Balanced Leadership: Leadership at all levels

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A detailed presentation on leadership on many levels of the educational system, from the highest level of superintendent administration all the way down to classroom initiatives. A look into curriculum modification, creation of the optimal learning environment, as well as student-teacher and teacher-teacher interaction.

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Balanced Leadership: Leadership at all levels

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP THAT WORKS
  2. 2. Leadership Purposeful Community Purposeful Community FOCUS MAGNITUDE School practices Create demand Leadership Leadership Classroom practices Implement Student Manage transitions characteristics Monitor and evaluate LeadershipMCREL’S BALANCED LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK Purposeful Community
  3. 3.  LEADERSHIP IS SECOND ONLY TO CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION AMONG ALL SCHOOL RELATED FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO LEARNING. (APPROXIMATELY ONE-QUARTER OF TOTAL SCHOOL EFFECTS) LEADERSHIP EFFECTS ARE USUALLY LARGER WHEN AND WHERE THEY ARE NEEDED MOST. (Leithwood, Lewis, Anderson, Wahlstrom, 2004)
  4. 4.  The average correlation between principal leadership behavior and school achievement is 0.25 A one standard deviation increase in teacher perceptions of principal leadership is associated with a 10 percentile gain in school achievement
  5. 5.  Make a list of leadership practices which principals use to influence student achievement.Share with a partner.Review list of Responsibilities and Practices
  6. 6.  AFFIRMATION  INVOLVEMENT IN CIA CHANGE AGENT  KNOWLEDGE OF CIA COMMUNICATION  MONITOR/EVALUATE CONTINGENT REWARD  OPTIMIZE CULTURE  ORDER DISCIPLINE  OUTREACH FLEXIBILITY  RELATIONSHIPS FOCUS  RESOURCES IDEALS AND BELIEFS  SITUATIONAL INPUT AWARENESS INTELLECTUAL  VISIBILITY STIMULATION
  7. 7.  The average correlation between district leadership behavior and achievement is 0.24A one standard deviation increase in district level leadership is associated with a 9.5 percentile point difference in mean student achievement.
  8. 8.  Make a list of the activities which district leaders conduct which lead to improved student achievement. Share with a partner. Review list of District Practices
  9. 9. 1. COLLABORATIVE GOAL-SETTING PROCESS2. NON-NEGOTIABLE GOALS FOR ACHIEVEMENT AND INSTRUCTION3. BOARD ALIGNMENT WITH AND SUPPORT OF DISTRICT GOALS4. USE OF RESOURCES TO SUPPORT THE GOALS5. MONITORING GOALS6. DEFINED AUTONOMY: DISTRICT/SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP
  10. 10. Complete the “District GPSTool”, rating your district’s useof research-based practices.Share with a partner.
  11. 11. LEADERS PERCEIVED ASSTRONG DON’T ALWAYS HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT What might explain this finding?
  12. 12.  FAILURE TO CHOOSE THE RIGHT FOCUS FAILURETO GUIDE CHANGE EFFECTIVELY FAILURE TO BUILD SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND SHARED ACCOUNTABILITY FOR RESULTS
  13. 13. LeadershipPurposeful Community Purposeful Community FOCUS MAGNITUDE School practices Leadership Leadership Create demand Classroom practices Implement Student Manage transitions characteristics Monitor and evaluate Leadership MCREL’S BALANCED LEADERSHIP FRAMEWORK Purposeful Community
  14. 14. “Improvement is more a function oflearning to do the right thing in thesetting where you work than it is ofwhat you know when you start towork.” (Richard Elmore)
  15. 15. “Doing your best isn’t good enough if you don’t know what you are doing.”
  16. 16.  IN WHAT WAYS IS  IN WHAT WAYS IS YOUR SCHOOL YOUR SCHOOL DISTRICT’S FOCUS DISTRICT’S FOCUS ORGANIZED ORGANIZED AROUND SPECIFIC AROUND OTHER STUDENT IMPROVEMENT OUTCOMES? INITIATIVES?
  17. 17. • Focus on improving school and classroom practices that are already well developed and implemented.• Focus on school and classroom practices that are implemented marginally.• Focus on practices that lack evidence for improving student achievement.
  18. 18. • CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONAL  CLASSROOM PRACTICES INSTRUCTION THAT• CLASSROOM-LEVEL WORKS (2001) PRACTICES, SCHOOL-LEVEL PRACTICES AND STUDENT CHARACTERISTICS  WHAT WORKS IN SCHOOLS (2003)• SCHOOL-LEVEL LEADERSHIP RESPONSIBILITIES AND PRACTICES  SCHOOL LEADERSHIP THAT WORKS (2005)FINDINGS FROM META-ANALYSIS PUBLICATIONS
  19. 19. • GUARANTEED AND VIABLE • INSTRUCTIONAL CURRICULUM STRATEGIES• CHALLENGING GOALS AND • CLASSROOM EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK MANAGEMENT• PARENT AND COMMUNITY • CLASSROOM INVOLVEMENT CURRICULUM DESIGN• SAFE AND ORDERLY ENVIRONMENT • STUDENT LEVEL• COLLLEGIALITY AND • HOME ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALISM • BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE • MOTIVATIONSCHOOL LEVEL CLASSROOM LEVEL
  20. 20. 1. OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN2. TIME3. MONITORING4. PRESSURE TO ACHIEVE5. PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT6. SCHOOL CLIMATE7. COMMUNICATION AND DECISION-MAKING8. COOPERATION
  21. 21. 1. IDENTIFY AND COMMUNICATE THE CONTENT CONSIDERED ESSENTIAL FOR ALL STUDENTS2. ENSURE THAT THIS CONTENT CAN BE ADDRESSED IN THE TIME AVAILABLE3. SEQUENCE AND ORGANIZE THIS CONTENT SO THAT STUDENTS HAVE AMPLE OPPORTUNITY TO LEARN IT4. ENSURE THAT TEACHERS ADDRESS THIS CONTENT5. PROTECT THE INSTRUCTIONAL TIME AVAILABLE
  22. 22.  WHAT OBSTACLES DO LEADERS FACE IN IMPLEMENTING A GUARANTEED AND VIABLE CURRICULUM? WHAT LEADERSHIP KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND DISPOSITIONS ARE REQUIRED TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN THIS IMPLEMENTATION?
  23. 23. 1. IMPLEMENT AN ASSESSMENT SYSTEM THAT PROVIDES TIMELY FEEDBACK ON STUDENT ATTAINMENT OF KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS2. ESTABLISH SPECIFIC, CHALLENGING ACHIEVEMENT GOALS FOR THE SCHOOL AS A WHOLE3. ESTABLISH SPECIFIC GOALS FOR INDIVIDUAL STUDENTS
  24. 24. 1. YOUR SCHOOL-WIDE GOALS AND PERFORMANCE TARGETS FOR THIS YEAR2. THE PROCESS USED TO ESTABLISH THEM3. THE DATA USED TO ESTABLISH GOALS AND TARGETS4. YOUR PROCEDURES FOR DATA MONITORING AND REPORTING
  25. 25. 1. Communication between home and school is regular, two- way and meaningful2. Parenting skills are promoted and supported3. Parents play an integral role in assisting student learning4. Parents are welcome in the school, and their support and assistance are sought5. Parents are full partners in the decisions that affect children and families6. Community resources used to strengthen schools, families and student learning.
  26. 26. ASSESS YOUR DISTRICTAND SHARE WITH APARTNER
  27. 27.  SCHOOL CLIMATE---- THE EXTENT TO WHICH A SCHOOL CREATES AN ATMOSPHERE THAT STUDENTS PERCEIVE AS ORDERLY AND SUPPORTIVE
  28. 28. 1. STUDENT CENTERED LEARNING2. PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY3. STUDENT CONNECTEDNESS TO SCHOOL/ADULTS/PEERS4. CONTINUUM OF STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES5. GENUINE STUDENT, SCHOOL, FAMILY AND COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS6. SHARED LEADERSHIP
  29. 29.  TO WHAT EXTENT DOES YOUR DISTRICT ADDRESS EACH OF THESE STANDARDS? WHICH ARE AREAS OF RELATIVE STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS?
  30. 30. • COMMUNICATION/DECISION-MAKING--- THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE SCHOOL LEADER IS AN INFORMATION PROVIDER AND FACILITATES GROUP DECISION-MAKING• COOPERATION--- THE EXTENT TO WHICH STAFF MEMBERS SUPPORT ONE ANOTHER BY SHARING RESOURCES, IDEAS AND SOLUTIONS TO COMMON PROBLEMS
  31. 31.  “In the past, if you asked someone in a successful enterprise what caused the success, the answer was ‘it’s the people’. But that’s only partially true: it is actually the relationships that make the difference.” Michael Fullan (2001)
  32. 32.  INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT CLASSROOM CURRICULUM DESIGN
  33. 33.  HOW WOULD YOU HELP TEACHERS GAIN EXPERTISE IN THESE AREAS? HOW WOULD YOU MONITOR TEACHER PERFORMANCE IN THESE AREAS?
  34. 34.  HOME ENVIRONMENT LEARNED INTELLIGENCE AND BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE STUDENT MOTIVATION
  35. 35. “We transform dysfunctional relationships intofunctional ones, not by continuing to do whatwe already know how to do more intensivelyand with greater enthusiasm…
  36. 36. …but by learning how to do new things and, perhaps more importantly,learning how to attach positive value tothe learning and the doing of new things.”
  37. 37. LeadershipPurposeful Community Purposeful CommunityFOCUS MAGNITUDE Leadership LeadershipSchool practices Create demandClassroom practices ImplementStudent characteristics Manage transitions Monitor and evaluate Leadership
  38. 38.  JOHN KOTTER VIDEO
  39. 39. 1. In what ways have schools changed during your professional career?2. What has been the effect of these changes on educators personally and on their relationships with one another?3. What effect have these changes had on expectations for school leaders?
  40. 40.  What are your assumptions about the future and its impact on schools? In what ways must schools adapt to the changing environment?
  41. 41.  Inadequate literacy and numeracy skills among large segments of our student and adult populations An ongoing shift in the demographic profile of our population, powered by the highest immigration rates in nearly a century The continued evolution of the economy and the nation’s job structure, requiring higher levels of skills fro an increasing proportion of workers
  42. 42. RECALL TWO CHANGES (ONE SELF-INITIATED AND THE OTHER EXTERNALLY IMPOSED) WHICH YOU HAVE GUIDED AS AN EDUCATIONAL LEADER.CONSIDER ACTIONS YOU TOOK AND WHETHER YOU WERE SUCCESSFUL OR UNSUCCESSFUL.
  43. 43. 1. What motivates people to change?2. Why do some changes stick and others do not?3. Why are some changes more difficult than others?
  44. 44. “Change in education is easy to propose, hard to implement, and extraordinarily difficult to sustain.” Hargreaves and Fink, 2006
  45. 45. “Individuals and organizations have an amazing capacity to maintain their beliefs and practices in the face of massive, well-intentioned efforts to change them.” Sparks, 2009
  46. 46. “Our ancient ancestors might have enjoyed heated schools and comfortable buses much earlier had there not been such a visceral opposition to the new initiatives of fire and the wheel.” (Reeves, 2009)
  47. 47.  The magnitude of change is defined by the implications it has for the people expected to implement it and/or those who will be impacted by it. The same change can be perceived differently by different stakeholders. (McRel, 2006)
  48. 48.  INCREMENTAL  FUNDEMENTAL TECHNICAL  ADAPTIVE CONTINUOUS  DISCONTINUOUS FIRST ORDER  SECOND ORDER
  49. 49. DO STAKEHOLDERS PERCEIVE THE CHANGE AS… An extension or a break with the past? Consistent or inconsistent with prevailing organizational norms? Congruent or incongruent with personal values? Easily learned or requiring new knowledge and skills?
  50. 50.  Recall a time in your life when you participated in a change with second order implications. Share the experience with others, relating how you felt and assessing how it worked out.
  51. 51.  Kotter video
  52. 52. 1. CREATE A SENSE OF URGENCY Help others see the need for change and the importance of acting immediately.“The leader must make clear that the price of stagnation entails pain that is greater than that associated with the proposed change.” Reeves, 2002
  53. 53. 2. PULL TOGETHER THE GUIDING TEAM Make sure there is a powerful group guiding the change---one with leadership skills, credibility, communications ability, authority, analytical skills, and a sense of urgency. “Superintendents, principals and other administrative leaders are necessary but insufficient elements of change leadership.” Reeves, 2009
  54. 54. DEVELOP THE CHANGE VISION AND STRATEGYClarify how the future will be different from the past, and how you can make that future a reality.“Without long-term goals, a school will focus on the immediate, the expedient and often the superficial.” Glickman, 2003
  55. 55. SET THE DECIDE WHAT TO STAGE? DO? Create a Sense of  Develop the Change Urgency Vision and Strategy Pull Together the Guiding Team
  56. 56. 4. COMMUNICATE FOR UNDERSTANDING AND BUY-IN—Make sure that as many others as possible understand and accept the vision and strategy5. EMPOWER OTHERS TO ACT—Remove as many barriers as possible6. PRODUCE SHORT TERM WINS —Create some visible, clear successes ASAP7. DON’T LET UP—Press harder and faster after first successes
  57. 57. 8. CREATE A NEW CULTURE Hold on to the new ways of behaving, and make sure they succeed, until they become strong enough to replace old traditions “In change efforts, culture comes last, not first…A culture truly changes only when a new way of operating has been shown to succeed over some minimum period of time.” (Kotter and Cohen, 2002)
  58. 58.  CREATE DEMAND IMPLEMENT WITH QUALITY, FIDELITY, INTENSITY AND CONSISTENCY MONITOR AND EVALUATE—ASSESS IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH BASED PRACTICES; ATTEND TO LEADING INDICATORS MANAGE PERSONAL TRANSITIONS
  59. 59. Change is situational;Transition is psychological “When a change happens without people going through a transition, it is just a rearrangement of the chairs.” Bridges, 2003
  60. 60. LEADERS MUST: IDENTIFY WHO IS LOSING WHAT RECOGNIZE THE SIGNS OF GRIEVING ACKNOWLEDGE THEIR LOSS FIND SOME WAY TO COMPENSATE FOR THE LOSS
  61. 61. NOTHING SEEMS TO WORK; PRODUCTION DIPS; BOTH CREATIVITY AND CHAOS ARE POSSIBLE; SOME MEMBERS WANT TO RUSH FORWARD WHILE OTHERS RETREAT“The neutral zone is like the wilderness through which Moses led his people…It is the winter during which the spring’s new growth is taking shape under the earth.” (Bridges,2003)
  62. 62. LEADERS MUST: EXPLAIN THE PURPOSE —help people understand the purpose behind the change. SHOW THE PICTURE—show what the outcome will look and feel like. LAY OUT THE PLAN—have a plan for how to get from here to there. ALLOCATE A PART FOR EVERYONE — Give people a part in the plan and the outcomes.
  63. 63. What are ways you have managed these phases in your leadership experience? ENDING (DYING) NEUTRAL ZONE (CHAOS) NEW BEGINNING (RENEWAL)
  64. 64.  “INSTRUCTIONAL IMPROVEMENT IS A CONSTANT CYCLE OF DECISIONS, DISCOVERY AND FUTURE DECISIONS, AS WE EXPLORE THE UNKNOWN.” Glickman, 2003
  65. 65. LeadershipPurposeful Community Purposeful Community FOCUS MAGNITUDE School practices Leadership Leadership Create demand Classroom practices Implement Student Manage transitions characteristics Monitor and evaluate Leadership Purposeful Community
  66. 66.  Composed of collaborative teams Whose members work interdependently To achieve common goals linked to The purpose of learning for all
  67. 67.  A FOCUS ON LEARNING FOCUS ON COLLABORATIVE CULTURE FOCUS ON RESULTS PROVIDE TIMELY, RELEVANT FEEDBACK DuFour, DuFour, Eaker
  68. 68. A purposeful community is one with: The collective efficacy and capability to develop and use assets to accomplish purposes and produce outcomes that matter to all through agreed-upon processes
  69. 69.  Moving from a community where we can accomplish outcomes individually to one where we can do so only because we are together Use “holding environments”, safe spaces where all staff members can talk with one another about challenges and assumptions—Exs. Study groups, focus groups, structured dialogues, protocols, strategic questioning
  70. 70.  Have physical existence  Are difficult to see or touch Can be touched or seen  Are difficult to measure  Are the basis for making Can leave the community tangible assets more effective Can be more or less useful as a  Examples: leadership, result of intangible assets planning process, attitudes about the use of technology Examples: leader. Strategic plan, computersTangible Assets Intangible Assets
  71. 71.  Leadership  Technology Strategy execution processes Communication and  Human capital transparency  Workplace Brand and reputation organization and Networks and culture alliances  Innovation(Low and Kalafut,  Intellectual capital 2002)  Adaptability
  72. 72. PROCESSES THAT FOSTER: Patterns of communication Relationships among community members A sense of well-being Connections between the school and other institutions Shared leadership opportunities A sense of order and discipline (Waters and Cameron, 2006)
  73. 73.  Guidelines for human conduct  The ways in which we that are proven to have operationalize principles to enduring value create ground rules for the common good. Examples: Integrity, inclusiveness, Excellence,  Transparency requires Service, Responsibility, Quality, Honor, Openness, of us that we…. Fairness, Honesty, Patience, Courage, Transparency (Covey, 1989)PRINCIPLES AGREEMENTS
  74. 74.  A shared perception or belief held by a group that the group can organize and execute a course of action that makes a difference. (Goddard, 2005)In fact, the group must believe that the only way to reach extraordinary heights is by working together in a collective effort.
  75. 75. Efficacious schools are more likely to: Accept challenging goals Demonstrate stronger efforts Persist in efforts to overcome difficulties and succeed
  76. 76.  Set feasible goals Interpret achievement data as evidence of success or failure to meet goals Identify exemplars of successful performance Create opportunities for teachers to observe one another Persuade teachers of the ability to become an effective organization through supervision and staff development Reduce teacher stress from district mandates and community expectations
  77. 77.  Complete the Professional Learning Community Assessment Tool. Share your results with a partner.
  78. 78. “REMEMBER THE TITANS”
  79. 79. LeadershipPurposeful Community Purposeful Community FOCUS MAGNITUDE Leadership Leadership School practices Create demand Classroom practices Implement Student characteristics Manage transitions Monitor and evaluate Leadership

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