Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C


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Genetically Modified Organisms

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Powerpoint Presentation of GMO by Joshua H. Cabarle BSED I-C

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />Genetically modified crops (often abbreviated as GMOs) are simply crops, whose genetical material has been modified.  There are two ways to do this:<br />Traditional selection and breeding (much like breeding animals),<br />Modern, scientific modification of the crops.<br />In this article, my strengths and weaknesses of genetically modified crops list will deal with the second, the scientific effects and applications.<br />
  3. 3. What is GM food?<br />Genetically Modified (GM) foods are produced from genetically modified organisms (GMO) which have had their genome altered through genetic engineering techniques. The genes of plants can be modified to make them more resistant to unfavourable growing conditions and also to produce higher yields with the use of lesser fertilizers and water. Involving genetically modified organisms (GMO) which are potential environmental hazards. Examples of this GM food are; soybean, corn, canola and cotton seed oil.<br />
  4. 4. Advantages & Disadvantages of GMO<br />Advantages:1. Modified to make them more resistant to unfavourable conditions2. Produce higher yields3. Use less fertilizers4. Use lesser water5. Pest resistance6. Herbicide tolerance7. Increasing food supplies in co-relation with an increasing world population.<br />
  5. 5. Advantages & Disadvantages of GMO<br />Disadvantages:1. Harmful to environment2. Harmful to humans3. Give rise to 'super weeds'4. 'Super weeds' dominate the fields and affect main crops5. Genes from the genetically modified food could be transferred to the pests which can make them become resistant to the pesticides and the pesticides become useless. <br />
  6. 6. …in Insects<br />Proponents of GMOs say the modified crops are engineered to make them immune to pests and disease. However, according to Bionet.com, genes that are modified to resist pesticides can be transferred to insects, creating insects that are immune to pesticides as well. Also, some modified crops are designed to be poisonous to insects that would naturally feed off of the crops, which could kill off entire populations of insects that are not considered pests. <br />
  7. 7. …onYield<br />GMOs are engineered to produce a larger yield than natural organisms. Farmers can increase their capital by producing and selling more crops. However, opponents of GMOs feel not enough research has been completed to evaluate all the risks of producing such mass quantities. Also, the same mismanagement of food that contributes to shortages around the world will still exist no matter how many extra crops are grown. <br />
  8. 8. …inFreshness<br />Some of the GMOs are also engineered to grow in areas with subpar soil or inadequate sunlight. Also, GMOs are designed to remain ripe for longer than normal crops so they can be shipped all over the world. However, most GMOs are sterile, which requires farmers to purchase seeds each year from the corporations that produce these GMOs, making people in poorer nations dependent on these corporations. Certain crops are also antibiotic resistant and by consuming them, it can lead to the growth of antibiotic resistant diseases. <br />
  9. 9. Greater Yields<br />GMO food crops have been genetically altered to have shorter growing cycles, greater resistance to both insects and disease, higher yields, and higher nutritional value. GMO animals have increased production as well. For example, dairy cows may produce more milk. The World Health Organization, or WHO, states that the higher yields afforded by GMO plants and animals may allow food prices to drop while food sources become more abundant.<br />
  10. 10. Less Environmental Impact<br />Some food crops have many negative environmental impacts due to erosion, irrigation needs and the heavy use of pesticides and herbicides. According to the Human Genome Project, GMO crops have been designed to specifically address these issues. Crops that are resistant to disease and insects require fewer harmful chemicals. Plants that are engineered to be drought-resistant require less irrigation, which both conserves water and lessens erosion.<br />
  11. 11. Safety<br />Opponents of GMO foods raise two concerns regarding their safety: the introduction of new allergens, and the creation of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, sometimes called "superbugs." As genes are inserted into one species from another, new proteins will be made that may have the ability to cause allergic reactions in some people. Additionally, the technology used to create GMO foods relies on inserting antibiotic-resistance genes into some plants, according to the Human Genome Project. It is possible that during digestion, these genes could become inserted into bacteria that live in the gut and cause antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Should these bacteria infect animals and humans, our resources to fight them would be diminished.<br />
  12. 12. Contamination<br />Because sun, wind, water, birds and insects are not bound by property lines, there is concern that cross-pollination may occur between GMO crops and non-GMO crops in the vicinity, with the result that genetic alterations may be inadvertently introduced to the non-GMO crops. Certainly for the farmer who has chosen to grow non-GMO foods, this would be seen as a great disadvantage.<br />
  13. 13. Loss of Biodiversity<br />With all of the advantages offered to farmers by GMO foods, such as greater yields and decreased energy needs, there is legitimate concern that agriculture will become dominated by crops and animals that have been genetically modified. This could translate to a loss in biodiversity, meaning that many other varieties of plants and animals will no longer be available.<br />
  14. 14. CONCLUSION<br />