Value-added models are designed to quantify the amount of achievement “value” teachers add to their students over the course of a school year. There are some old ideas here, but with some new vocabulary and some new statistical twists.
In 2009, the NRC’s Board on Testing and Assessment issued a letter report directed to Education Secretary Arne Duncan, commenting on the Department’s proposal on the Race to the Top Fund. That letter included strong cautions concerning value-added models, and strongly urged further research and pilot studies before mandating any operational use of these models. Since then, the evidence has continued to accumulate that these models have serious problems.
Bullet 1: One teacher noted: “I’m scared to teach in the 4 th grade. I’m scared I might lose my job if I teach in an [ELL] transition grade level, because I’m scared my scores are going to drop, and I’m going to get fired because there’s probably going to be no growth.” Another teacher noted: “When they say nobody wants to do 4 th grade – nobody wants to do 4 th grade! Nobody.” Bullet 3: A teacher noted: “I found out that I [have been] competing with myself.” Bullet 4: A gifted teacher noted: “Every year I have the highest test scores, I have fellow teachers that come up to me when they get their bonuses…One recently came up to me [and] literally cried - ‘I’m so sorry.’… I’m like, don’t be sorry…It’s not your fault. Here I am…with the highest test scores and I’m getting $0 in bonuses. It makes no sense year to year how this works…. How do I, how do I… you know… I don’t know what to do. I don’t know how to get higher than a 100%.” Another gifted teacher noted, “I have students [in a 5 th grade gifted reading class] who score at the 6 th 7 th 8 th -grade levels in reading. But I’m like please babies, score at the 9 th grade level, cause if you don’t score at the 9 th or 10 th grade or higher in 5 th grade with me, I’m going to show negative growth. Even though you, you’re gifted and you’re talented, and you’re high! I can only push you so much higher when you are already so high. I’m scared.”
Transcript of "Developing and Assessing Teacher Effectiveness"
Equitable Teachers … Learn to see, hear, and understand the child Find out about children’s strengths, experiences, and prior knowledge Have many tools for scaffolding understanding Continually develop culturally responsive practices Reinforce students’ competence and confidence Reach out to children and families
Education Spending is Unequal and Inadequate California ADA Expenditures18,000 16,58316,00014,000 11,22212,000 9,48010,000 7,863 8,000 6,457 6,360 6,182 5,913 5,741 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 e J) ) A) ills o . . . A ag em em em sc (S (L (L H er i El El El nc y rk on rly Av le a Pa o e as ve in pt Fr id lit A cK lin om Be a ds C in n us Bo M Sa w oo CSa ld lin W Ba ank Fr
Low-Salary Districts Serve Higher Need Students (CA)
Staffing Strongly Influences School Productivity (ELA Productivity* (2003-07) Associated with Teacher and School Characteristics)
Policy Context Focusing on teacher effectiveness is seen as a promising path for education policy New teacher evaluation systems, and especially, “Value Added Models” (VAMs) are promoted as tools to accomplish this goal Policy needs to be informed by research about what will actually improve teaching and student outcomes
Professional Consensus VAM estimates of teacher effectiveness … should not used to make operational decisions because such estimates are far too unstable to be considered fair or reliable. – 2009 Letter Report from the Board on Testing and Assessment, National Research Council
Concerns Raised about Value-Added MeasuresStudies find that teachers’ value-added “effectiveness” is highly variable & influenced by: The statistical model used The measure of achievement used Class size, curriculum, instructional supports, and time spent with students Tutoring and parent supports Student characteristics and attendance
A Teacher’s Measured “Effectiveness” Can Vary Widely YEAR 1 10 YEAR 210 Same high school 8 6 Same course 4 (English I) 2 1 Not a beginning 0 Decile Rank Y1 Decile Rank Y2 teacher80 Model controls for:60 Y1 Prior40 Y2 achievement20 Demographics 0 % ELL % Low- %Hispanic School fixed income effects
The Unintended Effects of the EVAAS System In Houston Teachers teaching in grades in which English Language Learners (ELLs) are transitioned into mainstreamed classrooms are the least likely to show “added value.” Teachers teaching larger numbers of special education students in mainstreamed classrooms are also found to have lower “value-added” scores. Teachers teaching students in consecutive years report receiving bonuses for the first year and nothing the next, as they “max out” on growth. Teachers teaching gifted students have small gains because their students are near the top. 16
Teacher Candidates LearnI think for me the most valuable thing was the sequencing of the lessons, teaching the lesson, and evaluating what the kids were getting, what the kids weren’t getting, and having that be reflected in my next lesson...the ‘teach-assess-teach-assess- teach-assess’ process. And so you’re constantly changing – you may have a plan or a framework that you have together, but knowing that that’s flexible and that it has to be flexible, based on what the children learn that day. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
Teacher Educators LearnThis [scoring] experience…has forced me to revisit the question of what really matters in the assessment of teachers, which – in turn – means revisiting the question of what really matters in the preparation of teachers. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
Cooperating Teachers Learn[The scoring process] forces you to be clear about “good teaching;” what it looks like, sounds like. It enables you to look at your own practice critically/with new eyes. Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
Teacher Education Programs Learn …… And change Courses The learning sequence Clinical practice opportunities Supports for candidates
Predictive Validity of Performance Assessments National Board Certification -- Effect sizes of .04 to .20 (pass/fail) Connecticut BEST portfolio -- Effect size of .46 (4 point scale) California PACT assessment -- Effect size of .15 (44 point scale) 20 percentile point difference in student achievement for the highest - and lowest- scoring teacher Linda Darling-Hammond 2011
Insisting on Quality Education as a Civil Right "On some positions, Cowardice asks the question, Is it safe? Expediency asks the question, Is it politic? And Vanity comes along and asks the question, Is it popular? But Conscience asks the question Is it right?And there comes a time when one must take a position that is neither safe, nor politic, nor popular, But he must do it because Conscience tells him it is right." -Martin Luther King, Jr., "Remaining Awake Through a Great Revolution", March 31, 1968