Calstart fuel cell bus review short v3

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Overview of CALSTART's Fuel Cell Bus work

Overview of CALSTART's Fuel Cell Bus work

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  • AC Transit HyRoad Program - Continued Accelerated Operations leading to major improvements in Fuel Cell performance and availability Resulted in an upgrade to the Fuel Cell – new FC carries a 6,000 hour warranty with incentives to reach 10,000 hours; availability of the Fuel Cell stack for the new fuel cell has been documented in operation at 90% Success in the fuel cell technology led to AC Transit committing to add five more buses to their fleet (for a total of 8) with new battery packs, lighter weight and other improvements in addition to the new fuel cell Accelerated Operations now have achieved: 198,000 miles, 7.04 vs 4.20 dge fuel economy, fueling 24 to 28 kg H2 per day Enhanced Program – 8 lighter buses, new FC, batteries New buses are 6,000 lbs lighter than current generation (only 2,000 lbs heavier than a standard diesel bus ~ 30,000 lbs) Innovations Light weight, hi tech exterior sheet metal Light weight cooling system cover Combination rear cap, exhaust outlet, and ventilation outlet New fiberglass passenger bench seats with vital mechanical and electronic equipment installed under bench Roof cover system with light weight, high tech sandwich panels Latest generation drive system components installed low in the vehicle to improve handling and ride dynamics. New lighter, higher efficiency HVAC unit for in passenger compartment temperature control and Hybrid System battery pack cooling. New Infrastructure Facility Funded and In Planning
  • BAE Systems Compound Hybrid Fuel Cell Bus (BUS 2010) Schedule and budget on track and achieving all engineering and technical milestones All major subsystems delivered Bus chassis delivered and baseline tests (with existing diesel hybrid system) completed for comparison to the finished BUS 2010 configuration comparison Bus chassis integration is underway on-schedule Schedule and budget on track to deliver the bus to SF Muni in Q12010 (CY) Subsequent to delivery test trial operations will be performed followed by in-service scheduling
  • US Hybrid Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter Successfully fabricated and completed unit tests verifying performance of the high-power 200 and 400 A, high – voltage two-way converter The BDC design optimizes energy flow between the fuel cell, energy storage and drive subsystems with a fast dynamic response and current/voltage mode agility reducing the fuel cell transient loads and increasing both fuel cell durability and vehicle fuel economy. Ultra-low stand-by power (12 watts) and high-efficiency reduce over-all electronics cooling requirements also adding to bus-level energy efficiency. The BDC is a programmable, plug-and-play DC-DC high power converter that can replace the functions now accomplished by more costly custom designs offered by various drive train supplier/integrators for hybrid fuel cell vehicle systems that use battery or ultra capacitor energy storage. The multi-phase, high-frequency design topology and digital controllers reduce size and cost, ease integration, and increase unit efficiency and reliability while providing superb output current, voltage and power regulation and a wide dynamic range for excellent transient response. Achieve approximate price for low volume production Program successfully completed on budget Final Report delivered
  • US Hybrid Integrated Auxiliary Module Successfully fabricated and did unit tests verifying performance of the single unit that provides 200A of 24/28 VDC for auxiliaries and twin motor drives that support two 10 hp motors IAM is user programmable, plug-and-play CAN controlled unit replacing in a single unit what currently are separate units for aux power and motor drives Low quantity price is within 10% or less of the cost / kW target Ready for field deployment in HEV fuel cell vehicles. Program successfully completed on budget Final Report delivered

Transcript

  • 1. Consortia Review CALSTART NFCB Program Awards National Fuel Cell Bus Program FTA Headquarters Washington, DC April 8, 2010 Lawrence Wnuk PhD, Senior Director Copyright CALSTART 2010 Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions
  • 2. Agenda Topics
    • Brief Program Descriptions
    • Status of Program Tasks
      • remaining items
      • tests to be performed
    • Achievements, Technical/Financial Hurdles
      • Technology readiness of components and subsystems
    • Lessons Learned, Best Practices in Partnering
      • Integration, logistics, support, training, infrastructure,
    • Communications and Outreach
      • Media attention and Outreach for innovative vehicles, fuels and technologies
    • Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 3. 1. Brief Program Descriptions Multi-Path Strategy for H 2 in Transit System Developments Components Development 40’ Bus Direct Path Projects Component Path Evolutionary Path
    • FTA Performance Objectives
    • Bus Cost – <5x
      • Comparable Size Transit Bus
    • Durability – 4 to 6 Years/ 20,000 to 30,000 hours
    • Fuel Efficiency – 2x Comparable Transit Bus
    • FC Bus Performance = or >
    • Commercial Transit Bus
    • 2010 HD Emissions Standards
    • Increase Public Acceptance for FC Bus Technology
    • Foster Competitiveness in FC Bus Technologies
  • 4. CALSTART National FC Bus Programs AC Transit HyRoad SunLine AFCB (Pending) BAE Systems BUS 2010 US Hybrid BDC, IAM 40’ Bus IAM BDC
  • 5. Direct Path Vehicle & Systems Development
    • AC Transit - Accelerated Fuel Cell bus operations underway
    • UTC Power - Engineer next generation Fuel Cell
      • with a reliability increase 2 - 4 times
    • Transit Bus - 40’
    • Heavy Duty Fuel Cell
    • Power Plant
    • Hybrid Design with
    • Energy Storage
    • High Efficiency
    • Drive Systems
    • FC Bus Targeted Electronic Designs
    • Weight Reduction in Advanced Bus
      • Vehicle and Sub-systems
    AC Transit HyRoad Program - Van Hool, UTC Power, ISE Corp
  • 6. AC Transit HyRoad Program - Accelerated Service Shows Results
    • 3 Buses Continuing to Perform Accelerated In-Service Testing
    • FC Reliability/Durability Improvements on Fuel Cell
      • Resulted in manufacturing process and design improvements
    • Battery Subsystem, Two Stage Mitigation Has Been Successful
    • UTC – Warranty, 6000 hrs with
    • incentives to reach 10,000 hr
    • Current FC Stack has reached 5000 in service hours, maintains performance with no replacements
    • Reliability >90% UTC FC Stack demonstrated in MBRC - Fuel Cell
    • Balance of Plant improvements are still necessary
    • Other Bus Systems also need improvement for total MBRC
    • Continuing accelerated tests still very important, adding more buses
    • Fuel Efficiency – 1.7x
  • 7. Evolutionary Path Vehicle & Systems Development
    • Scalable Designs/Applications are the Focus
    • Variety of Buses and Lengths
      • Shuttle, School and Transit
      • 20’, 30’, 40’ and 60’ Articulated
    • Scalable Fuel Cell Power Plant
    • Hybrids or APU Designs
    • Conventional Internal Combustion
      • Engine (ICE), Battery or H 2 ICE
    • Scalable Drive Systems
    • Selected Subsystem Designs
    • Targeted Industry Software
    BUS 2010 Program Team - BAE Systems - Hydrogenics - EMP - SFMTA - Orion - Diversified Services
  • 8. BUS 2010 Evolutionary Path -Enhancing a Successful HEV Better fuel economy Lower emissions Reduced maintenance Better reliability Path to future Propulsion Control Electronics Hydrogenics Fuel Cells for APU and H 2 Storage System Electrified Accessories Propulsion Cooling Package Lithium-Ion Energy Storage System
  • 9. BUS 2010 – Completed Vehicle Integration of Major Sub-systems Roof Mounted H 2 Storage System Partial APU Rack Assembly, Thermal Management Unit 2 Fuel Cells Power Plant Assembly with Propulsion Cooling Package / Integrated Starter Generator
  • 10. American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) - Direct Path Program Re-aligned
    • FTA NFCBP Development Award
    • New purpose design fuel cell bus
      • North American chassis
      • Lightweight bus body/chassis design for H 2 fuel components
      • U.S. sourced drive components
      • Latest-generation U.S. sourced fuel cell (12,000 hr warranty)
      • New power electronics and advanced energy storage
      • Unique hi-efficiency accessory electronics
    • Zero Emission Bus vehicle demo in a very hot desert climate
    • Side-by-Side Comparisons of a Van Hool UTC Bus and BAE System - Ballard Design
    Full Size Fuel Cell Bus Hybrid Drive System Program Manager - SunLine Transit Agency Supplier Partners - BAE Systems, ElDorado, Ballard √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
  • 11. American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) – Direct Path Program
    • New purpose design fuel cell bus
      • North American chassis
      • Lightweight bus body/chassis design for H 2 fuel components
      • U.S. sourced drive components
      • Latest-generation U.S. sourced fuel cell
      • New power electronics and advanced energy storage
      • Unique hi-efficiency accessory electronics
    • Zero Emission Bus vehicle demo in a very hot climate
  • 12. US Hybrid Efficient, Low-cost, Compact, Bi-directional DC-DC(BDC) Converter
    • $60/kW in low production
    • 150-300VDC / 300-600VDC Input Voltage Range
    • 400A Input Current
    • Output
      • Vin < Vout < 900 VDC
      • Power 60 kW to 200 kW
    Component Path Project Replaces functions now custom designed for fuel cell and electric drive buses New Design
  • 13. Component Path - BDC Plug-n-Play Electronics for Multiple Applications
    • Programmable, plug-and-play, with diagnostics
    • User reconfigurable via RS232 interface
    • Tailored unit performance, speeds, simplifies integration
    • User performs Configuration Management
  • 14. High-frequency, Multi-phase DC-DC Power Conversion – Why Important BDC fast dynamic response & current/voltage mode agility optimizes energy flow between fuel cell, energy storage and drive system
    • In-Service Trials Demonstrate BDC Power Converter
    • Smoothes Fuel Cell Transients
    • Improving FC Durability
    • Fast Response Captures
    • More Regen Energy
    • Low Standby Power & High-
    • Efficiency Reduces System
    • Cooling Requirements
    • Features Together Improve
    • Vehicle Fuel Economy
    Fuel Cell Battery Drive System BDC
  • 15. Component Path Program - US Hybrid Integrated Auxiliary Module (IAM)
    • Low cost, $55/hp for motor drives and $15/A for DC-DC
    • Single Unit eases vehicle integration, increases reliability
    • 94% Rated Efficiency, for Motor Drives and DC-DC Converter
    • Motor Control
      • Speed, torque and Sensor-less
      • Hydraulic and/or Air System Pressure Regulation
      • CAN Command or Analog
    • Configuration User Managed
    Input: 250-450, 500-700 VDC Cooling: Liquid WEG < 60°C Motor Drive 1 10 hp Motor Drive 2 10 hp DC-DC Converter 200A 12/24 VDC Aux Battery Hydraulic System Air System
  • 16. IAM High-frequency Switched Power Stages - accepts wide input dynamic voltage range
    • Simplifies vehicle integration of auxiliary motors
      • Single enclosure
    • Lowers cost and increases reliability by eliminating some
      • high voltage wiring
      • high voltage connectors
      • separate water-cooled enclosures
    • IAM price < 1/3 for comparable functionality today
      • Even in low quantity production
    • Enhances vehicle fuel economy
      • Vehicle CAN control allows efficient operation and control of the auxiliary loads
    US Hybrid IAM Characteristics DC-DC 200A , 28.7 VDC Line regulation (±10% Input) 1 % Output Load regulation (10- 90%) 1 % Output Turn-on rise time Soft-start, 300 ms typical Storage Temperature -40°C to +85°C Dimensions 43 x 33 x 13 cm
  • 17. 2. Status of Program Tasks Milestones and Schedule Go BAE Bus 2010 Test Report Delivery US Hybrid IAM BCD Test Reports Final Reports AC Transit HyRoad FC & Drive H/W Upgrade Test Report BAE SunLine AFCB Delivery SunLine Program Complete Program Complete Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 2008 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q4 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q4 Q2 Q1 Q3 2007 2009 2010 2011
  • 18. AC Transit Fuel Economy ~ 1.7 x Diesel BOP H/W & S/W + CSAs Upgrades to retain performance GTT
  • 19. AC Transit HyRoad Program - Rotable Fuel Cell Essential
    • Operations with More Buses Needs Rotable FC
    • Rotable fuel cell will reduce any FC downtime
    • RFC will speed continued FC performance growth
    Milestones Date TIP Certification for NFCB Grant November 2007 Accelerated Operations (3 Buses) 2008 Accelerated Operations (3 Buses) 2009 Accelerated Operations (3 Buses) Early 2010 Prototype Bus April 2010 2 nd and 3 rd Buses April/May 2010 4 th and 5 th Buses June 2010 6 th, 7 th , and 8 th Buses July/August 2010 9 th Buses September 2010 10 th and 11 th Buses October 2010 12 th Bus November 2010
  • 20. BUS 2010 - In Platform Testing, On-Track for Fleet Testing in June
    • On-Time, Within Budget
    1 2 3 4 9 10 8 6 7 5 11 12 13 14 15 16 Program planning and initiation activities Program review meeting System Level Requirements Fuel Cell APU Requirements Initial Hardware Build LRU and Integration LRU Testing SIL Integration Fuel Cell SIL Integration Vehicle Integration System Integration Start Platform Testing Start Fleet Testing Fleet Test (90day) Result Report Fleet Test (180 day) Result Report Final Report Completed Engineering Tasks System Development (In Progress) FLEET TESTING 0 Project Mobilization and Contract Development (09-07) 2008 2009 2010 2011
  • 21. 3. Achievements, Technical/Financial Hurdles Achievement Highlights to Date
    • Two Component Programs Completed
      • Electronics Price Point Close DOE 2015 Goals
      • Contributes to Vehicle Efficiency and Fuel Economy
    • Fuel Cell Performance
      • Reliability (Availability) Above 95%
      • Durability has Increased to 8,000 hrs, Continuing to Grow
    • Public Acceptance Very Positive
  • 22. US Hybrid BDC, IAM - Getting Hardware on the Road
    • Proterra Bus
    • Application - Fuel Cell Series Hybrid
    • Technology
      • Bi-directional dc-dc
      • DC-DC Converter
      • Power Converter Module
    • Benefits
      • Handling and Performance
      • Fuel Saving
    • UTC PureMotion 120®
    • Application - Fuel Cell
    • Technology - Integrated Motor Drive
  • 23. AC Transit Line 18 – On-Road Challenge for Fuel Cell & Propulsion System 2.5 mile grade at approximately 5% Albany Berkeley Oakland UC Campus
  • 24.
    • 5,000 Pounds Lighter
    • OEM Integration
    • Energy Storage (Li-ion)
    • Lower profile
    AC Transit HyRoad – Doubled FC Durability, On a Path to a 5x Increase
    • Enhanced Electronics and Fuel Cell
      • Performance
      • Reliability
      • Durability
  • 25. AC Transit HyRoad Passenger Survey – 429 Passengers
    • ACT’s Fuel Cell Program – 84% Positive
    • Program’s Effect on Opinion of
    • Local Government – 70% Improved
    • Importance of Considering Alternative Fuels – 90% Yes
    • Support Expanded Fuel Cell Bus Program at AC Transit – 81% Yes
  • 26. BUS 2010: Advanced E-Accessories & Power Management; Broad Product Suite
    • Seamless Operation of Fuel Cell APU with Energy Storage and Propulsion System across operating duty cycle
    • Optimized Power Management
      • Maximize Total Fuel Economy across driving cycle
      • Minimize Diesel Fuel Consumption
      • Minimize total Emissions including engine off time
    • Improved model / performance prediction of compound system
    • Validated model predicts regimes where hybrid, compound hybrid/fuel cell and full fuel cell-hybrid work best
    • Evaluate/demonstrate benefits of electrified accessories
    • Gauge Reliability of the Technology
    • Enhance Public awareness and acceptance
  • 27. Achievements vs. Performance Objectives
    • FTA Performance Objectives
    • Bus Cost – <5x
      • Comparable Size Transit Bus
    • Durability – 4 to 6 Years/ 20,000 to 30,000 hours
    • Fuel Efficiency – 2x Comparable Transit Bus
    • CALSTART Team Achievements
    • BUS 2010, US Hybrid BDC, IAM
      • Bus alone < $2M
    • UTC – 4 + yrs/8,000 hrs
    • w/10,000 hr incentives
    • Fuel Efficiency – 1.7x Diesel AC Transit FC Bus
    40’ Bus Goal - Facilitate Viable FCB Technologies Metrics Examples of How We’re Doing Program Objectives
  • 28. Achievements vs. Objectives (2)
    • FTA Goals and Objectives
    • FC Bus Performance = or >
    • Commercial Transit Bus
    • 2010 HD Emissions Standards
    • Increase Public Acceptance for FC Bus Technology
    • Foster Competitiveness in FC Bus Technologies
    • CALSTART Team Achievements
    • Acceleration, gradeability, range, top speed (close)
    • Verifying for Criteria Pollutants
    • AC Transit Public Survey, SunLine Public Events
    • Encouraged Entry of Integrator Team & Buy America Compliant FC Manufacturer
    Metrics Examples of How We’re Doing
  • 29. 4. Lessons Learned, Technology Readiness Lessons Learned
    • Support Essential
      • Technical (People to Diagnose/Change Parts)
      • Logistics (Spare Parts)
    • Integration
      • Teamwork and Coordination
    • Over-all Poised for the Next Step
      • Beyond Demo Stage
      • On-Road Pilot Production Fleets (10’s of Buses) Needed
      • Supplier Focus on Production Configurations to further Reduce Cost and Increase Durability/Reliability
      • Both Fuel Cell and Electronics Need More On-Road Testing
  • 30. Outreach – Internet Based
    • CALSTART website with NFCBP pages & documents
  • 31. Conference Outreach Zero-emission, LC Bus Workshop
  • 32. 6. Conclusions and Recommendations Next Steps, Life after NFCBP
    • Observations
    • Fuel Cell Performance
      • Reliability and Availability shown solid growth
      • Durability Increased, Continues to Grow, 20,000 Soon
      • Needs More On-Road Testing
    • Public Acceptance Very Positive
    • Over-all Poised for the Next Step
      • Beyond Demo Stage
      • On-Road Pilot Production Fleets (10’s of Buses) Needed
      • Supplier Focus on Production Configurations to further Reduce Cost and Increase Durability/Reliability
      • Logistics and Support Essential with Larger Numbers of FC Buses in fleets
  • 33. www.calstart.org Clean Transportation Technologies and Solutions SM