0
UNDERSTANDING
MECHANISMS OF
BEHAVIOR CHANGE
A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach

© CASAColumbia 2013

August 1, 2013
Acknowledgments
NIMH
NIDA
NIAAA

Jon Morgenstern

Noam Zerubavel

© CASAColumbia 2013

Kevin Ochsner

Nasir Naqvi

CASPIR
...
Responses to Alcohol Cues 
Behavior
Reactivity & Regulation
affective & cognitive processes

© CASAColumbia 2013

3
Cognitive Neuroscience
Approach
Ochsner & Lieberman, 2001; Ochsner & Feldman Barrett, 2001; Ochsner, 2008; Martin Braunste...
Cognitive Neuroscience
Approach
Ochsner & Lieberman, 2001; Ochsner & Feldman Barrett, 2001; Ochsner, 2008; Martin Braunste...
Extant Cog Neuro
Treatment Studies
Morgenstern, Naqvi, DeBellis, & Breiter (2013)

• Predictors of relapse
• Identify biom...
Mechanisms of Reactivity and
Regulation Can Inform
Treatments
• Cognitive neuroscience paradigms characterize nature
of th...
Ventral Striatum Responds to
Rewards
Primary Rewards

Secondary Rewards

O’Doherty et al., 2002
Fareri, Martin, & Delgado,...
Striatum Activity
Predicts Behavior
Demos et al., 2012

Ventral striatum response to food and erotic images
predicts weigh...
Emotion Regulation
Process Model
after Gross, 1998; Ochsner & Gross, 2005; Ochsner et al., 2012

Regulatory Processes
Situ...
Neural Circuitry of
Reactivity & Regulation
Ochsner & Gross, 2005, 2008; Ochsner et al., 2012, Martin Braunstein, Gross & ...
Regulation Decreases
Reward Reactivity
Monetary rewards
(Delgado et al., 2008;
Staudinger et al., 2009)

Neural responses ...
Cognitive Regulation of Craving
Kober, Mende-Siedlecki, Weber, Hart, Mischel, & Ochsner (2010) PNAS

Think about immediate...
Important to Understand
Regulation
• Reactivity is affected by regulation
• AUD may by driven by
• Heightened reactivity t...
THANK YOU!
Ending Addiction
Changes Everything

www.casacolumbia.org

© CASAColumbia 2013
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Understanding Mechanisms of Behavior Change

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The Mechanisms of Behavior Change project is studying how individuals are able to use self-control processes to reduce or quit drinking using brain imaging. The results may help us better understand the process of recovery and its relationship to addiction as a brain disease.

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  • Dear sir,
    I an Addiction studies PHD student, who is searching for a good topic for her thesis and other research projects which has a psychological aspect.
    would you please help me,on my way?
    Best regards,
    Leila Rezaeian
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Transcript of "Understanding Mechanisms of Behavior Change"

  1. 1. UNDERSTANDING MECHANISMS OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach © CASAColumbia 2013 August 1, 2013
  2. 2. Acknowledgments NIMH NIDA NIAAA Jon Morgenstern Noam Zerubavel © CASAColumbia 2013 Kevin Ochsner Nasir Naqvi CASPIR Andrew Chen Kaerensa Craft Marie Hayes Alexis Kuerbis Russ Marks Fred Muench Cassie van StolkCooke Alicia Wiprovnick SCN Lab Bruce Doré Robert DeBellis Alexa Hubbard Katie Insel Seth Kallman Elina Kanellopoulou Rebecca Martin Jenny Porter Jennifer Silvers Jochen Weber 2
  3. 3. Responses to Alcohol Cues  Behavior Reactivity & Regulation affective & cognitive processes © CASAColumbia 2013 3
  4. 4. Cognitive Neuroscience Approach Ochsner & Lieberman, 2001; Ochsner & Feldman Barrett, 2001; Ochsner, 2008; Martin Braunstein et al., in prep Social/Cognitive/Affective Performance behavior, stimuli (lab tasks) Information Processing psychological cognitive affective & processes, mentalprocesses representations Neural Systems specific brain regions © CASAColumbia 2013 4
  5. 5. Cognitive Neuroscience Approach Ochsner & Lieberman, 2001; Ochsner & Feldman Barrett, 2001; Ochsner, 2008; Martin Braunstein et al., in prep Social/Cognitive/Affective Performance 1: Apply the model of basic mechanisms behavior, stimuli behavioral measures of (lab & regulation emotion tasks) Information Processing psychological cognitive affective & processes, mentalprocesses representations Neural Systems 2: Translate the model © CASAColumbia 2013 fMRI measures of cortical specific brain regions & subcortical systems For a given population, use behavioral and neural measures to draw inferences about (dys)function of specific processes 5
  6. 6. Extant Cog Neuro Treatment Studies Morgenstern, Naqvi, DeBellis, & Breiter (2013) • Predictors of relapse • Identify biomarkers (morphology and/or activation) that predict relapse • Treatment effects • Develop treatments that target deficits identified by cog neuro theories (e.g., working memory) • Test whether treatment changes brain activity to better understand mechanism of treatment effect © CASAColumbia 2013 6
  7. 7. Mechanisms of Reactivity and Regulation Can Inform Treatments • Cognitive neuroscience paradigms characterize nature of the disorder (biomarkers) • Heightened reward reactivity? • Regulatory deficits? • Neural responses to component processes of behavioral treatments may relate to individual differences in treatment response • Ability to apply tailored treatments © CASAColumbia 2013 7
  8. 8. Ventral Striatum Responds to Rewards Primary Rewards Secondary Rewards O’Doherty et al., 2002 Fareri, Martin, & Delgado, 2008 © CASAColumbia 2013 Knutson et al., 2003 8
  9. 9. Striatum Activity Predicts Behavior Demos et al., 2012 Ventral striatum response to food and erotic images predicts weight gain and sexual activity. © CASAColumbia 2013 9
  10. 10. Emotion Regulation Process Model after Gross, 1998; Ochsner & Gross, 2005; Ochsner et al., 2012 Regulatory Processes Situation selection Stimuli in context Select situations that promote desired responses Cognitive change Situation modification Internal: thoughts, sensations, etc. External: people, cues, events, etc. © CASAColumbia 2013 Response modulation Attention Appraisal Response Change what you focus on Reappraise meaning of stimulus/event Suppress or enhance expression/b ehavior 10
  11. 11. Neural Circuitry of Reactivity & Regulation Ochsner & Gross, 2005, 2008; Ochsner et al., 2012, Martin Braunstein, Gross & Ochsner in prep © CASAColumbia 2013 11
  12. 12. Regulation Decreases Reward Reactivity Monetary rewards (Delgado et al., 2008; Staudinger et al., 2009) Neural responses to cocaine cues (Volkow et al., 2010) Cigarette craving (Kober et al., 2010) © CASAColumbia 2013 12
  13. 13. Cognitive Regulation of Craving Kober, Mende-Siedlecki, Weber, Hart, Mischel, & Ochsner (2010) PNAS Think about immediate consequences of consuming… NOW How smoking would make you feel, it’s smell, it’s taste…. Think about long-term consequences of consumption… LATER Consequence for your health… Cancer, lung & heart disease…. © CASAColumbia 2013 13
  14. 14. Important to Understand Regulation • Reactivity is affected by regulation • AUD may by driven by • Heightened reactivity to cues • Impaired regulation ability • Both • Cognitive neuroscience approach allows for examination of reactivity & regulation © CASAColumbia 2013 14
  15. 15. THANK YOU! Ending Addiction Changes Everything www.casacolumbia.org © CASAColumbia 2013
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