service portability – e.g. SMS/social network  messages between computer and mobile22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  58 future integrating communicating objects 
  59. 59. Pervasiveness and service architecture Wireless networkingg Nomadic, Morphologically dynamic and  mesh networks h k Greater use of Personal and Body area  Greater use of Personal and Body area Networks Local Area Network(d is the typical connection distance ) Personal Area Network  Body Area Network  d ≈ 100m d ≈ 10m d ≈ 1m 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  59 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  60. 60. Pervasiveness and service architecture Body Area Network  d ≈ 1m22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  60 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  61. 61. When choosing a protocol, remember that …22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  61 future integrating communicating objects 
  62. 62. IoT Features and Architecture Issues and enablers (what hinders and what  promotes the advent of IoT) promotes the advent of IoT)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  62 future integrating communicating objects 
  63. 63. Issues Different kind of issues: • Technological • Standards • Legislation and governance Legislation and governance • Social • Cost22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  63 future integrating communicating objects 
  64. 64. Technological IssuesTechnological issues are mainly related to HW• Autonomy – Smart objects will need to be  as autonomous as possible as autonomous as possible • Battery capacity – the most direct way to  improve autonomy • Processing, RX and TX power efficiency Processing RX and TX power‐efficiency – the most effective way to improve  autonomy22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  64 future integrating communicating objects 
  65. 65. Technological Issues (2)• Transmission rates – larger bandwidth paves  the way for new kinds of services (especially  th f ki d f i ( i ll multimedia) • RX and TX power‐efficiency – even now,  there are high data rate transmission  there are high data‐rate transmission solutions, but they are too power consuming • Spectrum efficiency – wireless connectable  ffi i i l bl devices will populate future environment  much more densely, but the radio spectrum  is a limited resource: optimization is needed is a limited resource: optimization is needed 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  65 future integrating communicating objects 
  66. 66. Technological Issues (3)• Processing power‐efficiency • Low‐power processing – general‐purpose processing capabilities is what (together with the capability of fetching data form the right sources) is what will make objects smart • Low‐power cryptographic hardware – security i implementation i l i employ l computationally intensive cryptographic operations; hardware implementation greatly reduces power consumption 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  66 future integrating communicating objects 
  67. 67. Technological Issues (4)• Information explosion – will the infrastructures resist t th i i t to the increase of d t collection and f data ll ti d transfer Increment ratios (under current drivers): • Magnetic storage: <2times/yr (Kryder’s law) (Kryder s • Transistor density: ~2times/yr (Moor’s law) What is going to happen if IoT will become a prominent driver? 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  67 future integrating communicating objects 
  68. 68. Standardization IssuesStandardization is needed for the IoT• Communication standards • Services – (already discussed) • HW communication solutions: “The only way to achieve [low cost solutions] is i to agree common architectural principles i hi l i i l in global cooperation and based on these create the open standards needed to guarantee g oba te ope ab ty global interoperability.” Excerpt from Future Internet 2020, Excerpt from Future Internet 2020 VISIONS OF AN INDUSTRY EXPERT GROUP22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  68 future integrating communicating objects 
  69. 69. Legislation and Governance Issues• Lack of legislation and lack of harmoni‐ zation b between d ff different regulations l• Need for a comprehensive privacy regulation and enforcement framework• Regulation of Intellectual Property on collected data in open environments (is it property of the environment’s owner, the sensor owner’s, of service provider, …))22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  69 future integrating communicating objects 
  70. 70. Future issues• Mobility: this means that the short range communication interface of nomadic devices will need to switch through different (and unknown) networks that will be providing gating services in order to maintain a connection to the core area of IoT (e.g. a CA). 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and  70 services of the future integrating  communicating objects
  71. 71. Future issues• Service mobility: future services should take advantage of the enlarged Personal Digital Space • More solutions to provide the same service = p • = more devices on which to run same service • User able to choose the device for a service • User able to move a service from one device to another i a secure way h in • If scalability of the service is needed, transparency is paramount for service success22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  71 future integrating communicating objects 
  72. 72. Future issues: policy could be the key• Devices will be able to provide multiple kind of  services and interact with the environment  i di ih h i and/or be part of it.  • Critical services will need different security  levels and different access rights levels and different access rights • Private owners could need exclusivity or  share only some services22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  72 future integrating communicating objects 
  73. 73. Future issues: policy could be the key • Providers will want to provide given services  only to some (categories) of users ( l ( i ) f (e.g. their  h i clients) • New kinds of interaction between Service  Providers, Users and (new types of) Providers Users and (new types of) Connection Providers need new regulation • Should provide some services even when  not connected to the core of IoT (without or  ( with weaker authentication) Priv/Security policies P i /S it li i22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  73 future integrating communicating objects 
  74. 74. Social IssuesIoT will have a great impact on society• Not all segments of society will benefit in the same way from the IoT features• Cultural background will influence how people will view and exploit IoT• Social Networking will become ubiquitous and extremely pervasive bi it d t l i22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  74 future integrating communicating objects 
  75. 75. Some thoughts about the future scenario• Users will need to be in control of  1. Their privacy 2. The security of their devices 2 The security of their devices• The final goal should see smart objects able to  transparently manage the interaction with the  y g environment and other devices by using user‐ defined policies• For this t d d F thi standards and a robust infrastructure  d b ti f t t of core services are needed GOVERNANCE 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  75 future integrating communicating objects 
  76. 76. Some thoughts about the future scenario• Design for security. The infrastructure and core services d i f providing a secure and i design for idi d usable IoT is paramount.• Security through usability. Users should be able to understand and manage the security and privacy features of their devices. The governance should supervise thi process. h ld i this• Design and certification of security standards. g y Standardization is essential for limited devices.22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  76 future integrating communicating objects 
  77. 77. Enablers for the IoT• Semantics first and then ontology first, will enable the devices forming the IoT to become Smart Objects• Miniaturization is closely related to pervasiveness. Moreover, RFID miniaturization could pave the way introducing to the digital currently inert objects22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  77 future integrating communicating objects 
  78. 78. Enablers for the IoT• New connection technologies – UWB: • Low Power Consumption: Very Simple Architecture,  One Bit ADC  • Low Cost:  CMOS Implementation • Hi h L ti A High Location Accuracy:  Narrow Pulse ,  ~75cm in 70m region (AWGN) N P l ~75 i 70 i (AWGN) – IEEE 802.15.3a/4a: • Respectively High‐Rate and LowRate WPAN Respectively High‐Rate and LowRate WPAN – IEEE 802.21:  • “standards to enable handover and interoperability between heterogeneous  p y g network types” – Flash OFDM (IEEE 802.20)22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  78 future integrating communicating objects 
  79. 79. Enablers for the IoT• New emerging solutions for reduced time to market • SunSPOT – Sun Small Programmable Object Technology, JME programmable 802.15.4 implementation • ArchRock – off the shelf IPv6 based WPAN IPv6‐based solutions• Manifested i if d interest of l di b di such as f leading bodies, h the European Commission22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  79 future integrating communicating objects 
  80. 80. Open and (yet) unpredictable issues• How will service discovery actually work? k?• Policies for Object management are essential. How will these Smart Objects be b secured and work? d d k?22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  80 future integrating communicating objects 
  81. 81. Open and (yet) unpredictable issues• Will the impact on privacy change our way of li i ? f living?• Will availability of new kind of services change our way of living (in better)?• How will the advent of the IoT impact and interact with the digital divide?• Smart Objects vs Smart environment… What about optical ID?22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  81 future integrating communicating objects 
  82. 82. [ Thank you!! Thank o !! [whistleeee] ] Q ( y ) Q&(maybe)A Use a WSN!Alexandru Serbanati a.serbanati [a t] uniroma1.it 22‐23/09/09 Strategic vision on IoT Key features and services of the  82 future integrating communicating objects 
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