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Conferencia “Innovación: Lecciones de MIT y el Mundo”...

Conferencia “Innovación: Lecciones de MIT y el Mundo”
Scott Stern (EEUU), Profesor Distinguido de Innovación Tecnológica y Emprendedorismo, MIT

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  • Key evidence on the link between clusters and economic outcomes Related clusters: The European cluster memorandum talks about the need to develop regional portfolios of related clusters; this is based on the evidence presented here Neighboring regions: If Europe focuses on linking clusters across regions, it needs to focus on those in neighboring clusters. The old model of always creating linkages across all of Europe is not effective
  • Key evidence on the link between clusters and economic outcomes Related clusters: The European cluster memorandum talks about the need to develop regional portfolios of related clusters; this is based on the evidence presented here Neighboring regions: If Europe focuses on linking clusters across regions, it needs to focus on those in neighboring clusters. The old model of always creating linkages across all of Europe is not effective
  • Key evidence on the link between clusters and economic outcomes Related clusters: The European cluster memorandum talks about the need to develop regional portfolios of related clusters; this is based on the evidence presented here Neighboring regions: If Europe focuses on linking clusters across regions, it needs to focus on those in neighboring clusters. The old model of always creating linkages across all of Europe is not effective
  • Key evidence on the link between clusters and economic outcomes Related clusters: The European cluster memorandum talks about the need to develop regional portfolios of related clusters; this is based on the evidence presented here Neighboring regions: If Europe focuses on linking clusters across regions, it needs to focus on those in neighboring clusters. The old model of always creating linkages across all of Europe is not effective

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  • 1. Building Bridges: Universities and the Peruvian Innovation System Professor Scott Stern MIT Sloan School and NBERThis presentation draws on collaboration between Scott Stern, Michael Porter, Mercedes Delgado, Christian Ketels, Fiona Murray, and workconducted at the MIT E-Center and the Harvard Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means - electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise - without thepermission of Scott Stern.
  • 2. Inca Rope Suspension Bridge 2 www.rutahsa.com
  • 3. A New Agenda for Peruvian Universities• Building an Innovator Workforce• Catalyzing Innovation-Based Entrepreneurship• Convening the Public and Private Sector to Build a Peruvian Innovation Economy 3
  • 4. Over the past decade, Peru has experienced exceptional economic performance GDP per Capita(in 1990 PPP US$) CAGR: CAGR: CAGR: $6,000 +2.07% 0.73% +4.81% $5,000 $4,000 $3,000 $2,000 $1,000 $0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010–Note: PPP using Geary Khamis calculation methodology. Source: Groningen Growth and Development Centre, Total Economy Database (June 2009) 4
  • 5. Significant export growth linked to natural resources and endowments 2.5% Change In Peru’s Overall World Export Share: +0.09% Jewelry and Precious Metals 2.0%Peru’s world export market share, 2009 1.5% Metal, Mining and Manufacturing 1.0% Fishing and Agricultural Fishing Products Products 0.5% Financial Apparel Peru’s Average World Services Hospitality and Tourism Export Share: 0.22% Communications Publishing and Printing Services 0.0% -0.5% 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% Change in Peru’s world export market share, 1997 to 2009 Exports of US$2 Billion =Source: Prof. Michael E. Porter, International Cluster Competitiveness Project, Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School;Richard Bryden, Project Director. Underlying data drawn from the UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database and the IMF BOP statistics. 5 Copyright 2010 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  • 6. Significant reductions in poverty but still much work remains… 60% 50% 40% % of Population Under the 30% Poverty Line 20% 10% 0% 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009–Source: Informacion Socio Demografica, from El Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e6Informatica (INEI), 2010
  • 7. Peru has not yet established itself as a global innovator Average U.S. patentsper million population, 2005 – 2009 3.5 Croatia 3.0 Estonia 2.5 South Africa 2.0 Greece Lithuania 1.5 Russia United Arab Emirates Portugal Costa Rica 1.0 Poland Argentin Chile Saudi Latvia China a Arabia Uruguay Mexico Brazil India 0.5 Ukraine Venezuela Kazakhstan Philippines Peru Colombia Thailand Turkey Egypt Kenya Ecuador 0.0 -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% CAGR of US-registered patents, 2005 – 2009 170 patents = Source: USPTO, World Bank 7
  • 8. The Peruvian Innovation Challenge• Peru has experienced exceptional economic performance over the past decade – Grounded in a shift towards sound macroeconomic policy, openness to international markets and partners, and the establishment of a higher level of basic security – Leveraging natural resources and endowments• But Peru has not yet established the foundations for an innovation-driven economy• Resource-led or cost-based growth has natural limits.• Peru must start setting the foundations – today -- for an innovation-driven, knowledge-based economy. 8
  • 9. BUT… WHAT IS THE ROLE OF PERUVIAN UNIVERSITIES AND OTHER KNOWLEDGE INSTITUTIONS IN THISNEXT STAGE OF PERUVIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT? 9
  • 10. A New Agenda for Peruvian Universities• Building an Innovator Workforce• Catalyzing Innovation-Based Entrepreneurship• Convening the Public and Private Sector to Build a Peruvian Innovation Economy 10
  • 11. Priority #1:Building an Innovator Workforce 11
  • 12. Peru lags neighbors in investments and resources towards basic education at the primary, secondary and tertiary level–Source: UNCTAD Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review, 2011 12
  • 13. And Supports a Lower Level of Innovation Effort** As far as we can tell from incomplete data! 13
  • 14. But… Higher Education remains focused oneducation training, law, and administration…Key STEM areas suchas computer science, biotechnology, and nanotechnology register at very low levels. 14
  • 15. Fi n 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 Ta lan i d Ic wa N e n Employees ew J lan Ze apad Researchers /1,000 U Swala n ni D ed n d te d en e St N ma n at o r k es r w2009. Data 2007 except where noted. (2 ay 0 Fr A Ko 06) an us r e ce t r a C a an B (20 lia ad elg 06 a iu ) (2 m A 005 G us ) er t r m ia R an Sw L u y itz ux Slo ss er e m v e i a l n Ir e and bo ia la (2 urg nd 0 (2 04) 0 U Sl S p 06) ni o a te E va in d s ki C K to a ze ing nia ch Po do r m N Re tug et p a he ub l r l H lan ic un d g s G ar re y Ita Po ece ly la ( 2 nd Tu 006 ) PeSou C rke progress in enhancing research intensity ru th hi y Starting at a low level, Peru can make great (e Af na st ri i m ca at e)Source: National Science Council, R.O.C., Indicators of Science and Technology, Taiwan, 2008; OECD Science, Technology, and Industry Scoreboard
  • 16. HOW CAN PERUVIAN UNIVERSITIES ENHANCE THE INNOVATOR WORKFORCE?Taiwan Competitiveness 20100408 16 Copyright © 2010 Professor Michael E. Porter
  • 17. Agenda Items for Peruvian UniversitiesEstablishing a much higher level of commitment to alllevels of education
  • 18. “Mens et Manus”Mind and Hand…. 18
  • 19. The MIT Inca Bridge ProjectResearch: John Ochsendorf and colleaguesTeaching: Heather Lechtman, Linn Hobbs and MITUndergrads! 19
  • 20. Agenda Items for Peruvian Universities• Establishing a much higher level of commitment to all levels of education.• Prioritizing investments in areas of science, engineering, and technology education that are complementary to Peruvian clusters and comparative advantage• Ensuring “Mens et Manus” – higher education must be positioned towards the development of an innovator workforce that meets the needs of an innovation- oriented Peru 20
  • 21. Priority #2:Catalyzing Innovation-Based Entrepreneurship 21
  • 22. Peru has an important tradition and strength in a number of universities (though more are needed)… 22
  • 23. HOW CAN UNIVERSITIES CATALYZE INNOVATION-BASED ENTREPRENEURSHIP? 23
  • 24. MIT serves as the fulcrum for theCambridge biosciences cluster… 24
  • 25. M.I.T. Issued U.S. Patents by Fiscal Year, 1999-2008 160 140 160 159 150Issued U.S. Patents 120 152 149 143 133 134 100 121 122 80 60 40 20 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Fiscal Year –7/17/2008 25
  • 26. MIT Entrepreneurial Impact Estimated Percent of Median Median Sales Total Estimated Total Jobs Companies Employees ($Millions) Employees Sales ($Millions)More than10,000 0.3% 15,000 1,523 1,339,361 1,389,0751,000-10,000 1.8% 1,927 308 1,043,932 235,532Less than 97.9% 39 <1 900,001 226,6711,000Total 100.0% 155 <1 3,283,294 1,851,278University alumni impact reflects the growing leverageover time of numbers, and has great potential.°Roberts and Eesley, based on ~25,800 active companies. All data arein “Entrepreneurial Impact: The Role of MIT” –26
  • 27. Bob Langer has published more than 1100 articles and been granted more than 760 patents… 27
  • 28. Prof Yet-Ming Chiang 28
  • 29. But how does MIT create this environment? 29
  • 30. Agenda Items for Peruvian Universities• Establishing specific institutions and programs – tailored to the strengths of each univeristy – to enhance the potential for an innovator workforce and commercializing new technologies and business processes – Classes combining practitioner and faculty focusing on opportunity identification and business plan development – Business plan competitions that engage across disciplines, faculties and universities – Removing roadblocks to commercialization (tech transfer, etc) – Celebrating achievement and giving back through mentoring and the nurturing of the next generation 30
  • 31. Priority #3: Convening the Public and PrivateSector to Lay the Foundations for the Peruvian Innovation Economy 31
  • 32. The Peru Cluster EnvironmentPiuraAgricultural Products:Mangoes, Lemons, Brown SugarSyrupCajamarca (Bambamarca)Dairy, Processed FoodsLa Libertad (El Porvenir, Trujillo)Leather, FootwearAncash (Chimbote)Fishing and Fish ProductsLima (Infantas, Los Olivos)Metal Manufacturing, MetalFurnitureLima (La Victoria)ApparelIcaWineCuzcoTourismPuno and ArequipaApparel from Alpaca 32
  • 33. Peruvian Clusters and Peruvian Universities• Peru’s current clusters are based heavily on natural endowments, and have much room for further upgrading• Even in areas with significant clusters – such as Cajamarca, Arequipa, and Moquegua in mining – there have historically been significant technological bottlenecks• Though there are some strong universities universities have historically played a limited role in supporting the development of entrepreneurial firms that catalyze local clusters.• There is a limited tradition of collaboration among actors for regional development• There is a weak institutional capacity – which could be addressed by leading Peruvian universities -- hampering the development of clusters. 33
  • 34. HOW CAN UNIVERSITIES HELPNURTURE PERUVIAN CLUSTERS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE PERUVIAN INNOVATION SYSTEM 34
  • 35. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 35
  • 36. The Australian Wine Cluster Locations Northern Territory Queensland Western Australia South Australia New South Wales Victoria TasmaniaNote: Colored areas indicate wine growing regionsSource: Australian Wine & Brandy Corporation Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 36
  • 37. The Australian Wine Cluster Recently founded Institutions for Collaboration Winemakers’ Federation of Australia Cooperative Centre for Viticulture  Established in 1990  Established in 1991  Focus: Public policy representation of companies  Focus: Coordination of research and education in the wine cluster policy in viticulture  Funding: Member companies  Funding: other cluster organizations Australian Wine Export Council Grape and Wine R&D Corporation  Established in 1992  Established in 1991 as statutory body  Focus: Wine export promotion through  Focus: Funding of research and development international offices in London and San Francisco activities  Funding: Government; cluster organizations  Funding: Government; statutory levy Wine Industry National Wine Industry Information Service Education and Training Council  Established in 1998  Established in 1995  Focus: Information collection, organization, and  Focus: Coordination, integration, and standard dissemination maintenance for vocational training and education  Funding: Cluster organizations  Funding: Government; other cluster organizationsSource: Michael E. Porter and Örjan Sölvell, The Australian Wine Cluster – Supplement, Harvard Business School Case Study, 2002 Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37
  • 38. The Emergence of the Australian Wine Industry is Rooted in the Evolution of Australian Competitive Advantage Gold Mining and Travel and Tourism Natural Iron / Aluminum Bauxite Resources Logistics / Trade Wool Beef Wine Produce Information Technology Abundant Grains Productive Land Ag Research Centers Education and Knowledge Creation Medical Devices Bioscience Biotech / Pharmaceuticals Research Centers 1980 1990 2002 +Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 38
  • 39. The Australian Wine Cluster Trade Performance Australian Wine Australian Wine Exports in million US Dollars World Export Market Share $1,000 8% $900 7% $800 6% $700 $600 5% Value $500 4% Market Share $400 3% $300 2% $200 $100 1% $0 0% 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000Source: UN Trade Statistics Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 39
  • 40. Over the 1990s, growth in Australian exports was driven by improvement in Australia’s wine cluster Share of Australian Exports, 2000 35% Materials/Metals 30% 25% 20% Food/Beverages* 15% 10% Transportation 5% Textiles/Apparel Oil/Chemicals Equipment Multiple 0% Business Health Care -8% -6% -4% -2% 0% 2% 4% Change in Share of Australian Exports, 1995-2000Note: Wine export growth accounts for >45% of the increase in the export share of food/beveragesSource: UN Trade Statistics Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 40
  • 41. And has continued to grow…Source: UN Trade StatisticsCisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Confidential 41
  • 42. CITEvid – Enhancing the Pisco IndustrySource: Juana Koromoto, GRADE Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 42
  • 43. Facilitating a rapid rise in production and exports….Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 43
  • 44. What are Cluster Initiatives? Cluster initiatives are collaborative activities by a group of companies, public sectorentities, and other related institutions with the objective to improve the competitiveness of a group of interlinked economic activities in a specific geographic region • Upgrading of • Upgrading of cluster- company operations specific business and strategies across environment a group of companies conditions • Strengthening of networks to enhance spill-overs and other economic benefits of clustersPresentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 44
  • 45. What is Different about Cluster-BasedEconomic Policy? Cluster vs. Narrow Industries Public-Private Regional Collaboration Perspective Focus on upgrading productivity Demand- Build on driven Regional Policy Strengths PrioritiesPresentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 45
  • 46. Agenda Items for Peruvian Universities  Peruvian universities are the natural home for the institutions of collaboration that are are at the heart of a cluster-led economic strategy  While Peruvian universities have only recently become engaged with joint colalborations with Peruvian companies (and multinationals), the Peruvian university system should strive to serve as the hub for activities that are focused on upgrading productivity and enhancing the environment for innovation and entrepreneurship.  Peru has an enormous cultural legacy and vast natural and human resources....but these must be mobilized for action and Peruvian universities must be at the vanguard of this effortPresentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 46
  • 47. A New Agenda for Peruvian Universities  Building an Innovator Workforce  Catalyzing Innovation-Based Entrepreneurship  Convening the Public and Private Sector to Build a Peruvian Innovation EconomyPresentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 47
  • 48. How Can We Build Bridges to a Peru Innovation Nation?Presentation_ID © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 48