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2009 Summit Event Master Keynote Bellman

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  • 1. Please WelcomeBeryl Bellman
    FEAC
  • 2. Program Management for EA
    Center for the Advancement of the Enterprise Architecture Profession
    2009 Summit
    Beryl Bellman, PhD
    FEAC Academic Program Director
    Page 2
  • 3. What You Should Not Expect to Learn How to Do Here
    3
  • 4. What we will Cover
    Managing the Unmanageable in organizations
    Program management in the context of EA – as both topic and resource
    Risk management as an exemplar
    Dealing with Organizational Culture as a risk factor
    Modeling culture and organizational behavior
    Culture as Business Rules – OV6A
    Cultural Perspectives and Developing a Communication Plan
    Architecting for Decision Support – a case study of a golf course
    Finding our way
    Page 4
  • 5. The Need for Enterprise Architecture
    The effective organization is “garrulous, clumsy, superstitious, hypocritical, monstrous, octopoid, wandering and grouchy" Karl Weick
    On Re-Punctuating the Problemin New Perspectives on Organizational Effectiveness; Jossey Bass 1977
  • 6. Making Sense of Organizations
    • This is because organizations organically emerge out of the communication patterns that develop in the course of doing business and in response to the host of environmental variables in dynamically changing business landscapes.
    • 7. Enterprises are instances of complex adaptive systems having many interacting subcomponents whose interactions yield complex behaviors
    • 8. Enterprise Architecture is a way of understanding and managing such complexity
  • Dealing with Organizational Messes rather than Problems
    In a real sense, problems do not exist. They are distractions from real situations. The real situations from which they are abstracted are messes.
    A mess is a system of interrelated problems. We should be concerned with messes, not problems.
    The solution to a mess is not equal to the sum of the solution to its parts. The solution to its parts should be derived from the solution of the whole; not vice versa.
    Science has provided powerful methods, techniques and tools for solving problems, but it has provided little that can help in solving messes. The lack of mess-solving capability is the most important challenge facing us.”
    Russ Ackoff, University of Pennsylvania
    Page 7
  • 9. Program and Project Management
    Program management involves the hierarchy within enterprises providing oversight to various projects
    Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of organizational resources for relatively short-term objectives
    Page 8
  • 10. Page 9
  • 11. PMI BOK Nine Knowledge Areas
    Project integration management
    The processes to ensure elements of the project are coordinated, including tradeoffs between competing objectives and alternatives to meet stakeholder needs
    Scope Management
    Ensures only the work necessary to successfully complete the project is done
    Time management
    Processes required to complete the project in a timely manner
    Page 10
  • 12. Nine Knowledge Areas
    Cost management
    The processes required to complete project within the approved budget
    Quality Management
    Processes required to ensure customer satisfaction with the product of the project
    Human Resource Management
    Processes required to effectively use people assigned to project
    Page 11
  • 13. Nine Knowledge Areas
    Communications Management
    Processes required to collect, distribute, store and dispose of project information
    Risk Management
    Processes required to identify, analyze and respond to risk events in the project
    Procurement Management
    Processes required to acquire goods and services for the project
    Page 12
  • 14. Page 13
  • 15. Page 14
  • 16. Risk Assessment and Mitigation
    Identify risks to program and project
    Determine impact each risk realization could have on project
    Determine likelihood of risk occurrence
    Weigh risk against others affecting project according to qualitative rankings (high, medium or low) and quantitative measures
    Develop risk mitigation strategies
  • 17.
  • 18. Culture and Risk
    • Culture is the leading risk factor for compromising integrity and compliance in companies today.
    • 19. Risk Assessment
    • 20. The process by which the results of a risk analysis (i.e., risk estimates) are used to make decisions, either through relative ranking of risk reduction strategies or through comparison with risk targets
    • 21. Risk Management
    • 22. The planning, organizing, leading and controlling of an organization’s assets and activities to minimize adverse effects
    Page 17
  • 23. Mission
    Strategy
    To be
    Goals
    As is
    Enterprise Architecture
    Culture
    Leadership
    people
    Actions
    Segments
    products
    processes
    people
    IT
    Enterprise Architecture as a management instrument
    “Next to its architecture, which could be viewed as the “hard part of the company,” the soft part, its culture is formed by its people and leadership and is of equal if not higher importance in achieving these goals” Enterprise Architecture at Work by Marcc Lankhorst et al. P 9
    .
    Page 18
  • 24. The Culture – EA Connection
    Virtually all experienced enterprise architects recognize the significance of culture.
    They most often attribute to it negative experiences such as encounters with not-invented-here attitudes; turf battles between and among functional stovepiped organizations to seeing EA initiatives challenged as unwelcome intrusions by management to put another bureaucratic obstacle in the way of those who do the real work.
    Culture from this view is seen as an impediment and something that has to be managed, dealt with and changed.
    As intercultural business communication theorist Geert Hofstede observed, “Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."     
    Page 19
  • 25. Modeling Culture into EA
    In this discussion we consider how architects might develop cultural models that integrate into enterprise architecture allowing queries to determine impacts on some proposed or actual technological or business process change.
    Page 20
  • 26. Culture as represented in an Object Oriented Model
    OO modeling is the underlying structure for many EA tools and methods
    Objects are structures holding data and procedures
    It provides for both a set of meta models and their instantiation in diagrams relating to different architectural products or artifacts.
    Page 21
  • 27. The Modernist View of Culture
    • Culture… taken in its widest ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The condition of culture among the various societies of mankind, in so far as it is capable of being investigated on general principles, is a subject apt for the study of laws of human thought and action. (Tyler, 1871)
    • 28. Culture is the deposit of knowledge, experiences, beliefs, values, attitudes, meanings, hierarchies, religion, timing, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the universe (world view), and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individual and group striving (Gudykunst and Kim, 2002).
    Page 22
  • 29. Contrasting Views of Culture
    Culture as a Thing - culture as a container - something that people exhibit
    Culture as a Process - a managed accomplishment - something that people do
    Page 23
  • 30. Culture as a Communication System
    “Culture is a theory of practice” (Pierre Bordeaux)
    “Culture is software for the mind”
    (Geert Hofstead)
    Page 24
  • 31. An example of an Intercultural Misunderstanding
    B: So, how’s your math?
    I: ((silence))
    B: Not so good huh?
    I: No
    Page 25
  • 32. Organizational Culture
    According to the anthropologist Mary Douglas, culture is not a static ‘thing’ but something which everyone is constantly creating, affirming and expressing.
    Organization culture is the emergent result of the continuing negotiations about values, meanings and proprieties between the members of that organization and with its environment.
  • 33. The Underlying Basis of Culture
    Culture is learned from experience and the interpretation of experience.
    Culture is like the operating system of a computer, a pattern of basic assumptions that governs behavior.
    Culture operates at different levels of awareness; values, beliefs, attitudes and behavior.
    Changing culture cannot be separated from the success of the associated organizational changes.
    (from Edgar M. Johnson - IDA)
  • 34. Parallels between Language and Social Cognition (Ray Jackendoff – Language, Consciousness, Culture)
    Unlimited number of understandable social situations
    Requires combinational rule system in mind of social participant
    Rule system only partly available to consciousness
    Rule system must be acquired with only imperfect evidence, only partially taught
    Learning requires inner unlearned resources, perhaps partly specific to social cognition
    Inner resources determined by genome interacting with process of biological development
    Unlimited number of understandable sentences
    Requires combinational rule system in mind of language user
    Rule system not available to consciousness
    Rule system acquired with only imperfect evidence in environment – virtually no teaching
    Learning requires inner unlearned resources, perhaps partly specific to language
    Inner resources determined by genome interacting with process of biological development
    Page 28
  • 35. Structures
    Surface Structure - the array of lived experience
    Deep Structure - a finite set of underlying principles or components that generate the infinite variety of surface structure possibilities
  • 36. Cultural Levels
    Artifacts include the visible products of the group as the architecture of its physical environment
    Espoused Values – “focus on what people sayis the reason for their behavior, what they ideally would like those reasons to be and what are often their rationalizations for their behavior” –
    • These include stated mission and vision statements, strategies, values, goals etc that are conscious guides
    Basic assumptions are theories of practice in use that actually guide behavior and inform group members about how to perceive, think about and feel about things.
    The underlying reasons for behavior remain concealed and unconscious
  • 37. Artifacts
    Visible organizational structures and processes
    (the technical components of EA)
    Espoused Values
    The organization’s strategies, goals and philosophies
    (the strategic components of EA)
    Tacit Assumptions
    Unconscious taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts and feelings –
    “the way we do things around here”
    Three Levels of Culture – Adapted from Edgar Schein
    Page 31
  • 38. Finding and Modeling Assumptions
    Unless one digs down to the level of basic assumptions one cannot decipher artifacts, norms and values
    Assumptions are interlocking and systemic
    Locate by exploring with informants anomalies observed between visible artifacts and espoused beliefs and values
  • 39. Mechanisms and Constraints
    Enterprise culture is the accumulated learning that becomes taken for granted and drops from awareness
    The learning concerns both how the organization deals with external environments and how it manages its internal integration
    Culture changes are inevitably a source of anxiety because they upset the ability of members to predict what is ahead
    The underlying assumptions that comprise enterprise culture and contribute to its success can as business and technological landscapes change become an impediment to survival
  • 40. DEC’s Cultural Paradigm - Internal
    Rugged Individualism
    Entrepreneurial spirit
    Truth through conflict
    Push back
    Get buy-in
    Innovation
    Work is fun
    Family paternalism
    Job security
    Personal responsibility
    He who proposes does
    Do the right thing
    Page 34
  • 41. DEC’s Cultural Paradigm – External – Surviving in a dynamic environment
    Moral commitment
    to customers
    Solving the customer’s problem
    The market as arbiter
    Let the market decide
    Engineering arrogance
    We know what is best
    Central control
    Budget approval at
    Operations Committee
    Organizational idealism
    Responsible people of goodwill
    can solve the problem
    Page 35
  • 42. Engineering versus Sales
    DEC grounded in MIT academic culture
    A basic assumption of engineering culture that ‘good work speaks for itself,” and an engineer ‘ should not have to sell himself.’ Public relations and image building are forms of ‘lying’ and are to be avoided
    Idealism of engineering and dominance over sales and the lack of “the money gene” in the cultural DNA countered DEC’s ability to adapt to growth and changes in the business and technological landscapes
    The positive innovative culture that could at the same time grind out “fabulous new products” and develop such strong internal animosities that groups would accuse one another of lying, cheating and misuse of resources.
  • 43. Cultural Object Relations Expressed as Business Rules
    A business rule is guidance that there is an obligation concerning conduct, action, practice, or procedure within a particular activity or sphere (from the BRG)
    In DoDAF (MoDAF) Operational Rules Model (OV-6a) specifies operational or business rules that are constraints on the way that business is done in the enterprise.
    • At lower levels, OV-6a describes the rules under which the architecture or its nodes behave under specified conditions.
    • 44. Such rules can be expressed in a textual form, for example, “If (these conditions) exist, and (this event) occurs, then (perform these actions).”
    Page 37
  • 45. Locating and Discovering Business Rules
    Some are located in policy and other organizational policy and business process documentation
    While many rules are expressed as formal rules of the business, there are many that are hidden from view and to be uncovered.
    Both types both constrain activity and provide schema for culturally appropriate organizational behavior.
    Page 38
  • 46. Business Rules as Schema with Story Grammars
    This also is relevant to the work of psychologist David Rumelhart on parallel distributed processing as microstructures of cognition (he won a McArthur award for this).
    He developed the concept of “story grammars” as cognitive microstructures that constitute formal grammars to capture the structure of stories.
    A formal grammar is an abstract structure composed of a set of (rewrite) sequencing rules that comprise schema.
    A schema is an abstract representation of a generic concept for an object, event, or situation. He showed schema consist of a network of interrelationships among the major constituents of the situation represented by the schema.
    In this way we can consider a business rule as an instance of this concept, which as I argued can be formally modeled.
    Page 39
  • 47. Business Rules as Transformational Grammars
    This relation of business rule to cultural schema is consistent with linguistic theories of generative grammars and transformational linguistics.
    This approach, first proposed by Chomsky asserts there are transformational operations that are defined for any linguistic string (sentence) that modify (transform) it from, for instance, such as being an assertion to a question to a request.
    These are also called “rewrite rules.” Anthropologists adapted this idea to develop “rewrite” rules for various cultural concepts or terminological systems such as kinship (c.f. the cognitive anthropological work of Kimball Romney
    In this way we can consider a business rule as an instance of this concept, which as I argued can be formally modeled.
    Page 40
  • 48. DEC Conflict Avoidance as Business Rule used Restaurants
    If presented with bill
    Then evaluate contextual status relative to others present
    evaluate
    Recognized lower than others at table
    lower
    highest
    Then leave table until bill is paid
    Then pay bill
    Page 41
    Stay at table
  • 49. The Digital Localized Business Rule for Paying Checks
    This business rule corresponds to the assumption system structural schema
    Schein described for internal integration in the interaction between the two cultural assumptions of family paternalism and truth through conflict.
    On the one hand there is the strong integrative function expressed in the assumption about the DEC family and on the other hand of the “truth through conflict” when decisions are made.
    In this case the there is a “pushing back” and “buying in” rather than openly negotiating status in the presence of non-family members.
    Page 42
  • 50. From Hurlbut Managing Domain Architecture Evolution Through Adaptive Use Case and Business Rule Model
    Page 43
  • 51. Business Rules in the EA Context
    From Saurabh Mittal, Amit Mitra, Amar Gupta, Bernard P. Zeigler -Strengthening OV-6a Semantics with Rule-Based Meta-models in
    DEVS/DoDAF based Life-cycle Architectures Development
    Page 44
  • 52. Enterprise Culture
    • A Three Perspective View of Culture (Joanne Martin)
    • 53. Integration – culture as shared by all members in organization wide consensus
    • 54. Where there is lack of consensus remedial actions are taken or suggestions that those who do not agree leave the organization
    • 55. Differentiation – sub-cultural perspective – focus on inconsistent interpretations based on sub-culture and stakeholder perspectives.
    • 56. A loose coupling between representations of the culture as expressed to outsiders versus insiders
    • 57. Fragmentation – focus on ways in which organizational cultures are inconsistent, ambiguous, multiplicitous and in a state of flux –
    • 58. Fragmentation focuses on multiplicities of interpretation that do not coalesce into a collectivity wide consensus of an integration view nor create sub cultural consensus of the differentiation perspective
  • Cultures, sub cultures and contra cultures
    Page 46
    Integrationist view
    Differentiation view
  • 59. This perspective includes irreconcilable tensions between opposites including ironies, paradoxes or contradictions within organizations
    Fragmentedview
    Page 47
  • 60. Fuselage Versus Wing Cultures
    Intercultural Conflict on the C17
    Page 48
  • 61. The Emergence of Enterprise Culture
    • An enterprise arises from local interaction of often independent units that exist within a common environment
    • 62. Each unit or entity interacts with its immediate environment according to a set of low order rules
    • 63. The combined effects of these lower order interactions within an environment gives rise to higher order organizational phenomenon or organizational culture
    • 64. Culture emerges from localized interactions
    • 65. As culture is grounded at the local level, culture is highly resistant to change
    • 66. Changing culture entails re-specifying local level rules rather than simply imposing change from the top
    • 67. EA necessitates an enterprise-wide ethnography taking into account multiple perspectives
    • 68. Creating an enterprise architecture proffers a mechanism to initiate positive change
  • Contrasting Perspectives
    Picking up the poker – Wittgenstein versus Popper
    Does philosophy center on the resolution of puzzles posed by language or are there genuine problems to be resolved?
    When we speak of solutions – do they pertain to puzzles or problems?
    Page 50
    Dave Edmonds & John Eidinow
  • 69. Contrasting Perspectives
      “All art — symphonies, architecture, novels — it’s all puzzles. The fitting together of notes, the fitting together of words have by their very nature a puzzle aspect. It’s the creation of form out of chaos. And I believe in form.” (Stephen Sondheim )
  • 70. Puzzles and Enterprise Architecture
    “One of the things I’m passionate about ...  is having an Enterprise Architecture and making sure that everything we do fits the puzzle."
    Bob Napier, HP EVP & CIO
    Page 52
  • 71. Resolving Puzzles
    Modeling human communications from each of the three DoDAF perspectives and/or FEAF levels, and during all phases of the TOGAF ADM
    Accounting for human communications from the top Zachman rows
    Linking to infrastructures used to support them at every layer of relevant depth
    Resolving conflicts as putting together pieces of a complex puzzle
  • 72. Where to begin?
    • Start anywhere – “go where the money is” (Willie Sutton)
    • 73. Understand human communications as business processes that incorporate the cultural, social and political/policy dimensions of organizations
    • 74. Analyze where the technical infrastructure supports, constrains and contradicts
    • 75. Build models FOR not OF – “in order to… rather than “because”
  • Enterprise Modeling
    • Involves assessment of aspects of the enterprise to understand, restructure and design enterprise operations
    • 76. Reference architectures are intellectual paradigms that facilitate analysis and accurate discussion and specification of a given area of discourse.
    • 77. They provide a way of viewing, conceiving and talking about an issue
  • Best Practices and Unique Practices
    • Best practices are useful in developing hypotheses about causation but should not be taken as necessary truth
    • 78. Correlation does not necessarily equal causation
    Page 56
  • 79. If we observe that all birds and butterflies have wings it doesn’t necessary follow that they will enable human’s to fly
    Page 57
  • 80. Ethnography and EA
    “The breakthroughs that led from categorization to an understanding of fundamental causality generally come not from crunching ever more data but from highly detailed field research, when researchers crawl inside companies to observe carefully the causal processes at work (Christensen and Raynor) .”
    Page 58
  • 81. Growing Societies from the Bottom Up
    We have discussed how agent modeling can be described as sets of cultural “business rules.”
    These sets comprise different types of strategic interaction games, as exemplified in the classic example of the prisoner’s dilemma.
    However in game theory focus has been on one game at a time. Using evolving automata cognitive behavior is modeled across multiple games.
    This points to a games-theoretic model of culture as simultaneously playing out a series of games as constituting ensembles that impacts the strategy for any particular game.
    By locating the underlying business rule schema that underlie social contextualized behaviors we can in a sense run computational models that allow the traceability we suggested earlier between business process proposals and cultural assumptions that are entailed.
    Page 59
  • 82. New Capability Enterprise Architecture for Eagle Eye Golf Club
    FEAC Certification Program
    Winter 09
    By Team ACIS
  • 83. Products
    Overview and Summary (AV-1) - Excerpt
    High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)
    Operational Activity Model – Activity Tree Node (OV-5)
    Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)
    Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4)
    Operational Information Exchange (OV-3) - Excerpt
    Operational Activity Model – Context Diagram (OV-5)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    61
    Operational Activity Mode – Activity Decomposition Models (OV-5)
    Operational Event Trace Description (OV-6c)
    Systems Interface Description (SV-1)
    Systems Communications Description (SV-2)
    Operational Activities to Systems Traceability Matrix (SV-5b)
    Technical Standards Profile (TV-1)
    Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) - Excerpt
    Conclusion
  • 84. Overview and Summary (AV-1)Excerpt
    The Professional Golf Association (PGA) has offered Mr. Chipitin, owner/operator of Eagle Eye Golf Course, an opportunity to host a celebrity charity golf event in April 2012.
    Purpose: To create a To-Be enterprise architecture that provides information on the activities, organizations, and systems necessary to support a new capability (e.g. host a celebrity charity golf event).
    In doing so, the architecture also identifies new as well as existing primitives (e.g. op nodes, system nodes, etc.) that remain functional as they are today or that may need to be modified in support of the To-Be scenario.
    This enterprise architecture is the first in a series of tasks that need to be performed as part of the overall decision making process for accepting or rejecting the PGA’s proposal to host the celebrity charity golf event at EEGC in April of 2012.
    Viewpoint: Owner/Operator EEGC
    Timeframes: To-Be
    Timeframe for making decision to host or not is 6 months
    Timeframe for event is April 2012
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    62
  • 85. High Level Operational Graphic (OV-1)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    63
  • 86. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Tree Node
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    64
  • 87. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    65
  • 88. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Course and Landscape Management
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    66
  • 89. Operational Node Connectivity (OV-2)Excerpt - Marketing & Media Relations
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    67
  • 90. Organizational Relationships Chart (OV-4)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    68
  • 91. Operational Information Exchange (OV-3) - Excerpt
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    69
  • 92. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Context Diagram
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    70
  • 93. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A0)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    71
  • 94. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A1)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    72
  • 95. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A2)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    73
  • 96. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A3)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    74
  • 97. Operational Activity Model (OV-5)Activity Decomposition Model (A4)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    75
  • 98. Operational Event Trace Description (OV-6c)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    76
  • 99. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - EEGC Clubhouse
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    77
  • 100. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - Superintendent Station
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    78
  • 101. Systems Interface Description (SV-1)Excerpt - Public Information & Media Relations Village
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    79
  • 102. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central (1 of 2)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    80
  • 103. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - EEGC Central (2 of 2)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    81
  • 104. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - Superintendent Station
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    82
  • 105. Systems Communications Description (SV-2)Excerpt - Public Information & Media Relations Village
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    83
  • 106. Operational Activities to Systems Traceability Matrix (SV-5b)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    84
  • 107. Technical Standards Profile (TV-1)
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    85
  • 108. Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) Excerpt
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    86
  • 109. Integrated Dictionary (AV-2) – cont’dExcerpt
    March 16, 2009
    New Capability Enterprise Architecture for EEGC by Team ACIS
    87
  • 110. Finding a Way
    • There is a true story that organizational theorist Karl Weick told showing the importance of frameworks or roadmaps to organizations.  He describes how … ” A group of mountain climbers was in the process of ascending one of the most daunting peaks in the Alps when they were engulfed by a sudden snow squall. All were experienced climbers and each had their own idea of the direction they should go in to get back to the base camp. They wander around for some time, arguing about which way to go, while their circumstances became more dire and threatening with each moment of indecision. Finally, one of the climbers dug around in their backpack and found a map. Everyone huddled around the map, studied it, and quickly determined their direction. Several hours later, they arrived safely at the camp. While they were warming themselves around the fire, regaling each other with the story of their near misadventure, one of the climbers picked up the map they had used to descend the Alps. On looking at it more carefully, they realized it was actually a map of the Pyrenees!”
  • The Enterprise Architecture Map of the IRS
    Page 89