The causes and the remedies of the water pollution THE WATER
WATER ON THE EARTH
Water in nature is one of the main constituents of ecosystems and is the basis of all known life forms, including humans. It was the basis of the origin of life on our planet and it is essential to civil, agricultural and industrial use. Men recognized since ancient times its importance, and identified as one of the main constituents of the universe, giving it a deep symbolic value, found in major religions.
THE WATER POLLUTION Poland water pollution Italy water pollution
Assessment of the degree of pollution
The degree of pollution is determined by the so-called i ndicators of pollution, which refers to the concentration of the substance in milligrams per 1 dm ³ of water. One of the most important indicators of surface water pollution is the concentration of dissolved oxygen , which can take the maximum value of 8.9 mg/dm3 - lower concentration of oxygen indicates the pollution of organic compounds, biochemical degradation, decrease in oxygen concentrations below 4 mg/dm3 causes death of many aquatic organisms . Other indicators of pollution of natural waters are: biochemical oxygen demand , which is a measure of the content of biochemical degradable organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand - a measure of the contents of all organic compounds, the presence of suspended mineral and organic, and inorganic and organic compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus .
Water pollution is divided into: Natural, derived from impurities contained in the surface waters and groundwater’s Artificial associated with human activity: a) biological, due to the presence of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, protozoa and their toxins b) chemical, refer to changes in chemical composition and pH. These include oil, petrol, grease, oil, detergents, pesticides, fertilizers, aromatic hydrocarbons, heavy metal salts, strong acids, alkalis, phenols and cresols.
Protection of water resources is primarily on the technical solution, such as: - the application of technology without wastewater - of aeration of stagnant water - by closing water circuits - for mine water recycling and re-injection of water into the ground - to secure the dumps and landfills - a wastewater treatment
Methods of wastewater treatment: - Mechanical-consisting of the removal of insoluble impurities - Chemical-precipitation consisting of certain soluble compounds or their neutralization - The most important in the biological wastewater treatment technologies, involving the purification of pollutants by the action of microorganisms Wastewater Treatment Technology
Water contamination in Czestochowa : Major water pollution and sediments come from municipal and industrial wastewater and runoff pollution of the area of agricultural crops. Stradomk a`s water is polluted by industrial waste water and rainwater drainage. Smaller industrial plants located in Czestochowa dischar ge wastewater into municipal sewage systems and municipal wastewater to the Central Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Company "Warta" in Czestochowa .
Purpose of wastewater treatment : The primary objective of wastewater treatment is to protect the natural environment, and above all to protect the purity of surface waters.
Causes of water pollution in Italy
They contain large amounts of human excrement and should be purified. Unfortunately they are not (just half of them).
Sludges can contain microorganisms that cause diseases (cholera, salmonellosis, etc.) , and can be very dangerous for men.
The sewers of the city Agriculture P esticides used in agriculture remain on the ground and plants , so when it rains the water enters in the ground and it becomes polluted. Then water reaches water-bearing stratums where nitrates and phosphates , which are in it becouse of fertilizers used in agriculture, are released and then they spread.
The toxic industrial waste
Heavy metals (mercury, often used as a fungicide; lead used in batteries , etc.)
The metal oxides and other products of the pharmaceutical industry.
Hydrocarbons toxic (used to make insecticides such as DDT or processing of plastics and paints)
Industries released toxic waste , which contain Heavy metals , Hydrocarbons and C h romium, in rivers and seas.
Most of the seas are polluted by oil, and one of the most polluted seas in the world is the Mediterranean, because its waters are renewed very slowly (80-100 years).
Some oil tankers wash their tanks with sea water, and there are also a lot of accidents. In this way, million tons of oil are discharged into the oceans. Mediterranean (only 1% of the world seas) concentrates 28% of global oil pollution.
The oil forms a thick, surface layer, called "black tide", which prevents oxygenation of water and sunlight penetration. Organisms cannot live without oxygen and sunlight. So the damages to the enviroment are irreparable.
Water hardness tap Water hardness course Water hardness source Temperature tap Temperature course Temperature source pH tap pH course pH source Warta Molgora
Arnone Matteo Belingheri Omar Fasce Federico Migliorino Lorenzo Ernest Kyć Michał Stolarski Adam Chłąd Kamil Tratkiewicz