Emerging Alternative Fuel &  Vehicle Technologies Clean Transportation  Solutions   SM Advanced Transportation  Technologi...
Agenda <ul><li>CALSTART Background </li></ul><ul><li>Trends & Drivers of Change in Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi...
Mission Statement <ul><li>CALSTART is a unique non-profit, member-supported organization dedicated to the growth of an  ad...
WestStart Has 155+ Member/ Participants  ( partial list )            
CALSTART:  A Strategic Broker for Advanced Transportation  National and International in Project Areas 2008 155+ Worldwide...
Blue Sky Award™ 2008 <ul><li>Award presented to formally recognize - and reward – companies and individuals for outstandin...
Trends & Drivers of Change <ul><li>ENERGY SECURITY: FUEL SUPPLY AND COSTS  –  Traditional fuel supplies/refining capacity ...
Fuel Price Biggest Driver <ul><li>Oil tops $120/bbl for first time May 5  </li></ul><ul><li>Oil prices have doubled in one...
First Boost of CAFE in 30 Years <ul><li>The energy bill, “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” signed by Presiden...
X-Prize: $10 Million for  100 MPG Vehicle  <ul><li>X-Prize teams up with Progressive Auto Insurance to promote 100MPG cont...
Collapsing Antarctic Ice Shelf Alarms Scientists  <ul><li>A giant chunk of floating ice has broken off Antarctic ice shelf...
US C02 Emissions  Compared to the World
Trend: Low CO2-Cars  Gain Traction in Europe <ul><li>Ford, VW, Seat all contribute to “small-segment” cars to meet or beat...
<ul><li>There is no “Silver Bullet” – no single technical or fuel solution that exists today </li></ul>
The New “Strike Zone” in Transportation Air Quality Climate Change Energy Security Balances all three competing needs Inte...
Mono to Poly-Fuel/Tech Future: Starting to Gain Traction Greenhouse Gas Emissions High Low Low High Air Pollution  Today’s...
Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>It can become a hindrance to action </li></ul>
Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>Remember? </li></ul>Hydrogen and fuel cells are the only answer
Beware the Pendulum Swing! We’ll never be able to cheaply make hydrogen fuel or cars
Beware the Pendulum Swing! Hydrogen is one of the long term solutions but much more R&D needed
UK Royal Society:  Warning on Biofuels <ul><li>Report calls for greater scrutiny for biofuels –  “Sustainable biofuels: pr...
Two Studies Raise Questions on Biofuels and Land Use <ul><li>Studies indicate previous “accounting errors” did not quantif...
Reaction to Biofuel Studies <ul><li>&quot;They're [the studies] based on naive assumptions…In the case of cereals, over th...
Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>Now biofuels… </li></ul>Biofuels alone will solve climate change and energy dependence
Beware the Pendulum Swing! Biofuels are worse than conventional fuels for GHGs
Beware the Pendulum Swing! Today’s biofuels are an important start and transition path - not the complete solution nor fin...
Where Are Biofuels Headed? <ul><li>Still very much an active debate </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s biofuels are stepping stones...
Fleets and Carbon “Footprint” <ul><li>Fleets need to look at entire operation:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>geographic differenc...
Ethanol <ul><li>Significant growth in production and major policy push – can off set oil today </li></ul><ul><li>Questions...
GM Plans Half Ethanol  Fleet by 2012 <ul><li>GM will have 11 ethanol-capable vehicles on the market this year and 15 in 20...
Pipeline Cos Agree to  Study Ethanol Pipeline <ul><li>Two major oil pipeline companies consider investing in $3 billion et...
Switchgrass Study:  More Viable Than Thought <ul><li>Five year trial reveals that switchgrass produces 540 percent more re...
Natural Gas <ul><li>Possible re-emergence of natural gas – port locations big promoters for clean air </li></ul><ul><li>Ni...
EPA, CARB Certify Westport's LNG Class 8 Truck Engine <ul><li>California Air Resources Board (CARB) and U.S. Environmental...
Kenworth Works on NGVs, Westport Working on LNG Systems <ul><li>Kenworth expands to LNG vehicles with T800 LBG trucks </li...
Freightliner to Produce  CNG Business Class M2 Truck <ul><li>Freightliner to produce CNG version of its Business Class M2 ...
LA Commuters Get Super-Sized NG Bus Service  <ul><li>The Orange Line busway in Los Angeles received a new, &quot;super-siz...
UPS Adds More CNG Delivery Vehicles to Fleet <ul><li>UPS deploys 167 compressed natural gas delivery trucks to California,...
CNG Vehicles Making Strides in Germany, Europe <ul><li>Sales of natural gas cars are up 60 percent in Germany over 2006, w...
VW’s Passat TSi EcoFuel Debuts   <ul><li>World’s first turbo CNG debuts at Geneva auto show </li></ul><ul><li>Can be power...
NGV Cooperative <ul><li>CALSTART has partnered with NG stakeholders to create a  Natural Gas Vehicle Purchase Cooperative ...
NGV Cooperative <ul><li>Process:   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize both interested fleets and dealers to participate  </li>...
<ul><li>PG&E to purchase natural gas derived from cow manure at California dairy farms to fuel power plants </li></ul><ul>...
SunLine Hydrogen Blend HCNG with Cummins Westport Innovation <ul><li>Upgrade of CWI 5.9L, 230HP SI B Gas Plus NG engine fo...
Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel <ul><li>Volumes still low but growing – some impact from feedstock switching to produce eth...
Studies: Pure Biodiesel, B20 Blends Performing Well <ul><li>Researchers report 100 percent biodiesel derived from soybean ...
Safeway Converts Trucks to B20 <ul><li>Store chain commits to B20 in fleet of more than 1,000 trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Say...
Solazyme, Chevron Work  on Biofuels from Algae <ul><li>Chevron announces partnership with company that extracts oils from ...
Europe Might Ban Some Types of Biofuel Crops <ul><li>European Union officials propose banning certain types of biofuel cro...
Palm Oil Fuels Jumbo Jet <ul><li>Virgin Airlines jumbo jet makes successful palm oil flight </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing 747-4...
DME: Dimethyl Ether <ul><li>Volvo Trucks sees this as preferred fuel – multiple renewable feedstocks, works in diesel-base...
Volvo Demonstrating CO2-Free Trucks Possible <ul><li>Volvo unveils working tests on “Seven brother trucks”, all of which r...
Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Improving battery technology thanks to hybrids may bring back capability (lithium ion) </li></ul...
Growing Importance of Energy Storage Drives Relationships OEM Chrysler Ford GM Honda Nissan Volkswagon Mitsubishi * Toyota...
Tesla Shops Sports EV Idea to Big Three, Roadster Production Commences <ul><li>Tesla rethinking independent production mod...
Think Signs Deal With GE, Unveils Concept Car in Geneva  <ul><li>General Electric announces investments in electric vehicl...
Smith to Build More Electric  Vans, Trucks in US <ul><li>Smith Electric Vehicles plans to build as many as 200,000 new ele...
Canada's First Fully-Electric Delivery Truck Makes Its Debut   <ul><li>A zero-emissions, fully electric delivery vehicle c...
ZERO TRUCK to Debut <ul><li>Start-up Electrorides plans to debut prototype ZERO TRUCK, converted medium-duty Isuzu N Serie...
Tata and Chrysler’s GEM Partner on EVs  <ul><li>Tata and Chrysler’s Global Electric Motors (GEM) division sign development...
Subaru & NY Team to  Evaluate R1e  <ul><li>Subaru evaluating its R1e with New York Power Authority (NYPA) this summer </li...
Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Perfect storm for hybrids?  Incremental cost dropping as fuel price rises </li></ul><ul><...
Report: US Shoppers  Still Wary of Diesel, Like Hybrids <ul><li>US consumers don’t think of diesel as a mainstream fuel so...
January Hybrid Sales Up  Source: GreenCarCongress.com Reported US Sales of Hybrids Up 27.3% In January 2008
January Hybrid Sales Up, cont… Source: GreenCarCongress.com Reported US Sales of Hybrids Up 27.3% In January 2008 0.6% 473...
Mercedes Benz Says Li-Ion Battery Ready for Its Hybrid  <ul><li>Mercedes-Benz says its first hybrid coming with battery br...
Mahindra Looks to Break Into US Hybrid Market, With Diesel <ul><li>Indian manufacturer Mahindra teams with Global Vehicles...
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Lots of attention and interest in PHEVs among policy makers, environmentalists </...
Toyota vs. GM vs. Ford: Working on Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles   <ul><li>Toyota Motor Company says it’s testing plug-...
Toyota: We’ll Have  PHEVs by 2010 <ul><li>Toyota announced plans to build its first PHEV in 2010 –  Katsuaki Watnabe, CEO ...
Road Testing on Chevy Volt by Spring, Production by 2010? <ul><li>GM Chief Bob Lutz: &quot;We'll have some [Volts] on the ...
Fisker Unveils Luxury Karma, Features Quantum  Q DRIVE <ul><li>Fisker Automotive unveiled the first-ever luxury plug-in hy...
Volvo’s New PHEV Partnership  in Sweden <ul><li>Volvo  launches unique cooperation for the development of plug-in hybrid c...
Odyne Gets Order for 25 Plug-in  Hybrid Aerial Lift Truck Systems <ul><li>Odyne Corp gets Dueco order for 25 plug-in hybri...
Hydrogen / Fuel Cell Vehicles <ul><li>Still very much a longer term technology development effort </li></ul><ul><li>A few ...
Honda Will Lease Clarity,  New Fuel Cell Car in Summer 08 <ul><li>Honda will lease its new FC vehicle to limited number of...
Calif: GM to Sell 1000 FCVs? Lobbies for H2 Infrastructure <ul><li>GM says it wants to sell 1,000 fuel cell vehicles in Ca...
Detroit Metropolitan Airport  Gets Two HICE Shuttle Buses <ul><li>Detroit Metropolitan Airport receives two Ford E-450 shu...
Hybrid Truck  Users Forum (HTUF) <ul><li>Goal:  Speed the development and introduction of commercially viable medium- and ...
Recent Heavy Hybrid News <ul><ul><li>Eaton sells 30 hybrid electric buses to China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freightliner...
HTUF National Meeting 2007 Hybrid Truck Users Forum - 7 th  Meeting <ul><li>Two and a half day forum at Qwest Field, Seatt...
Key Findings at HTUF 2007 <ul><li>HTUF process has taken 1-2 years off the development cycle of med and heavy-duty hybrids...
Timeline to Commercialization: Hybrid Tech Now Starting in Trucks Test prototypes and systems Field pilot assessments (10-...
Recent Introductions Oshkosh hybrid refuse truck IC/Enova hybrid shuttle bus Peterbilt Class 7 hybrid utility truck ISE hy...
Multiple Applications from  Core Hybrid Chassis <ul><li>Hybrid systems expanding in number of applications they can addres...
Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles <ul><li>Extremely promising technology </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: possible lower cost than elec...
Eaton Hydraulic Hybrid Bus <ul><li>Eaton developing its energy-saving Hydraulic Launch Assist ™   (HLA ® ) system technolo...
Prototype Series Hydraulic Hybrid in Testing <ul><li>Test project of EPA, Army/NAC, Eaton, International and UPS </li></ul...
HTUF Working Groups Today <ul><li>6 Core Working Groups of fleet truck users now operating, plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 ...
HTUF Working Group Activities <ul><li>Refuse Working Group : Will deploy and assess 6+ pre-production hybrid refuse trucks...
<ul><li>Working Group Update:  Commercial Construction Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completed data gathering to ide...
Class 6/7 Deployment Data to Date <ul><li>All 24 trucks delivered – 12 months of service on first trucks </li></ul><ul><li...
Overall Fuel Consumption Improvements <ul><li>Overall savings as high as 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Total Gallons over Total Op...
Availability of HEV System: All Units Courtesy Eaton Majority of trucks show high availability!
Vehicle Issues Per Truck One issue per field test truck every two years!
Pathways and Variants Material Handler HEV PHET Variant Plug-in Hybrid Electric Truck  PHET Variant Class 5 Bucket HEV PHE...
Deployment, Testing  & Production Ramp-up HTUF: “Expanding the Funnel”  From Hybrids to More Efficient Trucks 2006 2007 20...
HTUF National Conference 2008 <ul><li>Set for October 14-16, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Join us in historic  South Bend, IN , ...
Summary <ul><li>Criteria emissions, increasing efficiency, energy security, fuel cost and greenhouse gas emissions are new...
Clean Transportation Solutions   SM www.calstart.org For info contact: Bill Van Amburg (626) 744-5600 [email_address] www....
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CALSTART Emerging Alternative Fuel Vehicle Technology

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Innovations and challenges in clean transportation. Presented at NAFA-FMI Salt Lake City by CALSTART Senior VP Bill Van Amburg

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  • CALSTART Emerging Alternative Fuel Vehicle Technology

    1. 1. Emerging Alternative Fuel & Vehicle Technologies Clean Transportation Solutions SM Advanced Transportation Technologies Bill Van Amburg Senior Vice President NAFA-FMI Salt Lake City Course 39 May 6, 2008
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>CALSTART Background </li></ul><ul><li>Trends & Drivers of Change in Transportation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biofuel Battles – Beware the “Pendulum” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology & Fuel Updates </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper Look at Medium and Heavy Hybrids and HTUF </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    3. 3. Mission Statement <ul><li>CALSTART is a unique non-profit, member-supported organization dedicated to the growth of an advanced transportation technologies industry that will: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create high-quality jobs; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean the air; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on foreign oil; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent global warming </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. WestStart Has 155+ Member/ Participants ( partial list )            
    5. 5. CALSTART: A Strategic Broker for Advanced Transportation National and International in Project Areas 2008 155+ Worldwide Participant Network 4 Offices in US Four focus areas: Tech Commercialization Fleet, Port Consulting Industry Services Policy Development
    6. 6. Blue Sky Award™ 2008 <ul><li>Award presented to formally recognize - and reward – companies and individuals for outstanding marketplace actions in clean vehicles, technologies, fuels and systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2008 Blue Sky Award ™ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eaton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Sky Innovation Award™ Business Region Gothenburg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue Sky Merit Awards™ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Counties Express; Union Pacific Railroad; ZipCar; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards Luncheon June 10, Los Angeles: attendees welcome! </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Trends & Drivers of Change <ul><li>ENERGY SECURITY: FUEL SUPPLY AND COSTS – Traditional fuel supplies/refining capacity barely meeting current demand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The need for biofuels is increasing but so are questions about their impacts/benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biofuels growing as fuel blends; second generation biofuels emerging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rise of non-traditional hydrocarbons possible – but have serious impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional fuel variation and choice becoming more prevalent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternatives becoming economically competitive with petroleum but have own costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GLOBAL WARMING – Push to reduce GHGs intensifying and pushing fuel economy – focus and urgency increases in 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New CAFÉ laws! First in 30 years on books; CAFÉ for medium and heavy trucks under study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>States/communities remain GHG leaders – Calif AB 32 increases momentum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California CO2 tailpipe rules blocked by EPA but states suing EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several climate change bills now in Congress (Spring 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy efficiency reduces GHG impact; Fuel switching and blending reduces GHG impact; Modal split (transit and rail) has long term role </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS – World population increasingly urban and world emission standards increasingly move to CA/Euro standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EU and US may align in 2012-2015 timeline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine particulates (nano particles) will be of increasing concern from combustion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diesel fuel still challenged in dirtiest regions (ports, Southern California) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Fuel Price Biggest Driver <ul><li>Oil tops $120/bbl for first time May 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Oil prices have doubled in one year! </li></ul><ul><li>Pump prices topping $4/gallon gasoline; diesel higher </li></ul><ul><li>Impact? Even Californians are decreasing fuel use, for second straight year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Down 4.5% in January compared to 1 year ago </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 fuel use down over 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hybrid sales up; SUVs down </li></ul>
    9. 9. First Boost of CAFE in 30 Years <ul><li>The energy bill, “Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007” signed by President George W. Bush December 19, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>New law calls for first major hike in the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards in 30 years, raising the minimum miles per gallon from 25 MPG today to 35 MPG by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Ethanol industry also came out a winner in the legislation, which requires production of biofuels to 36 billion gallons in 2022 from 7.5 billion in 2012. </li></ul>Source: static.howstuffworks.com
    10. 10. X-Prize: $10 Million for 100 MPG Vehicle <ul><li>X-Prize teams up with Progressive Auto Insurance to promote 100MPG contest with a $10 million purse </li></ul><ul><li>Winner will design, build and bring to market 100 MPGe (miles per gallon energy equivalent) vehicles that people want to buy, and that meet market needs for price, size, capability, safety and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream vehicles required to carry four or more passengers, four or more wheels, allow for a 200-mile range </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative-class vehicles required to carry two or more passengers, no constraints on the number of wheels, and allow for a 100-mile range </li></ul>New York Mayor Michael Bloomberg at NY Auto Show X-Prize announcement Source: X-Prize.com
    11. 11. Collapsing Antarctic Ice Shelf Alarms Scientists <ul><li>A giant chunk of floating ice has broken off Antarctic ice shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Threatens the integrity of the ice shelf interior </li></ul><ul><li>Comes at least 15 years sooner than scientists expected </li></ul><ul><li>Six other ice shelves have already been lost entirely - the Prince Gustav Channel, Larsen Inlet, Larsen B, Wordie, Muller and Jones shelves -- The Guardian </li></ul><ul><li>“ The ice shelf is hanging by a thread” -- Professor David Vaughan of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) </li></ul>Sources: National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, CO, via CNN
    12. 12. US C02 Emissions Compared to the World
    13. 13. Trend: Low CO2-Cars Gain Traction in Europe <ul><li>Ford, VW, Seat all contribute to “small-segment” cars to meet or beat EU’s 120 g/km of carbon dioxide rule </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge now is to meet performance expectations of customers to sell on mass scale -- University of Gelsenkirchen, Germany </li></ul>Source: Companies via Automotive News Europe “ How low can they go?” 120 PEUGEOT 207 119 FIAT GRAND PUNTO 119 OPEL CORSA ECO FLEX 117 RENAULT CLIO below 100 FORD FIESTA ECOCENTIC 99 SEAT IBIZA ECOMOTIVE 99 VW POLO BLUE MOTION g/km  Small car variants with the lowest CO2
    14. 14. <ul><li>There is no “Silver Bullet” – no single technical or fuel solution that exists today </li></ul>
    15. 15. The New “Strike Zone” in Transportation Air Quality Climate Change Energy Security Balances all three competing needs Integrated Solutions Needed
    16. 16. Mono to Poly-Fuel/Tech Future: Starting to Gain Traction Greenhouse Gas Emissions High Low Low High Air Pollution Today’s Diesel Engine Tomorrow’s Diesel Engine Biodiesel Natural Gas FF Hybrid H2 from FF Biogas Biofuel Hybrid Gasoline ICE Renewable H2 Battery EV -- Renewable Plug-in Hybrid Land Fill Gas E-85 BTL/GTL/CTL 2020 Gasoline ICE? BUT: feedstock and fuel cycle matters Diesel Hybrid
    17. 17. Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>It can become a hindrance to action </li></ul>
    18. 18. Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>Remember? </li></ul>Hydrogen and fuel cells are the only answer
    19. 19. Beware the Pendulum Swing! We’ll never be able to cheaply make hydrogen fuel or cars
    20. 20. Beware the Pendulum Swing! Hydrogen is one of the long term solutions but much more R&D needed
    21. 21. UK Royal Society: Warning on Biofuels <ul><li>Report calls for greater scrutiny for biofuels – “Sustainable biofuels: prospects and challenges,” The Royal Society </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Unless biofuel development is supported by appropriate policies and economic instruments then there is a risk that we may become locked into inefficient biofuel supply chains that potentially create harmful environmental and social impacts’ </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies need to be accelerated that can help address these issues, aided by policies that provide direct incentives to invest in the most efficient biofuels </li></ul>
    22. 22. Two Studies Raise Questions on Biofuels and Land Use <ul><li>Studies indicate previous “accounting errors” did not quantify ultimate greenhouse gas implications of biofuel crops </li></ul><ul><li>Princeton study, “Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change” and Nature Conservancy study, “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Carbon Debt” </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels contributing to climate change by removing naturally occurring carbon sinks such as rain forests, with land conversion creating as much as 420 times C02 </li></ul><ul><li>“… most significant finding from of our research is that our current biofuels are not a viable strategy for reducing climate change. From a climate change perspective, current biofuels are worse than fossil fuels,” -- Joe Fargione, The Nature Conservancy </li></ul>Young palm oil seedling in a burned peat swamp forest landscape in Riau, Indonesia. © Marcel Silvius, Wetlands International Source: nature.org
    23. 23. Reaction to Biofuel Studies <ul><li>&quot;They're [the studies] based on naive assumptions…In the case of cereals, over the last 50 years there's been a doubling of demand, but there's not been an expansion of acreage… Expanding demand has generally not led to a corresponding increase in demand for land use. I would say it's a speculative response for a speculative paper.&quot; – Chris Somerville, director of the BP-funded Energy Biosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley </li></ul>Chris Sommerville, University of California, Berkeley Source: berkeley.edu
    24. 24. Beware the Pendulum Swing! <ul><li>Now biofuels… </li></ul>Biofuels alone will solve climate change and energy dependence
    25. 25. Beware the Pendulum Swing! Biofuels are worse than conventional fuels for GHGs
    26. 26. Beware the Pendulum Swing! Today’s biofuels are an important start and transition path - not the complete solution nor final version of the product!
    27. 27. Where Are Biofuels Headed? <ul><li>Still very much an active debate </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s biofuels are stepping stones to next generation fuels and feedstocks – we believe you must start somewhere to make progress! </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels in future that do not compete with food and wilderness for fertile land can avoid indirect GHG emissions (Alex Farrell, UC Berkeley Energy & Resources Group) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes and residues, agriculture seasonal mix, wastelands crops – more R&D </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Fleets and Carbon “Footprint” <ul><li>Fleets need to look at entire operation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>geographic differences, deeper dive in how vehicles used, air quality constraints, infrastructure support, regional funding, source of biofuels you use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No more “one size fits all” answers </li></ul><ul><li>Best simple metric is petroleum use – how much do you use now, and how can you reduce it? </li></ul><ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low carbon fuels – this is a moving target, but includes bio and renewable diesel, natural gas, DME, electricity, hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient vehicles (many ways to achieve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More efficient operations and systems </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Ethanol <ul><li>Significant growth in production and major policy push – can off set oil today </li></ul><ul><li>Questions growing: land impact; energy use; limits </li></ul><ul><li>Production from corn is starting to affect crop prices and not sustainable long term but it is a pathway </li></ul><ul><li>Other feedstocks and advanced production (such as cellulosic) in development </li></ul><ul><li>Lower in energy than gasoline but can be priced competitively – though its cost rising too </li></ul><ul><li>Lower GHG impact than gasoline; lower for most emissions – low % blends a concern in some areas </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure growing quickly but still limited; most flex fuel vehicles still do not use E-85! </li></ul>
    30. 30. GM Plans Half Ethanol Fleet by 2012 <ul><li>GM will have 11 ethanol-capable vehicles on the market this year and 15 in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>First four-cylinder ethanol-capable model, the FlexFuel Chevrolet HHR, in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>‘ If GM, Ford Motor Co. and Chrysler LLC meet their promises for the number of ethanol-capable vehicles they'll have on the road by 2020, there would be a reduction of 29 billion gallons of fuel annually, or 18 percent of the country's usage,’ -- Troy Clarke, President GM North America </li></ul><ul><li>GM buys stake in Illinois-based Coskata, a biofuel company </li></ul>2009 Chevrolet HHR Source: horisly.blogspot.com
    31. 31. Pipeline Cos Agree to Study Ethanol Pipeline <ul><li>Two major oil pipeline companies consider investing in $3 billion ethanol pipeline </li></ul><ul><li>Buckeye Parters, Magellan Partners to conduct a joint assessment document to determine feasibility of such a project </li></ul><ul><li>Will study ‘right-of-ways, workforces, synergies and resources, government regulations/incentives, engineering requirements and construction costs’ </li></ul><ul><li>If approved, could be built in 3 years </li></ul><ul><li>Could supply 10 million gallons a day, gathering ethanol from facilities in mid- west, serving cities in east </li></ul><ul><li>Expect results in late 2008 </li></ul>Pipelines Source: EnergyTechStocks.com
    32. 32. Switchgrass Study: More Viable Than Thought <ul><li>Five year trial reveals that switchgrass produces 540 percent more renewable energy than energy consumed in its production – “Net energy of cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass,” USDA Research Service, University of Nebraska </li></ul><ul><li>Previous estimates expected 343 percent net energy production </li></ul><ul><li>Study also estimates greenhouse gas emissions from switchgrass 94 percent less than gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up to study found average cost per ton = $60; average farmgate production would be approximately $.55 to $.62 a gallon </li></ul>Kenneth Vogel, USDA Agricultural Research Service, University of Nebraska Source: University of Nebraska
    33. 33. Natural Gas <ul><li>Possible re-emergence of natural gas – port locations big promoters for clean air </li></ul><ul><li>Niches remain strong: transit, refuse, now ports </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure still key barrier for many, though fuel partners available; strongest growth in regions with good infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Light-duty OEM only Honda Civic GX in US </li></ul><ul><li>However, can get natural gas upfits for several light and medium duty vehicles; low volume manufacturers still producing vehicles and kits </li></ul><ul><li>While few engine families available in medium and heavy-duty, new and advanced engines out – and more announcements due </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel also increasing in cost and may become increasingly imported, but a renewable option possible </li></ul>
    34. 34. EPA, CARB Certify Westport's LNG Class 8 Truck Engine <ul><li>California Air Resources Board (CARB) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified Westport’s High Pressure Direct Injection (HPDI) technology adapted to the 2007 Cummins ISX heavy-duty engine </li></ul><ul><li>The EPA certification and the Executive Order from CARB certifies the HPDI LNG (liquefied natural gas) fuel system to 0.8g/bhp-hr oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and 0.01g/bhp-hr Particulate Matter (PM) </li></ul><ul><li>The company says that this certification allows customers to meet new clean air rules for trucks serving the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach </li></ul>
    35. 35. Kenworth Works on NGVs, Westport Working on LNG Systems <ul><li>Kenworth expands to LNG vehicles with T800 LBG trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Mfg at Renton WA in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks to feature Cummins ISX, Westport’s HPDI fuel systems </li></ul><ul><li>Westport will open new LNG Fuel System Assembly Center to support initiative (BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Coincides with SoCal Ports clean truck programs </li></ul><ul><li>Westport’s only technology currently qualified for funding under the $1.6 billion program </li></ul>Kenworth T800 Source: Kenworth.com
    36. 36. Freightliner to Produce CNG Business Class M2 Truck <ul><li>Freightliner to produce CNG version of its Business Class M2 106 truck </li></ul><ul><li>To contain Cummins Westport 8.9 -liter L Gas Plus engine </li></ul><ul><li>39 of M2 trucks bought by PG&E; 34 using Deere 6081 CNG engine, 5 using LNG </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas conversion done by Complete Coach Works </li></ul>
    37. 37. LA Commuters Get Super-Sized NG Bus Service <ul><li>The Orange Line busway in Los Angeles received a new, &quot;super-sized&quot; 65-foot-long bus that runs on natural gas and can hold as many as 100 passengers; </li></ul><ul><li>Bus manufactured by North American Bus Industries (NABI); </li></ul><ul><li>Exemption from Caltrans for the Metropolitan Transit Authority to operate, since bus exceeded the allowable limit by 5 feet; </li></ul><ul><li>MTA posits that congestion is alleviated by increasing the size of the buses rather than putting new conventional buses on the road, and the MTA estimates, saves money longer term. </li></ul>LA County Supervisor, Zev Yaroslavsky, left with NABI bus
    38. 38. UPS Adds More CNG Delivery Vehicles to Fleet <ul><li>UPS deploys 167 compressed natural gas delivery trucks to California, Texas and Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Trucks expected to achieve 10 percent fuel economy improvement, 20 percent emissions reduction over traditional diesel versions </li></ul><ul><li>Are built as alt fuel vehicles, not conversions </li></ul><ul><li>Join 800 other NG vehicles in fleet </li></ul>UPS CNG delivery vehicle Source: businesswire.com, UPS
    39. 39. CNG Vehicles Making Strides in Germany, Europe <ul><li>Sales of natural gas cars are up 60 percent in Germany over 2006, which were 40 percent higher than 2005's sales </li></ul><ul><li>Sales in the Czech Republic are estimated to grow 20-fold over the next ten years </li></ul><ul><li>UK's Natural Gas Vehicles Association predicts growth from a few hundred to more than 100,000 before the decade is out </li></ul><ul><li>Among the reasons cited for strong growth is ready-made infrastructure that allows motorists to refuel at home </li></ul><ul><li>150,000 NGVs on U.S. roads </li></ul><ul><li>5 million worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Produce up to 20 percent less greenhouse gas emissions than comparable gasoline vehicles and up to 15 percent less than comparable diesel vehicles </li></ul>
    40. 40. VW’s Passat TSi EcoFuel Debuts <ul><li>World’s first turbo CNG debuts at Geneva auto show </li></ul><ul><li>Can be powered by either CNG or gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>CNG stored in 3 tanks with a combined capacity of 22kg mounted beneath the trunk’s floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemented by a 31-litre tank for conventional gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Two tanks offer theoretical range of more than 490 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Plans for versions in Touran, Gold and Caddy vans in Europe </li></ul>VW Passat TSI Source: Galway Advertiser
    41. 41. NGV Cooperative <ul><li>CALSTART has partnered with NG stakeholders to create a Natural Gas Vehicle Purchase Cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To coordinate high volume purchase of light and medium duty vehicles by public and private fleets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aggregate large enough numbers to incentivize dealers and manufacturers to not only participate in the Cooperative, but help them expand the market for these vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will assist fleets in “greening” their fleets with cleaner alternative fuel vehicles at affordable prices  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly within California, Arizona and Nevada, possible expansion to other states </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. NGV Cooperative <ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize both interested fleets and dealers to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fleets would be encouraged to participate with the benefit of the potential of lower prices from a higher volume purchase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealers, manufacturers would be encouraged to participate with the prospect of receiving higher order volume via the Cooperative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A RFP process will be conducted with interested dealers based on fleet product interest; winning bid will be awarded to the dealer(s) with the most satisfactory bid based on agreed on evaluation criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase information will then be distributed via a variety of means, including the CALSTART web site, media, e-newsletters, outreach at conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact: Susan Romeo sromeo@calstart.org </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>PG&E to purchase natural gas derived from cow manure at California dairy farms to fuel power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Will purchase the gas from Environmental Power Corp, a renewable energy developer based in New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>Also looking for partners to build other biomethane facilities </li></ul><ul><li>California regulators directed state’s investor-owned utilities to make renewable resources 20% of their power supplies by 2010 </li></ul>PG&E to Buy Cow Manure Gas, Plans to Build Biomethane Plants Manure fuel plant in California
    44. 44. SunLine Hydrogen Blend HCNG with Cummins Westport Innovation <ul><li>Upgrade of CWI 5.9L, 230HP SI B Gas Plus NG engine for HCNG. </li></ul><ul><li>20 vol% H 2 and 80 vol% NG fuel blend. </li></ul><ul><li>Lean burn technology with exhaust oxidation catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Funding: NREL-U.S. DOE and South Coast AQMD. </li></ul><ul><li>24,000 miles field trials completed in Jun-2004. </li></ul><ul><li>NOx, nmHC reduced by 50%. Engine efficiency unchanged. </li></ul><ul><li>The two HCNG buses performed equally well as the NG buses. </li></ul><ul><li>67,000 vehicle-miles logged in regular service as of Feb-2006. </li></ul>
    45. 45. Biodiesel and Renewable Diesel <ul><li>Volumes still low but growing – some impact from feedstock switching to produce ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>Unintended consequences: feedstock matters – some bio-oil production is damaging, raises questions about benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Most OEMs accepting increased biodiesel use </li></ul><ul><li>Little or no performance drop off from conventional diesel; some operating concerns (such as cold weather) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel quality improving but varies greatly – about 90% of biodiesel meets specs (diversity of feedstock & processes) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced greenhouse gases and particulates from diesel, but questions over increased NOx for biodiesel; more research needed </li></ul>
    46. 46. Studies: Pure Biodiesel, B20 Blends Performing Well <ul><li>Researchers report 100 percent biodiesel derived from soybean oil has had no negative effect after two years of use in Case New Holland tractors -- Pennsylvania State University </li></ul><ul><li>Iowa Soybean Association Study also found B20 blends perform well in trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 Ducker Truck Line Semi-tractors in“2 Million Mile Haul” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average fuel efficiency 6.29 mpg for petroleum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6.15 for B20 group </li></ul></ul>Source: agri-greenbiodiesel.com
    47. 47. Safeway Converts Trucks to B20 <ul><li>Store chain commits to B20 in fleet of more than 1,000 trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Says shift reduces 75-million pounds (37,500 tons) of CO2 per year </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalent to removing 7,500 cars from road </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstock: soybean oil </li></ul>
    48. 48. Solazyme, Chevron Work on Biofuels from Algae <ul><li>Chevron announces partnership with company that extracts oils from algae, San Francisco-based Solazyme </li></ul><ul><li>Solazyme also unveils what it says is first-of-its-kind algae-derived biodiesel, “Soladiesel” </li></ul><ul><li>Says Soladiesel has successfully been roadtested in “factory standard automobile for long distances” </li></ul><ul><li>Solazyme has developed an industrial scale fermentation process currently capable of producing thousands of gallons of algal oil using standard industrial equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Solazyme plans to dramatically expand production in 2008 </li></ul>Mercedes Benz C320 runs on algae-derived biodiesel Source: Solazyme
    49. 49. Europe Might Ban Some Types of Biofuel Crops <ul><li>European Union officials propose banning certain types of biofuel crop imports </li></ul><ul><li>Draft legislation would preclude import of biofuels from forest, wetlands, grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Draft also requires a minimum amount of greenhouse gas savings </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, most biofuels used in Europe derived from rapeseed grown there; imports from South East Asia include palm oil, soy from Latin America </li></ul>Palm oil Source: chemistrystore.com
    50. 50. Palm Oil Fuels Jumbo Jet <ul><li>Virgin Airlines jumbo jet makes successful palm oil flight </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing 747-400 flew more than 200 miles from London to Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><li>One of four engines burned B20 blend of jet fuel and coconut and babassu oils </li></ul><ul><li>Flight allayed concerns about the blend jellifying in the unmodified engine at high altitudes (25,000 feet) and low temperatures </li></ul>Sir Richard Branson, president, Virgin Atlantic Source: Getty/AFP
    51. 51. DME: Dimethyl Ether <ul><li>Volvo Trucks sees this as preferred fuel – multiple renewable feedstocks, works in diesel-based engines </li></ul><ul><li>Not a factor yet in US; growing interest in Europe, Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Can serve as replacement for propane – essentially is “synthetic LPG”; handles like LPG, burns like natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>May be best as regional fuel – wood waste is prime feedstock </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on feedstock, may be very low for GHG, comparable to LPG for smog emissions </li></ul>
    52. 52. Volvo Demonstrating CO2-Free Trucks Possible <ul><li>Volvo unveils working tests on “Seven brother trucks”, all of which run on biofuels and none of which emits carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>The bio-fuels needed to power the new family of CO2-free Volvo trucks include: biodiesel; biogas; biogas combined with biodiesel; ethanol/methanol; dimethyl ether (DME); synthetic diesel; and hydrogen gas combined with biogas </li></ul>DME Truck from Volvo
    53. 53. Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Improving battery technology thanks to hybrids may bring back capability (lithium ion) </li></ul><ul><li>Still expensive, range limited: but energy storage costs dropping quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria and GHG emissions very low; varies depending on fuel source of power plants </li></ul><ul><li>Only produced by small firms or outside US </li></ul><ul><li>No US OEM passenger car product and none announced </li></ul><ul><li>HOWEVER, medium-duty all-electric trucks becoming available soon in North America from two UK companies: Smith Trucks and Modec </li></ul>
    54. 54. Growing Importance of Energy Storage Drives Relationships OEM Chrysler Ford GM Honda Nissan Volkswagon Mitsubishi * Toyota ** Volvo Battery Partner Johnson Controls /Saft (Li-Ion) Sanyo (NiMH) Hitachi, A123, Continental (Li-Ion) Sanyo (NiMH) NEC, Automotive Energy Supply Corp (Li-Ion) BASF, Robert Bosch GmbH, Evonik Degussa, Li-Tec and STEAG Saar Energie (Li-Ion) GS Yuasa Corp = Lithium Energy Japan* (Li-Ion) Panasonic EV ** (NiMH) – working on Li-I for 2010 PHEV Internal configuration of lithium-polymer cells supplied by Kokam * Lithium Energy Japan is a joint venture between GS Yuasa Corp and Mitsubishi ** Panasonic EV is a joint venture between Toyota Motor 60% and Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. 40% = partnership = joint venture or ownership
    55. 55. Tesla Shops Sports EV Idea to Big Three, Roadster Production Commences <ul><li>Tesla rethinking independent production model in favor of joint projects, possibly with big three OEMs </li></ul><ul><li>Would consider high volume manufacturing arrangement for its third EV model, a compact sports car </li></ul><ul><li>Experts indicate that partnership could be a smart move given major barrier to entry is mass scale of production </li></ul><ul><li>Tesla also commenced production of its Roadster EV in March 2008 </li></ul>Tesla Roadster Source: NPR.org
    56. 56. Think Signs Deal With GE, Unveils Concept Car in Geneva <ul><li>General Electric announces investments in electric vehicle manufacturer, Think, and lithium-ion battery manufacturer, A123 </li></ul><ul><li>GE now A123's largest cash investor, investing more than US $20 million </li></ul><ul><li>Th!nk City in production, will deliver to Norway in 2008, to sell in Europe with battery leased separately later this year </li></ul><ul><li>Think unveils electric five seater crossover O x at Geneva Auto Show </li></ul>Think O x Source: Think.no Think City
    57. 57. Smith to Build More Electric Vans, Trucks in US <ul><li>Smith Electric Vehicles plans to build as many as 200,000 new electric vans and trucks in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Production facility in Fresno has the capacity to build 1,000 vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Search on for a site that can include a 500,000 square foot factory </li></ul><ul><li>New plant would create at least 500 jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Smith also unveiled the US version of the Newton, which has range of up to 150 miles and a payload capacity of up to 15,800 lbs and is available in US truck Classes 5 through 7 </li></ul>
    58. 58. Canada's First Fully-Electric Delivery Truck Makes Its Debut <ul><li>A zero-emissions, fully electric delivery vehicle called the Quicksider was unveiled in Etobicoke, Ontario as the product of a collaboration between Purolator, Unicell and ArvinMeritor </li></ul><ul><li>The Quicksider is credited as Unicell's &quot;brainchild&quot; and the electric drive train comes from ArvinMeritor </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles join Purolator's national green fleet, 19 HEVs and one fuel-cell hybrid electric vehicle in service in Toronto since 2005 </li></ul>Purolator Quicksider
    59. 59. ZERO TRUCK to Debut <ul><li>Start-up Electrorides plans to debut prototype ZERO TRUCK, converted medium-duty Isuzu N Series in May </li></ul><ul><li>No cargo = 100 miles on one charge </li></ul><ul><li>Features UQM’s electric motor </li></ul><ul><li>Orders taken for ZeroTruck in June </li></ul><ul><li>Beta phase in June </li></ul><ul><li>First deliveries in August </li></ul>Source: electrorides.com
    60. 60. Tata and Chrysler’s GEM Partner on EVs <ul><li>Tata and Chrysler’s Global Electric Motors (GEM) division sign development agreement for electric vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>For EV version of Tata’s mini truck, the ACE to be sold in the US </li></ul><ul><li>10,000 vehicles planned, due to ramp up to 50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Company says it’s too soon to release more details </li></ul>GEM Source: GEM Tata ACE Source: Tata
    61. 61. Subaru & NY Team to Evaluate R1e <ul><li>Subaru evaluating its R1e with New York Power Authority (NYPA) this summer </li></ul><ul><li>Says “quick-charge” lithium-ion battery can allow charging up to 80 percent capacity in 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Battery pack, originally developed in partnership with NEC Corporation, uses lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) as the cathode active material </li></ul><ul><li>346V battery pack powers the 40kW drive motor </li></ul><ul><li>Typical charge cost under $2 </li></ul><ul><li>Speeds up to 65 mph, range up to 50 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Fully charged overnight (eight hours) while connected to a standard household electrical outlet </li></ul>Source: prnewswire.com
    62. 62. Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Perfect storm for hybrids? Incremental cost dropping as fuel price rises </li></ul><ul><li>After 10 years achieving decent market penetration but still dominated by two companies (Toyota and Honda) </li></ul><ul><li>Market is expanding and GM now ramping up plans, while some automakers hedging </li></ul><ul><li>Toyota plans to cut increment in half, eventually eliminate </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria and GHG emissions low – next step: combining a hybrid with low carbon fuel would be a big impact per car </li></ul>
    63. 63. Report: US Shoppers Still Wary of Diesel, Like Hybrids <ul><li>US consumers don’t think of diesel as a mainstream fuel source, with only 6 percent believing diesel most likely to succeed – Kelley Blue Book Marketing Research Study </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in hybrids continues to grow, with gap between diesel and hybrids widening almost 2x in a month </li></ul><ul><li>Premiums willing to pay for hybrids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$3,135 in Jan 08 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2,645 in Dec 07 </li></ul></ul>2009 Toyota Prius Source: fuelzilla.com Mercedes Blue Tec Diesel Hybrid Source: carfans.us
    64. 64. January Hybrid Sales Up Source: GreenCarCongress.com Reported US Sales of Hybrids Up 27.3% In January 2008
    65. 65. January Hybrid Sales Up, cont… Source: GreenCarCongress.com Reported US Sales of Hybrids Up 27.3% In January 2008 0.6% 473 76,605 Nissan 1.0% 1,474 148,355 Ford 1.8% 1,793 98,511 Honda 10.9% 18,652 171,849 Toyota % Hybrid Sales Hybrid Sales Total LDV Sales Company Hybrid Sales as a Percentage of Total Light Vehicle Sales, January 2008
    66. 66. Mercedes Benz Says Li-Ion Battery Ready for Its Hybrid <ul><li>Mercedes-Benz says its first hybrid coming with battery breakthrough </li></ul><ul><li>26 patents making the Li-Ion batteries feasible, integrating with car’s climate control system, keeping battery temperatures between 60 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><li>S400 BlueHybrid 3.5 litre V-6 engine complemented by hybrid system with 30mpg, in 2009 </li></ul>S400 BlueHybrid Source: autospectator.com
    67. 67. Mahindra Looks to Break Into US Hybrid Market, With Diesel <ul><li>Indian manufacturer Mahindra teams with Global Vehicles USA to offer its pick up trucks in 2009, with nation’s first hybrid diesel engines as an option starting in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid import tariff, pick-ups to be assembled in Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>300 dealers signed up to sell the new line </li></ul><ul><li>45,000 units the first year </li></ul><ul><li>Co says vehicle capable of capable of 40+ mpg </li></ul>2009 Mahindra & Mahindra Appalachian Pick-Up Source: insideline.com
    68. 68. Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Lots of attention and interest in PHEVs among policy makers, environmentalists </li></ul><ul><li>All current PHEVs are conversions from small firms – very few on road </li></ul><ul><li>No OEM production dates set – though increasingly “hinted at”: GM 2009 for Saturn, 2010 for Volt? </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: increased fuel economy, GHG reductions, possible zero emission driving </li></ul><ul><li>Cost and life cycle of energy storage (batteries) are prime limiter, along with infrastructure network (can plug at home) </li></ul><ul><li>Most focus is on passenger cars – trucks offer additional challenges, possible benefits </li></ul>
    69. 69. Toyota vs. GM vs. Ford: Working on Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles <ul><li>Toyota Motor Company says it’s testing plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, first Japanese automaker to plow forward into researching and road testing the technology </li></ul><ul><li>General Motors has taken the lead in developing rechargeable vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Ford made joint announcement on PHEV testing partnership with Southern California Edison </li></ul><ul><li>Ford continues to study a PHEV concept “Extend,” seeks trademark on name </li></ul>Ford PHEV Escape
    70. 70. Toyota: We’ll Have PHEVs by 2010 <ul><li>Toyota announced plans to build its first PHEV in 2010 – Katsuaki Watnabe, CEO Toyota Motor Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Says will depend on Li-Ion batteries, not NiMH that gasoline electric hybrid Prius uses </li></ul><ul><li>Specific plans for Lexus division </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and environmental impacts being researched by company </li></ul><ul><li>Will unveil at Detroit 2009 Auto Show </li></ul>PHEV Prius Source: Popular Mechanics
    71. 71. Road Testing on Chevy Volt by Spring, Production by 2010? <ul><li>GM Chief Bob Lutz: &quot;We'll have some [Volts] on the road for testing next spring (2008), and we should have the Volt in production by the end of 2010.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>While work on the lithium-ion batteries, deemed to be more effective for plug-in hybrids to come to market, continues, the batteries will remain expensive and storage capacity is still a challenge, according to Lutz </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, GM announced various partnerships with battery makers, such as Compact and LG Chem, and A123, which is working with Continental on the &quot;next generation&quot; of lithium-ion batteries </li></ul>
    72. 72. Fisker Unveils Luxury Karma, Features Quantum Q DRIVE <ul><li>Fisker Automotive unveiled the first-ever luxury plug-in hybrid electric vehicle at North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit </li></ul><ul><li>Four-door sedan starting price of $80,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Q DRIVE, developed by Quantum Technologies, will form basis for all future derivatives for Fisker </li></ul><ul><li>Karma's Q DRIVE configuration consists of a small gasoline engine that turns the generator, which charges the lithium ion battery pack, powering the electric motor, turning the rear wheels </li></ul><ul><li>50 mile a day electric range before engine use </li></ul><ul><li>Co says could only need fueling once per year </li></ul>
    73. 73. Volvo’s New PHEV Partnership in Sweden <ul><li>Volvo launches unique cooperation for the development of plug-in hybrid cars in Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>Team is electricity provider Vattenfall, Saab Automobile, ETC and the Swedish state </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and demonstrate the next-generation hybrid cars </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet of 10 plug-in hybrids will be produced that can be recharged directly from wall socket </li></ul>Volvo ReCharge
    74. 74. Odyne Gets Order for 25 Plug-in Hybrid Aerial Lift Truck Systems <ul><li>Odyne Corp gets Dueco order for 25 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle systems </li></ul><ul><li>Dueco one of the nation's largest utility equipment manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Systems installed by Dueco to power the first plug-in hybrid electric aerial lift trucks, &quot;bucket trucks,&quot; used by utility companies to maintain electric, telephone and cable lines </li></ul><ul><li>Odyne Stored Energy System power all of the necessary job-site related equipment directly, including the aerial lift device, air conditioning and heating, with the engine off </li></ul><ul><li>Companies estimate vehicles will reduce fuel consumption by up to 6-10 gallons / day, depending on duty cycle, eliminate on-site engine emissions, as well as eliminate on-site noise </li></ul>
    75. 75. Hydrogen / Fuel Cell Vehicles <ul><li>Still very much a longer term technology development effort </li></ul><ul><li>A few hundred vehicles worldwide for technical assessment to date </li></ul><ul><li>Original launch dates (2010) no longer on table </li></ul><ul><li>Will likely see in transit buses before passenger cars </li></ul><ul><li>Costs still extremely high, though significant technical advancement has occurred </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen infrastructure still a major barrier (though more than 30 refueling sites in California!) </li></ul>
    76. 76. Honda Will Lease Clarity, New Fuel Cell Car in Summer 08 <ul><li>Honda will lease its new FC vehicle to limited number of California consumers by Summer 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Honda's FC Clarity hydrogen-fuel-cell-powered car will be available in the state on a three year lease for $600 per month including maintenance and collision insurance </li></ul><ul><li>Honda says the new Clarity FC offers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a 20-percent increase in fuel economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a 30-percent increase in vehicle range - to 270 miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an advanced new lithium-ion battery pack that is 40 percent lighter and 50 percent smaller than the current-generation FCX's ultra-capacitor; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>single 5,000-psi hydrogen storage tank with 10 percent additional hydrogen capacity than the previous model. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Car only available for lease in Torrance, Irvine and Santa Monica, CA </li></ul>
    77. 77. Calif: GM to Sell 1000 FCVs? Lobbies for H2 Infrastructure <ul><li>GM says it wants to sell 1,000 fuel cell vehicles in California </li></ul><ul><li>Targets set 2012-2014 </li></ul><ul><li>60 Chevrolet Equinox fuel cell vehicles in Southern California now </li></ul><ul><li>Response to “get to ballpark” of California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements for zero emissions vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>GM continues to lobby state and local officials to construct fueling stations, asking for about 40 in the Los Angeles area </li></ul>Chevrolet Equinox Source: hydrogencarsnow.com
    78. 78. Detroit Metropolitan Airport Gets Two HICE Shuttle Buses <ul><li>Detroit Metropolitan Airport receives two Ford E-450 shuttle buses powered by 6.8-liter V-10 internal combustion engine that has been supercharged and modified to run exclusively on hydrogen fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Funded with a Department of Energy grant supported by Congressman John Dingell (D-MI) </li></ul><ul><li>23 buses of the 30 built have been delivered to customers for commercial use </li></ul>Ford E-450 Source: autointell.com
    79. 79. Hybrid Truck Users Forum (HTUF) <ul><li>Goal: Speed the development and introduction of commercially viable medium- and heavy-duty hybrid trucks in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>User driven process involving more than 80 fleets with > 1 million trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Joint CALSTART-U.S. Army National Automotive Center (NAC) program </li></ul>
    80. 80. Recent Heavy Hybrid News <ul><ul><li>Eaton sells 30 hybrid electric buses to China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freightliner to produce 1,500 M2 hybrid trucks in next 3 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterbilt/Eaton to enter production hydraulic refuse truck 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azure plans production of hybrid shuttles in 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenworth and Peterbilt announce production plans for medium hybrid trucks in 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International launches first hybrid production: Fall 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eaton moves into production of hybrid drive system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenworth announces pre-production delivery hybrid truck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FedEx/Azure announce partnership on gas-electric hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterbilt testing Class 8 hybrid with Eaton system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ArvinMeritor signs Wal-Mart agreement for Class 8 hybrids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oshkosh unveils hybrid refuse truck at HTUF meeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterbilt introduces Class 7 hybrid truck for customer trials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International builds first production-line hybrids in Nov 06 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freightliner unveils Class 7 utility hybrid on M2 chassis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Azure/StarTrans agreement on producing hybrid shuttles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UPS testing advanced series hydraulic hybrid prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosch-Rexroth buys Dana hydraulic hybrid drive unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Misubishi-Fuso Unveil Hybrid work truck (Cl 4-5 delivery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISE builds 50 advanced hybrid buses for Las Vegas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volvo announces hybrid heavy trucks for 2009 production </li></ul></ul>
    81. 81. HTUF National Meeting 2007 Hybrid Truck Users Forum - 7 th Meeting <ul><li>Two and a half day forum at Qwest Field, Seattle </li></ul><ul><li>More than 430 attendees, one quarter fleet users – a new record </li></ul><ul><li>19 med. and heavy-duty hybrids in ride and drive – a new industry record </li></ul><ul><li>All major trucks makers and suppliers involved in process </li></ul>
    82. 82. Key Findings at HTUF 2007 <ul><li>HTUF process has taken 1-2 years off the development cycle of med and heavy-duty hybrids – Paul Skalny, Director, Army’s National Automotive Center </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid trucks now at cusp of first production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International launching first production of medium duty hybrids Fall 2007 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterbilt and Kenworth start production of medium duty hybrids in 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peterbilt begins production of refuse truck hybrid in 2008, and Class 8 big-rig hybrid in 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mack/Volvo to start hybrid truck production in 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class 8 hybrids are a key new capability emerging in more-efficient trucks – could impact biggest fuel users on road </li></ul><ul><li>Better purchase incentives are needed to help fleets adopt technology sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Need to speed pre-production trucks and equipment in additional applications (including small bus and Class 8) </li></ul><ul><li>New technology needed: energy storage; electrified components; light-weight materials; power generation; optimized engines </li></ul>
    83. 83. Timeline to Commercialization: Hybrid Tech Now Starting in Trucks Test prototypes and systems Field pilot assessments (10-50 vehicles) Assembly line builds up to 100+ Initial commercial volumes – still high incremental cost TOOLS: R&D Support Pre-Production Deployment Support (HTUF) Purchase Incentives Trucks are not Priuses! Tech introduction 10 years behind cars BUT: big fuel impact per truck Development Pre-Production Production Intent Early Production
    84. 84. Recent Introductions Oshkosh hybrid refuse truck IC/Enova hybrid shuttle bus Peterbilt Class 7 hybrid utility truck ISE hybrid cutaway shuttle bus Freightliner Class 6/7 hybrid utility truck Kenworth Class 7 hybrid truck Freightliner Class 6/7 hybrid beverage truck Volvo hybrid refuse truck Kenworth Class 7 hybrid beverage truck Azure gas-hybrid parcel truck
    85. 85. Multiple Applications from Core Hybrid Chassis <ul><li>Hybrid systems expanding in number of applications they can address </li></ul>
    86. 86. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles <ul><li>Extremely promising technology </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: possible lower cost than electric technology; excellent at high power, demanding duty cycles; robust component base </li></ul><ul><li>Weight, system integration and control are key issues; farther behind in development curve </li></ul><ul><li>Most focus is on medium and heavy-duty vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Major US manufacturers are leaders in this technology </li></ul>
    87. 87. Eaton Hydraulic Hybrid Bus <ul><li>Eaton developing its energy-saving Hydraulic Launch Assist ™ (HLA ® ) system technology for medium platforms </li></ul><ul><li>New program with CALSTART, SCAQMD, Custom Coach Works to develop commercial cutaway version </li></ul><ul><li>Initial work under a program with the US Army National Automotive Center and Impact Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Eaton’s HLA regenerative braking system has demonstrated significant fuel economy, reduction in emissions, brake wear in stop and go driving applications </li></ul>
    88. 88. Prototype Series Hydraulic Hybrid in Testing <ul><li>Test project of EPA, Army/NAC, Eaton, International and UPS </li></ul><ul><li>Series hydraulic design eliminates transmission and driveshaft, operates engine in narrow range </li></ul><ul><li>Early testing has shown up to a 70% increase in fuel economy over conventional truck </li></ul><ul><li>Still several years from commercialization </li></ul>UPS will field test prototype truck for several months in delivery operation
    89. 89. HTUF Working Groups Today <ul><li>6 Core Working Groups of fleet truck users now operating, plus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 WG partnership with NTEA (light truck) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 new Forum forming (construction equip.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Task Force: Plug-in HE Trucks (PHET) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main Working Groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility/Specialty trucks – George Survant, Florida Power & Light, user lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parcel Delivery trucks – Jerry Swart, FedEx Ground; Robert Hall, UPS – user leads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuse Truck Working Group – Matt Stewart, City of Chicago Sanitation, user lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus Working Group – Tony Bryant, Tri-Met, user lead (launched with support of Federal Transit Administration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class 8 Working Group – active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives Working Group – active </li></ul></ul>
    90. 90. HTUF Working Group Activities <ul><li>Refuse Working Group : Will deploy and assess 6+ pre-production hybrid refuse trucks with three major fleets (both electric and hydraulic hybrids) – Crane Carrier, ISE, Bosch Rexroth </li></ul><ul><li>Parcel Working Group : Will field and assess several development-stage hydraulic hybrid trucks - HybraDrive </li></ul><ul><li>Small Bus Working Group : Finalizing RFP for ~25-foot pre-production hybrid bus deployment and assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Class 8 Working Group : Developing field test partnerships, over the road and regional applications </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Truck Working Group : Developing market commitments for several “next step” applications </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives Working Group : Have developed national and local rebate incentive structure for early production hybrids, sharing with federal/state policy makers </li></ul>
    91. 91. <ul><li>Working Group Update: Commercial Construction Equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Completed data gathering to identify </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Key players in the CCE industry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most frequently used construction equipment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greatest opportunities for efficiency improvement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Military needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Broad end-use applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loaders - Excavators </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulldozers - Scrapers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graders </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EPA Tier 4 Emissions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proposed CARB rules for off-road heavy-duty </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capital and fuel costs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work activities rather than motive needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulically driven tools and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Next Step: Bring together an industry forum </li></ul></ul></ul>
    92. 92. Class 6/7 Deployment Data to Date <ul><li>All 24 trucks delivered – 12 months of service on first trucks </li></ul><ul><li>391 total truck months of service through Aug 07; 409,352 miles </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of trucks high: 99+% overall daily availability of hybrid systems </li></ul><ul><li>Strong user acceptance and trucks meeting mission needs </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel economy varies by fleet and use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>54% fuel economy gain for highest fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14% fuel economy gain for lowest fleet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest variables: mileage driven versus work site “boom” time (more work site time equals better mpg) </li></ul></ul>
    93. 93. Overall Fuel Consumption Improvements <ul><li>Overall savings as high as 54% </li></ul><ul><li>Total Gallons over Total Operation hours, capturing engine ON and OFF operation </li></ul><ul><li>Dependant on duty cycle! </li></ul>Decrease 2.1 to 1.4 gal/h totals fuel saving from 14.7 - 9.8 gallons, or 34% Lab Testing savings from 12.5 – 7.5 gallons, or 40%
    94. 94. Availability of HEV System: All Units Courtesy Eaton Majority of trucks show high availability!
    95. 95. Vehicle Issues Per Truck One issue per field test truck every two years!
    96. 96. Pathways and Variants Material Handler HEV PHET Variant Plug-in Hybrid Electric Truck PHET Variant Class 5 Bucket HEV PHET Variant Underground Truck/Van HEV Odyne/Dueco Prototype Cranes/ Digger Derrick HEV What can be scaled from the core driveline engineering and what are the possible next applications/markets? EPRI/PG&E Project
    97. 97. Deployment, Testing & Production Ramp-up HTUF: “Expanding the Funnel” From Hybrids to More Efficient Trucks 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Early Production: 500+ Truck Deploy Launches Commercial Phase Testing Evaluation Validation Biofuel hybrids GTL/BTL Synthetics Energy storage Plug in modes Power generation Electrified components First Commercial Volumes Capabilities Enhancement 4+ hybrid system suppliers each at min. 2500 system/year volumes 6 truck/ chassis OEMs active Industry volume 20k hybrids/year Technology Enhancement Increased Truck Volume Industrial Hybrid Segment Commercial Hybrids Outcomes: 40-50% fuel use reductions per vehicle Increased capabilities of silent watch, power gen Increased Truck Volume Shuttle Hybrid Segment Class 8 OTR and Drayage Hybrid Increased Truck Volume Delivery Hybrid Segments Increased Truck Volume Utility 5-7 Hybrid Segment Increased Truck Volume Refuse Hybrid Segment
    98. 98. HTUF National Conference 2008 <ul><li>Set for October 14-16, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Join us in historic South Bend, IN , hosted by Bosch Rexroth </li></ul><ul><li>EXPANDED three day conference featuring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hybrid 101” education sessions for fleets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truck and supplier product briefings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latest field test performance reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New technology and military product briefings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive and market information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>World’s biggest hybrid truck and bus ride and drive on Bosch Rexroth’s state-of-the-art track </li></ul>We thank our 2008 HTUF Host:
    99. 99. Summary <ul><li>Criteria emissions, increasing efficiency, energy security, fuel cost and greenhouse gas emissions are new defining factors in transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet planning has become more complicated and requires sophisticated approach – pathways needed </li></ul><ul><li>Best start is to know how much petroleum you use today, where, and how and target reductions </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated, multi-fuel and technology solutions are likely required - solutions that address only single issues are not as valuable </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multiplier effect” of combining solutions valuable </li></ul><ul><li>Fleets need to better understand feedstocks for biofuels and know their suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Regional and varied fuel approaches likely </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen and fuel cells not a short term option </li></ul>
    100. 100. Clean Transportation Solutions SM www.calstart.org For info contact: Bill Van Amburg (626) 744-5600 [email_address] www.htuf.org Advanced Transportation Technologies SM

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