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Running Head: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 1
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults
Catherine Schulze
PSY350: ...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 2
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults
The neurological disorder that will be d...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 3
cortico-striatal pathways, the functioning of an alternative neurocircuitry, whi...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 4
Epidemiology of the disorder (demographics of those affected) “In half of Obsess...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 5
neuroimaging, and other biological studies” (Rao, 2012). “Deep brain stimulation...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 6
References
Reid, J., Storch, E., & Murphy, T. (2011). Clinical Correlates and Tr...
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 7
Bandelow, B., Sher, L., Bunevicius, R., Hollander, E., Kasper, S., Zohar, J., & ...
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Obsessive compulsive disorder in adults assignment to turn in for grade

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Transcript of "Obsessive compulsive disorder in adults assignment to turn in for grade"

  1. 1. Running Head: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 1 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults Catherine Schulze PSY350: Physiological Psychology Instructor: Danielle Carr May 26, 2014
  2. 2. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 2 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults The neurological disorder that will be discussed in this assignment will be that of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder but in greater depth regarding everything that was listed for the research of its characteristics and who is targeted and why to have such a debilitating disorder. The research that was done for this assignment is based on the DSM-5 model and other useful and resourceful sources according to APA guidelines. After choosing the disorder of OCD, I realized that the issues I have regarding this disorder are nothing comparable to much more serious cases, and that the research that I collected for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder includes all of the following factors required to relate to OCD and my close observation of someone that I know that suffers from this disorder. The following description of the pathological features & clinical criteria for the diagnosis of OCD is currently being studied and examined by clinicians and “The current study examined clinical correlates and treatment response as they relate to auxiliary clinical characteristics (i.e., insight; avoidance; indecisiveness; sense of responsibility; pervasive slowness; pathological doubt; duration of obsession-free and compulsion-free intervals) in 172 adults with OCD…” (Reid, Storch, & Murphy, 2011). The biopsychological theories of the pathology are the following research studies I was able to collect on the subject. “Anxiety is an important component of the psychopathology of the obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, neurobiological studies of OCD came to conclusions that are not always compatible with those previously associated with other anxiety disorders. Clues about the neurocircuits involved in the manifestation of anxiety disorders have been obtained through the study of animal anxiety models, structural and functional neuroimaging in humans. These investigations suggest that in OCD, in addition to dysfunction in
  3. 3. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 3 cortico-striatal pathways, the functioning of an alternative neurocircuitry, which involves amygdala-cortical interactions and participates in fear conditioning and extinction processes, may be impaired…” (Diniz, Miguel, de Oliveira, Reimer, Brandão, de Mathis, & Hoexter, 2012). The Nervous system structure(s), neurotransmitter(s), receptor(s), & pathways implicated in the disorder navigate through the brain and the CNS. “Anxiety disorders are frequently under-diagnosed conditions in primary care, although they can be managed effectively by general practitioners. First-line pharmacological treatments for these disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (for all disorders), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (for some) and pregabalin (for generalized anxiety disorder only). A combination of medication and cognitive behavior/exposure therapy was shown to be a clinically desired treatment strategy…” (Bandelow, Sher, Bunevicius, Hollander, Kasper, Zohar, & Möller, 2012). “The present review and critique of extant etiological theories centers on a single finding: “Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common, disabling, psychiatric disease combining intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviours (compulsions). Although most patients respond well to conventional pharmacological and/or psychological therapy, 25-30%, often with extremely severe symptoms, fails to improve after treatment. High-frequency stimulation of deep brain structures (basal ganglia included), a surgical technique developed for movement disorders and otherwise known as deep brain stimulation (DBS), has been proposed as an alternative to ablative surgery for these intractable cases... " (Haynes, & Mallet, 2010). ODC is heritable (0.78) and not significantly influenced but shared-in-families environmental factors…” (Hertler, 2014).
  4. 4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 4 Epidemiology of the disorder (demographics of those affected) “In half of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) patients the disorder runs a chronic course despite treatment. The factors determining this unfavorable outcome remain unknown. The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study is a Multicentre naturalistic cohort study of the biological, psychological and social determinants of chronicity in a clinical sample. The baseline measurements also include DNA and blood sampling and data on demographic and personality variables…”( Schuurmans, Balkom, Megen, Smit, Eikelenboom, Cath, & Oppen, 2012). Clinical presentation and natural history of the condition “Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic anxiety disorder with an estimated lifetime prevalence in adults of 2-3 %. Our aim is to provide an overview of the development of effective psychological treatments for OCD, together with a systematic literature review of the latest research in the field: obsessive--compulsive disorder, cognitive-behavioural therapy, exposure, response prevention, cognitive therapy. Nevertheless, more studies are still needed, mainly focusing on long-term follow-up, group-treatment and the combined use of CBT with SSRIs…” (Podea, Suciu, Suciu, & Ardelean, 2009). The current treatment options both pharmacologic & non-pharmacologic, are Neurocognitive assessments and deep brain stimulation. “Neurocognitive assessments are useful to determine the locus of insult as well as functional capacities of patients on treatment. In psychiatry, neurocognitive assessment is useful in the identification of brain lesions, evaluation of cognitive deterioration over time, and advancement of theories regarding the neuroanatomical localization of symptoms. Such as OCD, by incorporating findings from neurocognitive,
  5. 5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 5 neuroimaging, and other biological studies” (Rao, 2012). “Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a technique that consists of a surgically implanted lead that provides focal electrical neural- network modulation within a brain circuit or circuits of interest. Initially, modern deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging interventional therapy for well-screened patients with specific treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric diseases. Some neuropsychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson disease, have available and reasonable guideline and efficacy data, while other conditions, such as major depressive disorder and Tourette syndrome, have more limited, but promising results…” (Williams, & Okun, 2013). The future direction for our research and clinical management are neuroimaging and Neurotherapeutics. “Neuroimaging has contributed profoundly to our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders but has had little impact on treatment. An important goal in neuroscience research is identifying biological markers that predict subsequent response to given treatments. Here, we review neuroimaging findings pertaining to treatment-refractory major depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder, and imaging markers that predict response to Neurotherapeutics interventions; these promising findings should motivate additional work establishing the reliability and cost-effectiveness of neuroimaging to predict treatment response across psychiatric diagnoses and interventions” (Borairi, & Dougherty, 2011). In conclusion, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder is a debilitating disorder to some because others just cope with the issue. The DSM-5 model refers to the disorder as a neurological issue and in regards to this disorder and my personal experience handling such an issue, well, all of the following factors required relating to OCD I wish I knew what gene or chromosome makes an individual act in such behavioral manner. I just hope that one day there is a cure.
  6. 6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 6 References Reid, J., Storch, E., & Murphy, T. (2011). Clinical Correlates and Treatment Response of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Auxiliary Items. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 35(5), 404-413. doi:10.1007/s10608-009-9275-5 Diniz, J., Miguel, E., de Oliveira, A., Reimer, A., Brandão, M., de Mathis, M., & ... Hoexter, M. (2012). Outlining new frontiers for the comprehension of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a review of its relationship with fear and anxiety. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 34(S1), S81- S91. Hertler, S. (2014). A Review and Critique of Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder Etiologies. Europe's Journal Of Psychology, 10(1), 168-184. doi:10.5964/ejop.v10i1.679 Podea, D., Suciu, R., Suciu, C., & Ardelean, M. (2009). AN UPDATE ON THE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY OF OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER IN ADULTS. Journal Of Cognitive & Behavioral Psychotherapies, 9(2), 221-233. Haynes, W. A., & Mallet, L. (2010). High-frequency stimulation of deep brain structures in obsessive-compulsive disorder: the search for a valid circuit. European Journal Of Neuroscience, 32(7), 1118-1127. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07418.x Schuurmans, J., Balkom, A. M., Megen, H. M., Smit, J. H., Eikelenboom, M., Cath, D. C., & ... Oppen, P. (2012). The Netherlands Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Association (NOCDA) study: design and rationale of a longitudinal naturalistic study of the course of OCD and clinical characteristics of the sample at baseline. International Journal Of Methods In Psychiatric Research, 21(4), 273-285. doi:10.1002/mpr.1372
  7. 7. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Adults 7 Bandelow, B., Sher, L., Bunevicius, R., Hollander, E., Kasper, S., Zohar, J., & Möller, H. (2012). Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care. International Journal Of Psychiatry In Clinical Practice, 16(2), 77-84. doi:10.3109/13651501.2012.667114 Rao, N. P. (2012). Pathogenetic and therapeutic perspectives on neurocognitive models in psychiatry: A synthesis of behavioral, brain imaging, and biological studies. Indian Journal Of Psychiatry, 54(3), 217-222. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.102410 Williams, N. R., & Okun, M. S. (2013). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the interface of neurology and psychiatry. Journal Of Clinical Investigation, (11), 4546. Borairi, S., & Dougherty, D. D. (2011). The Use of Neuroimaging to Predict Treatment Response for Neurosurgical Interventions for Treatment-Refractory Major Depression and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Harvard Review Of Psychiatry (Taylor & Francis Ltd), 19(3), 155-161. doi:10.3109/10673229.2011.581888

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