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Zerega San Diego Gas & Electric Presentation - July 31, 2012
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Zerega San Diego Gas & Electric Presentation - July 31, 2012

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  • 1. $0.00 $1.00 $2.00 $3.00 $4.00 $5.00 $6.00 10 20 30 40 50 F u e l c o s t MPG > Comparing gasoline & electric ‘fuel’ price 1.) Assumes 3 miles/kWh; example (50/3) x $0.31 = $5.16 2.) J.D. Power, 2012 utility customer satisfaction survey Toyota Prius To a plug‐in Prius driver $0.31/kWh  electricity costs as much as $5.00  gasolinel1 $0.14/kWh EV-TOU-2 Super Off-Peak (Higher Use) (Lower Use) $0.31/kWh DR Tier 4 Hummer Honda Accord $/gallon equivalent Drivers of high‐MPG cars are  economically indifferent to  fuel choice at relatively low  electricity prices  Page 6 of 21 77% of drivers cite fuel-cost savings as the #1 benefit to owning a plug-in vehicle2
  • 2. $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $23  $11  $8  $6  $24  $12  $8  $6  $2.93  $1.52  $1.04  $0.81  (1) 4 9 14 19 24 $0 $10 $20 $30 $40 $50 $60 30 60 90 120 Cars charged during 30‐day period 23‐minutes per car at 48 kW All other times During On‐Peak Energy Total charging hrs/day Utility billing cost per 50-miles On AL-TOU in Summer1 1.) Assumes AL-TOU rate as of May 2012; 90% charging efficiency and 3 miles/kWh 2.) Average $/kWh = (total utility bill / total kWh measured at meter during billing period) / total cars charged during billing period 3.) Assumes 48 MPG (e.g. 2012 Plug-in Prius) and 3 miles/kWh 4.) Assumes average of AL-TOU On, Semi and Off-Peak and includes UDC, Commodity, DWR Bond, Taxes (i.e., approximately ~$0.10./kWh) as of Jun 2012 $46.96 gge3 Demand Charges Hours $12.91 gge Average $/kWh2 (1 car per day) (4 cars per day) For a Plug‐in Prius driver, utility billing costs can  quickly exceed gasoline3 if site loads are not  managed, even at high utilization rates. 2% utilization 3% utilization 5% utilization 6% utilization Fast Charge - Highest Cost Page 9 of 21
  • 3. $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $0.67  $0.33  $0.22  $0.17  $0.70  $0.35  $0.23  $0.18  $0.18  $0.14  $0.12  $0.12  (1) 4 9 14 19 24 $0 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 30 60 90 120 Cars charged during 30‐day period 13.2 hours per car at 1.4 kW All other times During On‐Peak Energy Total charging hrs/day Utility billing cost per 50-miles On AL-TOU in Summer1 $2.88 gge3 Demand Charges Hours (1 car per day) (4 cars per day) Charging from standard 120V outlets is low cost  even with all demand charges...and serves the  overwhelming majority of drivers before Noon. *Infeasible due to charge duration 55% utilization 108% utilization *Each Level 1 unit can provide one 50-mile charge each day Level 1 - Highest Cost Page 11 of 21 1.) Assumes AL-TOU rate as of May 2012; 90% charging efficiency and 3 miles/kWh 2.) Average $/kWh = (total utility bill / total kWh measured at meter during billing period) / total cars charged during billing period 3.) Assumes 48 MPG (e.g. 2012 Plug-in Prius) and 3 miles/kWh 4.) Assumes average of AL-TOU On, Semi and Off-Peak and includes UDC, Commodity, DWR Bond, Taxes (i.e., approximately ~$0.10./kWh) as of Jun 2012
  • 4. Summary - costs per car AL-TOU in Summer 4 cars/day Utilization1 No Load  Management No New On‐ Peak No New  Demand CAPEX2,3 Fast Charge 6% $0.81/kWh $12.91 gge $0.46/kWh $7.38 gge $0.10/kWh $1.61 gge $0.14/kWh $2.32 gge Level 2 70% $0.16/kWh $2.58 gge $0.13/kWh $2.08 gge $0.10/kWh $1.61 gge $0.03/kWh $0.45 gge Level 1 55% $0.18/kWh $2.88 gge ‐ ‐ $0.005/kWh $0.09 gge 1.) Hours actively charging / 24 2.) CAPEX assumptions: $100,000 for DCFC, $15,000 for Level 2, $1,000 for Level 1 3.) Assumes: $0 O&M costs; 48 MPG; 3 miles/kWh;10 year book life; 5 Yr straight-line depreciation; 40% tax rate; 5% cost of capital; 90% charging efficiency; 365 Days available per year and $26.43 per kW demand charge. 1 car/day Utilization1 No Load  Management No New On‐ Peak No New  Demand CAPEX Fast Charge 2% $2.93/kWh $46.96 gge $1.55/kWh $24.87 gge $0.10/kWh $1.61 gge $0.05/kWh $8.68 gge Level 2 23% $0.29/kWh $4.63 gge $0.20/kWh $3.13 gge $0.10/kWh $1.61 gge $0.08/kWh $1.35 gge Without demand charges, utility billing cost  per car doesn’t vary with speed or  utilization rate; only energy costs remain. Equipment cost can add significantly  to per‐car charging costs2,3 Page 12 of 21
  • 5. How far do your employees drive to work? 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195 Portion of daily trips Daily miles driven Daily miles driven 2009 National Household Travel Survey Source: U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration 2009 National Household Travel Survey http://nhts.ornl.gov/2009/pub/stt.pdf Trips exceeding ½ of all-electric Nissan LEAF range The majority of people drive  relatively few miles each day SDG&E employee average use: 30 LEAFs, 2 Volts, 1 Active‐E, 1  conversion (16 users) ~3 kWh/session Done well before “On‐Peak” 0.3 sessions/day/EVSE Page 13 of 21
  • 6. Matching charging equipment to charging time Hours required to recharge, at various power levels 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1.8 kW 6.6 kW 50 kW 80 miles 35 miles 10 miles Assumptions: 3 miles of range per kWh, measure at utility meter; costs are illustrative – approximations of ‘all-in’ installed cost Note: San Diego "...average regional commute…23.7 daily miles per person...” http://www.movesandiego.org/reports.html Hours parked at work $500 20-Amp outlet No monthly fees $10,000 Level 2 Possible fees $50,000 DC Fast Charger Possible fees A 10 and 35 mile charge are finished  well before the end of the workday. Re‐charging in the entire time you remain parked results in least cost Required range An 80 mile charge from an outlet takes  longer that the entire workday. Hrs. Page 14 of 21
  • 7. Emerging policies • IRS definition of “De minimis” – …so small as to make accounting for it unreasonable or impractical • An essential element of de minimis benefits - frequency and value – Must be occasional or unusual in frequency • Includes such items as (precede all with word “occasional”): – Use of photocopier – Snacks, coffee, doughnuts, etc. – Tickets for entertainment events; holiday gifts – Meal money or transportation expense for working overtime – Personal use of a business cell phone • Carbon credits, as per Air Resources Board – Owned by the employer – Estimated is OK – until Nov 2015 – then measurement is required (SB 1455) http://www.irs.gov/govt/fslg/article/0,,id=184791,00.html Page 16 of 21