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Zerega San Diego Gas and Electric presentation
 

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    Zerega San Diego Gas and Electric presentation Zerega San Diego Gas and Electric presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Comparing gasoline & electric ‘fuel’ price To a plug‐in Prius driver $0.31/kWh  $/gallon equivalent electricity costs as much as $5.00  gasolinel1 $6.00 (Lower Use) $0.31/kWh $5.00 Drivers of high‐MPG cars are  DR Tier 4 economically indifferent to  F fuel choice at relatively low  u $4.00 electricity prices  e l $3.00 c o $0.14/kWh EV-TOU-2 s $2.00 Super Off-Peak t (Higher Use) $1.00 $0.00 MPG > 10 20 30 40 50 Hummer Honda Accord Toyota Prius 77% of drivers cite fuel-cost savings as the #1 benefit to owning a plug-in vehicle21.) Assumes 3 miles/kWh; example (50/3) x $0.31 = $5.162.) J.D. Power, 2012 utility customer satisfaction survey Page 6 of 21
    • Fast Charge - Highest Cost Utility billing cost per 50-miles On AL-TOU in Summer1 23‐minutes per car at 48 kW All other times Hours Demand Charges During On‐Peak $60 24 Average $46.96 gge3 $/kWh2 Energy $50 $2.93  Total charging hrs/day 19 $40 For a Plug‐in Prius driver, utility billing costs can  $24  quickly exceed gasoline3 if site loads are not  14 managed, even at high utilization rates. $30 $1.52  $12.91 gge 9 $20 $12  $1.04  $0.81  $23  $8  4 $10 $6  $11  $8  $6  $0 $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  (1) 2% utilization 3% utilization 5% utilization 6% utilization 30 60 90 120 (1 car per day) (4 cars per day) Cars charged during 30‐day period1.) Assumes AL-TOU rate as of May 2012; 90% charging efficiency and 3 miles/kWh2.) Average $/kWh = (total utility bill / total kWh measured at meter during billing period) / total cars charged during billing period3.) Assumes 48 MPG (e.g. 2012 Plug-in Prius) and 3 miles/kWh4.) Assumes average of AL-TOU On, Semi and Off-Peak and includes UDC, Commodity, DWR Bond, Taxes (i.e., approximately ~$0.10./kWh) as of Jun 2012 Page 9 of 21
    • Level 1 - Highest Cost Utility billing cost per 50-miles On AL-TOU in Summer1 13.2 hours per car at 1.4 kW All other times Hours Demand Charges During On‐Peak $10 24 $9 Energy *Each Level 1 unit can provide Total charging hrs/day $8 one 50-mile charge each day 19 $7 Charging from standard 120V outlets is low cost  $6 even with all demand charges...and serves the  14 overwhelming majority of drivers before Noon. $5 $2.88 gge3 $4 9 *Infeasible due to $0.18  charge duration $3 $0.70  $0.14  $0.12  $2 $0.67  $0.35  $0.23  $0.12  4 $0.33  $0.22  $0.18  $0.17  $1 $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $1.61  $0 (1) 55% utilization 108% utilization 30 60 90 120 (1 car per day) (4 cars per day) Cars charged during 30‐day period1.) Assumes AL-TOU rate as of May 2012; 90% charging efficiency and 3 miles/kWh2.) Average $/kWh = (total utility bill / total kWh measured at meter during billing period) / total cars charged during billing period3.) Assumes 48 MPG (e.g. 2012 Plug-in Prius) and 3 miles/kWh4.) Assumes average of AL-TOU On, Semi and Off-Peak and includes UDC, Commodity, DWR Bond, Taxes (i.e., approximately ~$0.10./kWh) as of Jun 2012 Page 11 of 21
    • Summary - costs per car Without demand charges, utility billing cost  AL-TOU in Summer per car doesn’t vary with speed or  utilization rate; only energy costs remain. No Load  No New On‐ No New  4 cars/day Utilization1 Management Peak Demand CAPEX2,3 $0.81/kWh $0.46/kWh $0.10/kWh $0.14/kWh Fast Charge 6% $12.91 gge $7.38 gge $1.61 gge $2.32 gge $0.16/kWh $0.13/kWh $0.10/kWh $0.03/kWh Level 2 70% $2.58 gge $2.08 gge $1.61 gge $0.45 gge $0.18/kWh $0.005/kWh Level 1 55% ‐ ‐ $2.88 gge $0.09 gge No Load  No New On‐ No New  1 car/day Utilization1 Management Peak Demand CAPEX $2.93/kWh $1.55/kWh $0.10/kWh $0.05/kWh Fast Charge 2% $46.96 gge $24.87 gge $1.61 gge $8.68 gge $0.29/kWh $0.20/kWh $0.10/kWh $0.08/kWh Level 2 23% $4.63 gge $3.13 gge $1.61 gge $1.35 gge Equipment cost can add significantly  to per‐car charging costs2,31.) Hours actively charging / 242.) CAPEX assumptions: $100,000 for DCFC, $15,000 for Level 2, $1,000 for Level 13.) Assumes: $0 O&M costs; 48 MPG; 3 miles/kWh;10 year book life; 5 Yr straight-line depreciation; 40% tax rate; 5% cost of capital; 90% charging efficiency; 365 Days availableper year and $26.43 per kW demand charge. Page 12 of 21
    • How far do your employees drive to work?Daily miles driven SDG&E employee average use:2009 National Household Travel Survey 30 LEAFs, 2 Volts, 1 Active‐E, 1  40% conversion (16 users) ~3 kWh/session 35% Done well before “On‐Peak” 0.3 sessions/day/EVSE Portion of daily trips 30% The majority of people drive  25% relatively few miles each day 20% 15% 10% Trips exceeding ½ of all-electric Nissan LEAF range 5% 0% 0 5 15 25 35 45 55 65 75 85 95 105 115 125 135 145 155 165 175 185 195 Daily miles driven Source: U.S. DOT, Federal Highway Administration 2009 National Household Travel Survey http://nhts.ornl.gov/2009/pub/stt.pdf Page 13 of 21
    • Matching charging equipment to charging time Hours required to recharge, at various power levels Re‐charging in the entire time you remain parked results in least cost Hrs. 14 $500 20-Amp outlet Required range No monthly fees 80 miles An 80 mile charge from an outlet takes  35 miles 12 longer that the entire workday. 10 miles 10 Hours parked at work 8 A 10 and 35 mile charge are finished  well before the end of the workday. 6 $10,000 Level 2 4 Possible fees 2 $50,000 DC Fast Charger Possible fees 0 1.8 kW 6.6 kW 50 kWAssumptions: 3 miles of range per kWh, measure at utility meter; costs are illustrative – approximations of ‘all-in’ installed costNote: San Diego "...average regional commute…23.7 daily miles per person...” http://www.movesandiego.org/reports.html Page 14 of 21
    • Emerging policies • IRS definition of “De minimis” – …so small as to make accounting for it unreasonable or impractical • An essential element of de minimis benefits - frequency and value – Must be occasional or unusual in frequency • Includes such items as (precede all with word “occasional”): – Use of photocopier – Snacks, coffee, doughnuts, etc. – Tickets for entertainment events; holiday gifts – Meal money or transportation expense for working overtime – Personal use of a business cell phone • Carbon credits, as per Air Resources Board – Owned by the employer – Estimated is OK – until Nov 2015 – then measurement is required (SB 1455)http://www.irs.gov/govt/fslg/article/0,,id=184791,00.html Page 16 of 21