Battery Choices April 2011
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Battery Choices April 2011

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Ahmad A Pesaran of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented to CALSTART member companies on battery technologies for plug-in electric, hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles......

Ahmad A Pesaran of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented to CALSTART member companies on battery technologies for plug-in electric, hybrid electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in April 2011.

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  • The answer is understanding and engineering of interface between electrode and electrolyte is crucial. Left figure shows the potential ranges and capacities of various anode and cathode materials. The red region indicates the potential where electrolyte typically start to be decomposed. For anode, electrolyte is decomposed below 1 V, solid electrolyte interphase is formed to prevent to further decomposition even though the SEI still limits the performance. In case of cathode, there seems to be no stable electrolyte beyond 5 V currently. At high potential, electrolyte decomposition, metal dissolution result in fast degradation. Addtionally, the interfacial reaction is closely related to the safety performance as well. Therefore, interfacial engineering is the key to make durable and safe LIBs for PHEVs.

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  • 1. Choices and Requirements of Batteries for EVs, HEVs, PHEVs A CALSTART Webinar Ahmad A. Pesaran National Renewable Energy Laboratory April 21, 2011
  • 2. Outline of the Presentation
    • Introduction to NREL
    • Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs)
    • Battery Technologies for HEVs, PHEVs & EVs
    • Battery Requirements for EDVs
    • Concluding Remarks
  • 3. U.S. Department of Energy National Labs Los Alamos National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Sandia National Laboratory Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Idaho National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Argonne National Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory National Energy Technology Laboratory Savannah River National Laboratory Oakridge National Laboratory Science Fossil Energy Nuclear Energy Nuclear Security Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy NREL is the only DOE National Laboratory dedicated to renewable and energy efficient technologies NREL is operated for DOE by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy (Midwest Research Institute and Battelle)
  • 4. NREL’s Portfolio on Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
    • Renewable Electricity
    • Electric Systems Integration
    • Net-Zero Energy Buildings
    Electricity
    • Renewable Fuels
    • Efficient and Flexible Vehicles
    Fuels Underpinned with Science Photoconversion Computational Science Systems Biology From Concept to Consumer Solar Wind & Water Geothermal Buildings Electricity Biomass Transportation Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Ocean International Programs Strategic Analysis Integrated Programs
  • 5. Center for Transportation Technologies and Systems Emphasis on light, medium, and heavy duty vehicles
  • 6. NREL Energy Storage Projects NREL projects are aimed at supporting the major elements of DOE’s integrated Energy Storage Program to develop advanced energy storage systems with industry meeting DOE’s targets for electric-drive vehicle applications.
  • 7. Outline of the Presentation
    • Introduction to NREL
    • Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs)
    • Battery Technologies for HEVs, PHEVs & EVs
    • Battery Requirements for EDVs
    • Concluding Remarks
    Focus will be on light duty vehicles here.
  • 8. Spectrum of Electric Drive Vehicle Technologies Size of Electric Motor (and associated energy storage system) Size of Combustion Engine Conventional ICE Vehicles Micro hybrids (start/stop) Mild hybrids (start/stop + kinetic energy recovery) Full hybrids (Medium hybrid capabilities + electric launch ) Plug-in hybrids (Full hybrid capabilities + electric range) Electric Vehicles (battery or fuel cell) Medium hybrids (Mild hybrid + engine assist ) Axes not to scale
  • 9. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Configurations
  • 10. Plug-In Vehicle Configurations
  • 11. Examples of Light Duty Electric Drive Vehicles in the Market
  • 12. Battery is the Critical Technology for EDVs
    • Enables hybridization and electrification
    • Provides power to motor for acceleration
    • Provides energy for electric range and other auxiliaries
    • Helps downsizing or eliminating the engine
    • Stores kinetic and braking energy
    • Adds cost, weight, and volume
    • Decreases reliability and durability
    • Decreases performance with aging
    • Raises safety concerns
    Lithium-ion battery cells, module, and battery pack for the Mitsubishi iMiEV.(Courtesy of Mitsubishi.)
  • 13. Outline of the Presentation
    • Introduction to NREL
    • Introduction to HEVs, PHEVs and EVs
    • Battery Technologies for HEVs, PHEVs & EVs
    • Battery Requirements for EDVs
    • Concluding Remarks
  • 14. Battery Choices: Energy and Power Source: www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/2010_fotw609.html NiMH proven sufficient for many HEVs. Still recovering early factory investments. Lithium ion technologies can meet most of the required EDV targets in the next 10 years.
  • 15. Qualitative Comparison of Major Automotive Battery Technologies Key Attribute Lead Acid NiMH Li-Ion Weight (kg) Volume (lit) Capacity/Energy (kWh) Discharge Power (kW) Regen Power (kW) Cold-Temperature (kWh & kW) Shallow Cycle Life (number) Deep Cycle Life (number) Calendar Life (years) Cost ($/kW or $/kWh) Safety- Abuse Tolerance Maturity - Technology Maturity - Manufacturing Poor Fair Good
  • 16. Li-Ion energy and power performance in the market has surpassed NiMH Source: Reproduced from A. Fetcenko (Ovonic Battery Company) from the 23 rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit, March 13-16, 2006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. 95 Ah EV module used in Toyota RAV 4 NiMH Specific energy ranging from 45 Wh/kg to 80 Wh/kg depending on the power capability. Panasonic EV Ovonic
  • 17. Projections for Automotive Batteries Hiroshi Mukainakano, AABC Europe 2010
  • 18. Challenges with Li-Ion Technologies for EDVs
    • High cost, many chemistries, cell sizes, shapes, module configurations, and battery pack systems.
    • Integration with proper electrical, mechanical, safety, and thermal management is the key.
    • New developments and potential advances make it difficult to pick winners
    Various sources: 2009 DOE Merit Review 2010 ETDA Conference 2010 SAE HEV Symposium
  • 19. Lithium Ion Battery Technology – Many Chemistries Voltage ~3.2-3.8 V Cycle life ~1000-5000 Wh/kg >150 Wh/l >400 Discharge -30 to 60 o C Shelf life <5%/year Source: Robert M. Spotnitz, Battery Design LLC, “Advanced EV and HEV Batteries,” Many cathodes are possible Cobalt oxide Manganese oxide Mixed oxides with Nickel Iron phosphate Vanadium oxide based Many anodes are possible Carbon/Graphite Titanate (Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 ) Titanium oxide based Silicon based Metal oxides Many electrolytes are possible LiPF 6 based LiBF 4 based Various solid electrolytes Polymer electrolytes Ionic Liquids
  • 20. Electrochemical Window in Lithium Ion Batteries
  • 21. Characteristics of Cathode Materials Mixed metal oxide cathodes are replacing cobalt oxide as the dominant chemistry Mn 2 O 4 around for many years – good for high power; improvements in high temperature stability reported recently. LiFePO 4 is now actively pursued by many as the cathode of choice for vehicle applications - safe on overcharge - need electronics to accurately determine SOC - may require larger number of cells due to lower cell voltage Other high voltage phosphates are currently being considered Theoretical values for cathode materials relative to graphite anode and LiPF 6 electrolyte * Sources: Robert M. Spotnitz, Battery Design LLC, Material Δ x mAh/g Avg. V Wh/kg Wh/l LiCoO 2 (Cobalt) * 0.55 151 4.00 602 3073 LiNi 0.8 Co 0.15 Al 0.05 O 2 (NCA) * 0.7 195 3.80 742 3784 LiMn 2 O 4 (Spinel) * 0.8 119 4.05 480 2065 LiMn 1/3 Co 1/3 Ni 1/3 O 2 (NMC 333) * 0.55 153 3.85 588 2912 LiMn x Co y Ni z O 2 (NMC non-stoichiometric) 0.7 220 4.0 720 3600 LiFePO 4 (Iron Phosphate) * 0.95 161 3.40 549 1976
  • 22. Many Commercial Cathode Oxide Based Li-Ion Batteries are Available
    • Johnson Control - Saft
    • Altair Nanotechnologies
    • LG Chem
    • Electrovaya
    • Dow Kokam
    • SK Innovation
    • NEC/Nissan
    • GS Yuasa
    • Sony
    • Sanyo
    • Samsung
    • Panasonic
    • Lishen
    • Pionics
    • Other Chinese companies
    CALSTART Energy Storage Compendium Conhttp://www.calstart.org/Libraries/Publications/Energy_Storage_Compendium_2010.sflb.ashx
  • 23. Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) Cathodes
    • + High stability and non-toxic
    • + Good specific capacity
    • + Flat voltage profile
    • + Cost effective (less expensive cathode)
    • + Improved safety
    • Issues addressed recently:
    • – Lower voltage than other cathodes (Alternate phosphates – manganese, vanadium etc. are currently being investigated)
    • – Poor Li diffusion (D Li ~ 10 -13 cm 2 /Sec)
    • (Overcome by doping the cathode)
    • – Poor electronic conductivity (~ 10 -8 S/cm)
    • (Overcome by blending/coating with conductive carbon)
    • Other approaches used to overcome poor characteristics:
      • Use nano LiFePO 4 – carbon composite
      • Use larger number of cells
      • Nano structured materials
    Source: Various papers from the 23rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit, March 13-16, 2006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. Source: On line brochures from Valence Technology, http://www.valence.com/ucharge.asp
  • 24. Improvements in Phosphate-based Cathodes Valence Technology 18650 Cells 100 Wh/kg in cell 84 Wh/kg in U Charge module The battery with standard lead acid battery form factor includes a battery management system. Source: 2006 On line brochures from Valence Technology, http://www.valence.com/ucharge.asp Source: Andrew Chu (A123 Systems) from the 23rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit, March 13-16, 2006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL. A123 Systems with 26650 Cells 100 Wh/kg Under R&D 3.2Ah Real Capacity 15mOhm Newer Phosphates Voltage Vs Li Iron 3.6 V Manganese 4.1 V Cobalt 4.8 V Nickel 5.1 V
  • 25. Improvements on the Anode - Titanate
    • Altair Nanotechnologies Inc.
    • Improved low temperature performance
    • 80-100 Wh/kg
    • 2000-4000 W/kg
    Source: E. House (Altair Nanotechnologies) from the 23 rd International Battery Seminar & Exhibit, March 13-16, 2006, Ft. Lauderdale, FL.
  • 26. Improvements on the Anode - Silicon
    • Advantages:
    • Very high theoretical capacity
    • No lithium deposition
    • High rate capability
    • No need for an SEI
    • Issues at hand:
    • High volume expansion
    • Low cell voltage
    • Poor cyclability
    Recent (2011) reports on SiO Carbon Composite Anodes 25 nm 100 nm 500 nm 1000 nm
  • 27. Improvements to Other Components LG Chem’s Safety Reinforcing Separator (SRS) Dow’s High Temperature Electrolytes claim to be stable up to 5 V
    • Binders:
    • Shift from fluoride-based binders
    • SBR and CMC increasingly popular
    Separators Conductive Coatings
  • 28. Battery Material Myths and Practical Limitations “ Description” Issue MIT battery material could lead to rapid recharging of many devices - March 2009 www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-03/miot-mbm030909.php Fast charging lithium batteries might reach the market in 2 to 3 years. A small battery that could be fully charged or discharged in 10 to 20 seconds Prof. Ceder was on NPR pleading the media to stay away from unreasonable extrapolations – the observed enhancements in transport of lithium ions were limited to one component – the positive electrode; the other electrode continues to be plagued by the traditional issues. Breakthrough lithium battery charges to 90% in just 5 minutes www.gizmag.com/toshiba-scib-super-charge-lithium-battery/8506/ Full Recharge in < 10 Minutes http://www.toshiba.com/ind/data/tag_files/SCiB_Brochure_5383.pdf The titanate based negative electrodes did solve the lithium plating upon super-fast charge in the traditional carbon-based cells. The average cell voltage was reduced to 2.4 V (compare at 3.5 V for carbon-based); resulting in larger size batteries.
  • 29. Material Myths and Practical Limitations “ Description” Issue Fabrication of a lithium-ion battery that can be 90% charged in 2 minutes http://www.nature.com/nnano/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nnano.2011.38.html One more time: the real problem is in the negative electrode! Li-ion: nanostructures allow 50x fast charge http://www.electronicsweekly.com/Articles/2011/01/07/50237/Li-ion-nanostructures-allow-50x-fast-charge.htm Silicon particles shaped like ice-cream scoops were used to accommodate for cell-swelling (silicon does not have the plating problem, but swells a lot). Issue at hand: lower cell voltage; stability of the silicon electrode. 4000 mAh/g capacity for Silicon based anodes will reduce lithium battery size by ten times http://www.treehugger.com/files/2009/09/silicon-nanotubes-anodes-boost-lithium-ion-battery-capacity-10x.php
    • For the battery size to be reduced as claimed, all of the following criteria must be met: - the anode and the must be able to take ten times the amount of lithium
    • - the cell voltage must be at par with conventional chemistries
    • cycle life must be at par with conventional chemistries
  • 30. Chevy Volt Nissan Leaf Prius PHEV http://autogreenmag.com/tag/chevroletvolt/page/2/ http://inhabitat.com/will-the-nissan-leaf-battery-deliver-all-it-promises/ http://www.toyota.com/esq/articles/2010/Lithium_Ion_Battery.html http://www.caranddriver.com/news/car/10q4/2012_mitsubishi_i-miev_u.s.-spec_photos_and_info-auto_shows/gallery/mitsubishi_prototype_i_miev_lithium-ion_batteries_and_electric_drive_system_photo_19 i-MiEV Ford Focus Fiat 500 EV http://www.metaefficient.com/cars/ford-focus-electric-nissan-leaf.html http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79578/20101108/sb-limotive-samsung-sdi-chrysler-electric-car.htm Battery Packs in Some EDVs
  • 31. Relationship between Car Makers and Battery Makers © Nomura Research Institute, Ltd.
  • 32. 2009 Recovery Act - Battery Manufacturing Expected to Lower the Cost Complete List available at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/recovery/pdfs/battery_awardee_list.pdf
  • 33. 2009 Recovery Act – Electrification of Vehicles Expected to better understand value and cost
  • 34. Battery Materials Update: No major change in commercial trends High Voltage Electrolytes (5V) using modified sulfones - ANL, Dow, Dupont have products under development Mixed metal oxide cathodes (> 200 mAh/g) Separators: Ceramic Reinforced High Temperature Stability (Energain from Dupont HTMI from Celgard) Binders: - Shift from fluoride-based binders - SBR and CMC increasingly popular Other Phosphates Voltage Vs Li Iron 3.6 V Manganese 4.1 V Cobalt 4.8 V Nickel 5.1 V
  • 35. Battery Cycle Life Depends on State of Charge Swing
    • PHEV battery likely to deep-cycle each day driven: 15 yrs equates to 4000-5000 deep cycles
    • Also need to consider combination of high and low frequency cycling
    Source: Christian Rosenkranz (Johnson Controls) at EVS 20, Long Beach, CA, November 15-19, 2003 4000 50% 70%
  • 36. Battery Degrades Faster at Higher Temperatures Calendar (Storage) Fade Source: Bloom and Battaglia , 2008 Temperature (⁰C) Relative Power
  • 37. Outline of the Presentation
    • Introduction to NREL
    • Introduction to Electric Drive Vehicles (EDVs)
    • Battery Technologies Choices for HEVs, PHEVs & EVs
    • Battery Requirements for EDVs
    • Concluding Remarks
  • 38. Energy Storage Requirements (Power, Energy, Cycle Life, Calendar Life, and Cost)
    • Vehicle size (weight and shape)
    • Electrification/hybridization purpose
        • Start/stop
        • Assist or launch
        • Electric drive
    • Degree of hybridization
    • Driving profiles and usage
    • Auxiliary or accessory electrification
    • Expected fuel economy
    • Electric range
    • Energy storage characteristics (acceptable SOC range)
    Vehicle simulation tools are usually used to estimate power and energy needs. Economics and market needs are used to identify life and cost.
  • 39. Energy Need in Light-Duty Electric-Drive Vehicles 15-25 Wh 25-80 Wh 70-200 Wh 70-200 Wh Min in use energy needed * Energy for a ultracapacitor in combination with Li-Ion http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/45596.pdf EV: 20 -40 kWh Energy Storage Technology PHEV :5-15 kWh (50-90 Wh*) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucap: Likely Ucap + VRLA: Possible Micro Hybrids (12 V-42 V: Start-Stop, Launch Assist) NiMH: No Li-ion: Yes Ucaps + high energy Li-ion : Possible Plug-in HEV (and EV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if Fuel Cell is not downsized Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible Fuel Cell Hybrids NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Possible Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible Full/Med Hybrids (150 V-350 V: Power Assist HEV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if engine is not downsized much Ucaps + VRLA: Possible Mild/Med Hybrids (42 V-150 V: Micro HEV Function + Regen)
  • 40. Power Need in Light-Duty Electric-Drive Vehicles 3-5 kW 5-15 kW 15-50 kW 15-50 kW Range of Power needed * Energy for a ultracapacitor in combination with Li-Ion http://www.nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/pdfs/45596.pdf EV: 80–120 kW Energy Storage Technology PHEV: 20-50 kW NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucap: Likely Ucap + VRLA: Possible Micro Hybrids (12 V-42 V: Start-Stop, Launch Assist) NiMH: No Li-ion: Yes Ucaps + high energy Li-ion : Possible Plug-in HEV (and EV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if Fuel Cell is not downsized Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible Fuel Cell Hybrids NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Possible Ucaps + (NiMH or Li-Ion): Possible Full/Med Hybrids (150 V-350 V: Power Assist HEV) NiMH and Li-ion: Yes Ucaps: Likely if engine is not downsized much Ucaps + VRLA: Possible Mild/Med Hybrids (42 V-150 V: Micro HEV Function + Regen)
  • 41. USABC/FreedomCAR Battery Requirements
    • Developed jointly by U.S. DOE (with supports from National Labs), automotive OEMs (through USABC), with input from battery industry
    • Requirements and targets are specified to make electric drive vehicles eventually competitive with conventional ICE vehicles on mass-produce scale
      • Some mid range targets defined to promote the development of intermediate technology to aid advanced automotive battery industry to establish itself.
      • Intermediate and less aggressive targets make some vehicles useful for demonstration purposes, niche markets, or new business models.
    • Published tables with detailed specifications provided next, but important specifications are highlighted
  • 42. USABC Available Energy is Defined when Power Requirements Are Met at Charge and Discharge Available Energy
  • 43. Energy Storage Requirements for Micro Hybrids (At End of Life) http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
  • 44. Energy Storage Requirements for Micro Hybrids (At End of Life) Discharge Power: 6 kW for 2s Available Energy: 30 Wh at 1 kW rate Cycle life: 750,000 (150,00Miles) Weight and Volume Restrictions Calendar life: 15 years Mass produce system price: $80 ($13.3/kW) http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
  • 45. Energy Storage Requirements for Low Voltage Mild Hybrids http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
  • 46. Energy Storage Requirements for Low Voltage Mild Hybrids http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 Discharge Power: 13 kW for 2s Available Energy: 300 Wh at 3 kW rate Cycle life: 450,000 (150,00Miles) Weight and Volume Restrictions Calendar life at 30⁰C: 15 years Mass produce system price: $260 ($20/kW)
  • 47. For Medium or Full Hybrids, and Fuel Cell Vehicles http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 At End Of Life
  • 48. For Medium or Full Hybrids, and Fuel Cell Vehicles http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 Available Energy = 300 Wh at C1/1 rate Calendar Life at 30 ° C = 15 Years Cycle Life (charge sustaining) = 300,000 cycles (150,000 Miles) Peak Power Discharge (10S) = 25 kW At End Of Life Cost for mass produce system = $500 ($20/kW)
  • 49. A New USABC Requirements for Lower-Energy Energy Storage System Available Energy = 26 Wh Energy Window Use = 165 Wh The purpose is to enable and develop very high power Energy storage systems with potentially lower cost than high power batteries since fuel economy of Power Assist HEVs is still good with low energy ESS. www.uscar.org/commands/files_download.php?files_id=219
  • 50. http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
  • 51. http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 Available Energy = 11.6 kWh ( Δ SOC = 70%) Capacity (EOL) = 16.6 kWh Calendar Life at 35 ° C = 15 Years Cost for mass produce system = $3,400 ($300/kWh available energy) Cycle Life (charge depleting) = 5000 cycles Peak Power Discharge (10S) = 38 kW C-rate ~ 10-15 kW Cycle Life (charge sustaining) =200K-300K cycles 40 Mile EV Range
  • 52. http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85
  • 53. http://www.uscar.org/guest/article_view.php?articles_id=85 Available Energy = 40 kWh at C/3 rate Cycle Life (full charge depleting) = 1000 cycles (150,000 Miles) Peak Power Discharge (10S) = 80 kW Cost for mass produce system = $500 ($150/kWh) Calendar Life at 30 ° C = 15 Years
  • 54. Summary DOE and USABC Battery Performance Targets Source: David Howell, DOE Vehicle Technologies Annual Merit Review DOE Energy Storage Goals HEV (2010) PHEV (2015) EV (2020) Equivalent Electric Range (miles) N/A 10-40 200-300 Discharge Pulse Power (kW) 25 38-50 80 Regen Pulse Power (10 seconds) (kW) 20 25-30 40 Recharge Rate (kW) N/A 1.4-2.8 5-10 Cold Cranking Power @ -30 ºC (2 seconds) (kW) 5 7 N/A Available Energy (kWh) 0.3 3.5-11.6 30-40 Calendar Life (year) 15 10+ 10 Cycle Life (cycles) 3000 3,000-5,000, deep discharge 750+, deep discharge Maximum System Weight (kg) 40 60-120 300 Maximum System Volume (l) 32 40-80 133 Operating Temperature Range (ºC) -30 to +52 -30 to 52 -40 to 85
  • 55.
    • Safety (abuse tolerance, one cell will have an event)
    • Cost/value
    • Long life/durable
    • Manufacturability
    • Recyclability
    • Diagnostics
    • Maintenance/Repair
    • Packaging – Structural and connections
    • Thermal Management – Life (T), performance (T), safety
        • Impedance Change with Life – impact on thermal management and design for end of life
    • Electrical Management – Balancing, performance , life, safety
    • Control/ Monitoring
      • Gauge (capacity, power, life)
    Integrating Cells into Packs Cylindrical vs. flat/prismatic designs Many small cells vs. a few large cells
  • 56. Battery Packaging?
    • Many small cells
      • Low cell cost (commodity market)
      • Improved safety (faster heat rejection)
      • Many interconnects
      • Low weight and volume efficiency
      • Reliability (many components, but some redundancy)
      • Higher assembly cost
      • Electrical management (costly)
      • Life
    • Fewer large cells
      • Higher cost
      • Increased reliability
      • Lower assembly cost for the pack
      • Higher weight and volume efficiency
      • Thermal management (tougher)
      • Safety and Degradation in large format cells
      • Better Reliability (lower number of components)
      • Life
  • 57. Battery Energy Requirements for Heavy-Duty EDV
    • The energy efficiency of light-duty vehicles are about 200 to 400 Whr/mile
      • 5 to 12 kWhr battery for 30 mile
      • 2 Second power: 30 to 60 kW
      • P/E from 2 to 15
    • Sprinter PHEV consumes about 600 Whr/mile in charge depleting (CD) mode
    • Heavy-duty vehicles could consume from 1000 to 2000 Whr/mile
      • 30 to 60 kWh battery for 30 mile range
      • Volume, weight, and cost are big issues
      • Thermal management is a concern
  • 58. Concluding Remarks
    • Batteries with high power to energy ratios are needed for HEVs
    • Batteries with low power to energy ratios are needed for EVs and PHEVs
    • Expansion of the energy storage system usable state of charge window while maintaining life will be critical for reducing system cost and volume, but could decrease the life.
    • The key barrier to commercialization of PHEVs and EVs are battery life, packaging, and cost.
  • 59. Acknowledgments
    • DOE Program Support
          • Dave Howell
          • Tien Duong
          • Brian Cunningham
    • NREL Technical Support
          • Shriram Santhanagopalan
          • Anne Dillon
          • Matt Keyser
          • Kandler Smith
          • Gi-Heon Kim
          • Jeremy Neubauer
  • 60.
    • Thank You!
    • [email_address]
    nrel.gov/vehiclesandfuels/energystorage/