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Overview of Addiction Medicine for Primary Care

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These slides provide an overview of the major elements required for effectively addressing addiction and risky use of addictive substances within the primary care setting. For more information, …

These slides provide an overview of the major elements required for effectively addressing addiction and risky use of addictive substances within the primary care setting. For more information, including a supplement guide with slide-by-slide background information, case studies and references please visit http://www.casacolumbia.org/health-care-providers/addiction-resources-tools

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  • 1. OVERVIEW OF ADDICTION MEDICINE FOR PRIMARY CARE Prepared by CASAColumbia® February 2014
  • 2. Supporting Documents 1. Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice (573 Pages) 2. Overview of Addiction Medicine for Primary Care: Supplement (30 Pages) 1. http://www.casacolumbia.org/addiction-research/reports/addiction-medicine 2. http://bit.ly/1eQNfRS © CASAColumbia 2014 2
  • 3. Outline • Importance of Topic • Universal Patient Education • Universal Screening • Diagnostic Evaluation • Brief Intervention • Comprehensive Assessment • Treatment Planning • Treatments for Addiction • Disease Management © CASAColumbia 2014 3
  • 4. IMPORTANCE OF TOPIC © CASAColumbia 2014 4
  • 5. Addiction & Risky Use • Addiction: disease requiring treatment • Risky use: • Substance use that threatens health & safety • Does not meet addiction criteria • Both require medical care © CASAColumbia 2014 5
  • 6. Brain Disease Tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs: •All affect similar regions of the brain •Common neurochemistry (e.g., dopamine) dopamine transporters © CASAColumbia 2014 6
  • 7. Brain Disease Structural & functional differences in brain: •May result from continued substance use •May predispose certain individuals to addiction •May affect judgment & behavior © CASAColumbia 2014 7
  • 8. Risk Factors • Genetic • Biological • Psychological • Environmental • Age of first use © CASAColumbia 2014 8
  • 9. Treatment Barriers • Misunderstanding of the disease • Negative public attitudes & behaviors • Lack of information on how to get help • Limited availability of services • Conflicting time commitments • Insufficient social support • Privacy concerns & cost © CASAColumbia 2014 9
  • 10. Continuum of Substance Use © CASAColumbia 2014 10
  • 11. Millions of People (2010) © CASAColumbia 2014 11
  • 12. Mortality Addiction & Risky Use Tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs: •Estimated 580,000 deaths each year in the U.S. •Approximately 20% of all deaths in the U.S. © CASAColumbia 2014 12
  • 13. Morbidity Addiction & Risky Use Tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs: •Cause, contribute to & exacerbate numerous diseases •Examples include cardiovascular disease, cancers, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, cirrhosis, pancreatitis, HCV, HIV/AIDS, STDs, birth defects, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders © CASAColumbia 2014 13
  • 14. UNIVERSAL PATIENT EDUCATION © CASAColumbia 2014 14
  • 15. Facts for Patients • Health consequences are severe & deadly • Quality of life suffers from disease impact • Addiction & risky use are preventable •Known risk factors should be reduced •Interventions can lower risky use •Addiction is treatable © CASAColumbia 2014 15
  • 16. Risk Reduction • Recommend no tobacco/nicotine use • Recommend guidelines for safe alcohol use • Recommend no illicit drug use • Consider H&P when prescribing controlled drugs • Assure medications taken only as prescribed • Remain vigilant for signs & symptoms • Offer evidence-based medical care early © CASAColumbia 2014 16
  • 17. UNIVERSAL SCREENING © CASAColumbia 2014 17
  • 18. Screen All Patients for Tobacco/Nicotine, Alcohol & Other Drugs • Screen routinely • Be demographically & culturally appropriate • Use sensitive, nonjudgmental tone & language © CASAColumbia 2014 18
  • 19. Integration into H&P Addiction & Risky Use Tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs: •Consider in HPI •Include in PMH rather than SH •Include in FH © CASAColumbia 2014 19
  • 20. Integration into H&P Addiction & Risky Use Tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs: •Consider in ROS & PE •Examples include vital signs; HEENT (pupils, injection, nasal mucosa, breath); CV (endocarditis); RESP (smoking effects); DERM (needle tracks, infections, yellow finger stains); MSE (cognition, memory, affect) © CASAColumbia 2014 20
  • 21. Transition Tips • Develop comfortable way to introduce topic • Frame discussion within the context of medicine • Emphasize medical consequences • Consider language (e.g., “disease of addiction”) • Normalize the subject (e.g., “routine questions”) • Integrate into preventive care © CASAColumbia 2014 21
  • 22. Sample Transitions “I would like to ask you some routine questions I ask all of my patients.” “Would you mind taking a few minutes to talk with me about your use of tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs?” “It is important to know that you can prevent a lot of health & related problems by addressing the use of tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs.” © CASAColumbia 2014 22
  • 23. Screening: Tobacco/Nicotine Positive Screen = in the past 30 days any use of tobacco/nicotine © CASAColumbia 2014 23
  • 24. Screening: Alcohol Positive Screen = in the past 30 days: •Women: >1 drink/day •Men: >2 drinks/day © CASAColumbia 2014 24
  • 25. Screening: Alcohol Positive Screen = in the past 30 days any alcohol use for persons: • <21 • Pregnant • Taking meds which interact with alcohol • With certain specific medical conditions (e.g., liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis) © CASAColumbia 2014 25
  • 26. Screening: Alcohol Positive Screen = in the past 30 days any alcohol use: • While driving, operating machinery or taking part in other activities that require attention, skill or coordination • In situations that could cause injury or death (e.g., swimming) © CASAColumbia 2014 26
  • 27. Screening: Other Drugs Positive Screen = in the past 30 days any misuse of: • Controlled prescription drugs (e.g., not as prescribed) • Other medications for nonmedical reasons (e.g., intoxicating effects, getting high, etc.) © CASAColumbia 2014 27
  • 28. Screening: Other Drugs Positive Screen = in the past 30 days any use of: • Illicit drugs • Other substances for the purpose of intoxicating effects, getting high, etc. © CASAColumbia 2014 28
  • 29. DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION © CASAColumbia 2014 29
  • 30. Diagnostic Evaluation •All patients with positive screens •Determine: risky use or addiction © CASAColumbia 2014 30
  • 31. Diagnosis of Addiction • DSM-5 released May 2013 • Addiction = DSM-5 “Substance Use Disorder” • Addiction diagnosed for a 12-month period: • Mild addiction: 2-3 symptoms • Moderate addiction: 4-5 symptoms • Severe addiction: 6 or more symptoms © CASAColumbia 2014 31
  • 32. Diagnostic Criteria • 11 Criteria • Mnemonic: “CHEW THAT COP” Cut Down Time Craving Health Hazardous Use Obligations Excessive Use Activities Personal Withdrawal* Tolerance Problems * not all substances © CASAColumbia 2014 32
  • 33. Diagnostic Criteria • Cut Down: there is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control use of the substance • Health: use of the substance is continued despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance • Excessive Use: the substance is often taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended • Withdrawal* * not all substances © CASAColumbia 2014 33
  • 34. Diagnostic Criteria • Time: a great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance, use the substance or recover from its effects • Hazardous Use: recurrent use of the substance in situations in which it is physically hazardous • Activities: important social, occupational or recreational activities are given up or reduced because of use of the substance • Tolerance © CASAColumbia 2014 34
  • 35. Diagnostic Criteria • Craving: craving, a strong desire or urge to use the substance • Obligations: recurrent use of the substance resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school or home • Personal Problems: continued use of the substance despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of its use © CASAColumbia 2014 35
  • 36. Risky Use = All positive screens not meeting addiction criteria © CASAColumbia 2014 36
  • 37. BRIEF INTERVENTION © CASAColumbia 2014 37
  • 38. Brief Intervention for Risky Use • Medical approach to reduce risky use • Evidence-based from research studies • Effective for risky use involving tobacco/nicotine, alcohol & other drugs • Only 5-10 minutes needed per patient encounter © CASAColumbia 2014 38
  • 39. Brief Intervention for Risky Use • Personalize feedback about substance effects • State concern & recommend behavior change • Discuss patient’s strengths & possible barriers • Negotiate plan & provide follow-up care © CASAColumbia 2014 39
  • 40. Brief Intervention for Risky Use • Practice patient-centered care • Ask open-ended questions • Elicit responses from patient on risks/benefits • Facilitate realization of how life can be improved • Support patient’s motivation with empathy © CASAColumbia 2014 40
  • 41. COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT © CASAColumbia 2014 41
  • 42. Comprehensive Assessment • Severity of disease • Need for medical management of withdrawal • Route of administration for substances • Likelihood of continued use/relapse © CASAColumbia 2014 42
  • 43. Comprehensive Assessment • History of substance use & previous treatment • Comorbidities which may affect treatment • Family & social support for treatment • Impact of home environment • Housing, child care, employment & legal issues • Readiness & willingness for treatment • Need for tailored treatment (age, gender, sexual orientation, other) © CASAColumbia 2014 43
  • 44. TREATMENT PLANNING © CASAColumbia 2014 44
  • 45. Patient Placement Criteria American Society of Addiction Medicine • Comprehensive set of guidelines • For patients with addiction & comorbidities • For placement, continued stay, transfer & discharge • Typically utilized under the supervision of an addiction physician specialist © CASAColumbia 2014 45
  • 46. Treatment Settings • Outpatient • Intensive outpatient • Partial hospitalization • Non-hospital residential • Hospital inpatient © CASAColumbia 2014 46
  • 47. TREATMENTS FOR ADDICTION © CASAColumbia 2014 47
  • 48. Treatments • Medications • Psychosocial therapies • Combinations • Tailored for each patient © CASAColumbia 2014 48
  • 49. FDA-Approved Meds Tobacco/Nicotine • varenicline (Chantix®) • bupropion (Zyban®, Wellbutrin®) • nicotine replacement therapy (e.g., patch, gum, lozenge, inhaler, nasal spray) • combinations FDA Prescribing Information (01/18/2012): bupropion FDA Prescribing Information (02/19/2013): varenicline Cahill K, et al. Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview & network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;5:CD009329. © CASAColumbia 2014 49
  • 50. FDA-Approved Meds Alcohol • acamprosate (Campral®) • disulfiram (Antabuse®) • naltrexone (ReVia®, Depade®, Vivitrol®) FDA Prescribing Information (01//30/2012): acamprosate UpToDate Prescribing Information: disulfiram UpToDate Prescribing Information: naltrexone © CASAColumbia 2014 50
  • 51. FDA-Approved Meds Opioids • buprenorphine/naloxone (Subutex®, Suboxone®, Zubsolv®) • methadone (Methadose®) • naltrexone (ReVia®, Depade®, Vivitrol®) FDA Prescribing Information (12/22/2011): buprenorphine (Subutex ®) FDA Prescribing Information (12/22/2011): buprenorphine/naloxone (Suboxone ®) FDA Prescribing Information (07/03/2013): buprenorphine/naloxone (Zubsolv ®) FDA Prescribing Information (02/04/2008): methadone UpToDate Prescribing Information: naltrexone © CASAColumbia 2014 51
  • 52. Psychosocial Therapies Primary Individual or Group Therapies • Motivational Interviewing (MI) • Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET) • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) • Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) • Contingency Management (CM) • Couples/Family Therapy NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse: Treatment Information © CASAColumbia 2014 52
  • 53. Combined Treatment • Medications & psychosocial therapies • Can increase retention in treatment • Can decrease relapse rates © CASAColumbia 2014 53
  • 54. Specialist Referral Consider for Complex Cases • Addiction medicine physicians find a doctor near you • Addiction psychiatrists find a doctor near you Addiction medicine physician: http://www.abam.net/find-a-doctor Addiction psychiatrist: https://application.abpn.com/verifycert/verifyCert.asp?a=4 © CASAColumbia 2014 54
  • 55. DISEASE MANAGEMENT © CASAColumbia 2014 55
  • 56. Disease Management • Chronic care model similar to diabetes • Transdisciplinary, team-based care • Patient-centered with patient as part of team © CASAColumbia 2014 56
  • 57. Management Goals • Maintain or improve patient functioning • Control symptoms (e.g., craving) • Address comorbidities • Reduce relapse • Prevent replacement addiction • Provide support services © CASAColumbia 2014 57
  • 58. Physician Role • Coordinate care with team • Provide/arrange psychosocial therapy • Manage relevant medications • Continue patient education • Address comorbidities • Monitor progress • Adjust treatment as needed © CASAColumbia 2014 58
  • 59. Physician Role Assist with & coordinate mutual support, e.g.: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), LifeRing, Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Secular Organizations for Sobriety, SMART Recovery, Women for Sobriety © CASAColumbia 2014 59
  • 60. Physician Role Assist with & coordinate other support: •Legal •Educational •Vocational •Housing •Parenting •Childcare © CASAColumbia 2014 60
  • 61. Acknowledgements • Margot Cohen contributed much of the research and writing for these materials. • The following subject-matter experts served as external reviewers for these materials: Kevin Kunz, M.D., M.P.H., Frances Levin, M.D., David Lewis, M.D., Michael Miller, M.D., Charles O’Brien, M.D., Ph.D. • Funding was provided by The Joseph A. Califano, Jr. Institute for Applied Policy. © CASAColumbia 2014 61
  • 62. Ending Addiction Changes Everything www.casacolumbia.org © CASAColumbia 2014

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