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  • The English Language in a NutshellThe English Language in a Nutshell Customer Testimonials“There are so many English language books out there, but I’m really glad I chose thisone. Step by step, section by section English guidance really helps you compile themost suitable English learning for your needs and experience. Some excellentexamples to take inspiration from as well.”Tan CheeSengBachelor of ComputingNational University of Singapore“I originally purchased this book - having relocated from small town to big city – for myhigher studies. I needed an excellent resource to tailor my English and further developmy study as well as career to fit the big city environment, and I found just what Ineeded. I am an engineering student and till now I have written numbers of exams in mystudy career. Upon purchasing The English Language in a Nutshell, I found it to beextremely useful in terms of standardized.The English Language in a Nutshell book, with so many examples, has allowed me tounderstand what constitutes good English from the employer’s perspective in an easyto understand and logical style, so good in fact I’m also waiting for future books fromCommunication for Techies.”Swati SinhaPGDM-RM1Xavier Institute of Management Bhubaneshwar‘’If you need update your English, then this is a brilliant book - it has everything youneed about how to structure your English, what to put in and what to leave out. There’s1|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshelladvice on how to deal with various tense as well as sentence making tips and hintsthroughout.The book also covers learning English for professional and for various professionswhere `the rules’ are different, and there are examples and links to online resources too.Highly recommended.’’Blesswin ThomasSr. AnalystLG CNSA must read for those who want to improve and polish their English. I like the basiclanguage teaching style. The examples given in the book are very toughing, convincingand they are very fundamental & extremely important to get a cutting edge, in all typesof professions. My thanks to the author & associated people, for writing “The EnglishLanguage in a Nutshell” now waiting for the next.Sharmila Monosamy NaikerUniversity of MalayaKuala Lumpur, MalaysiaOur mailing address is:Communication for Techies, LLC6810 Carver Rd.Houston, TX 77091,USAPH: 001-281-742-0576www.commfortechies.compr@commfortechies.com2|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshell About this BookThe English Language in a Nutshell is targeted towardsprofessionals who are learning English as a SecondLanguage or for those English speakers who need to brushup on their skills. It is a relatively short book, meant forthose busy professionals and students who don’t have timeto sift through hundreds of pages of material.3|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshell Table of ContentsCHAPTER I – THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ENGLISH..................................................... 8 Noun................................................................................................................................... 8 Person ............................................................................................................................ 8 Number ........................................................................................................................... 9 Gender............................................................................................................................ 9 Case ............................................................................................................................. 10 Article ............................................................................................................................... 10 Exceptions .................................................................................................................... 10 ADJECTIVE ..................................................................................................................... 11 PRONOUN ...................................................................................................................... 12 Subject & Object Pronouns ......................................................................................... 12 Possessive Pronouns .................................................................................................. 13 VERB ............................................................................................................................... 14 ADVERB .......................................................................................................................... 15 PREPOSITION ................................................................................................................ 16 CONJUNCTION .............................................................................................................. 17 and ................................................................................................................................... 17 INTERJECTION .............................................................................................................. 19CHAPTER II: THE SENTENCE ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. TYPES OF SENTENCES ............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. SIMPLE SENTENCES ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. COMPOUND SENTENCES ........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. COMPLEX SENTENCES ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. ARRANGEMENT OF WORDS IN A SENTENCE ......... Error! Bookmark not defined. When to use Singular Verb for Collective Noun......... Error! Bookmark not defined. When to use Plural Verb ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER III: Punctuation .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.4|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshell Comma (,) ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Semicolon (;).................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Colon (:) ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Period or Full Stop (.) ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Question Mark (?)............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Exclamation Mark (!) ....................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Quotation Mark (" ")......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Apostrophe () .................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Hyphen (-) ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Dash (-) ............................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Parentheses (also called Brackets and Round Brackets) (()) ...Error! Bookmark not defined. Square Brackets ( [ ] ) ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Ellipsis (...) ....................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER IV: Building the Paragraph ....................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Topic Sentence: ........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. The First Main Point:.................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. The Second Main Point: .............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. The Third Main Point: .................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Conclusion:................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER V: Figurative Language ............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Simile ............................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Metaphor .......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Personification ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Hyperbole......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Onomatopoeia ................................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Idiom ................................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Alliteration ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER VI: COMMON ENGLISH PHRASES ........................ Error! Bookmark not defined. GOING TO BED/WAKING UP IN THE MORNING: ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.5|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshell GETTING PEOPLES ATTENTION ............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Urgent Situations ......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. EXPRESSING SYMPATHY............................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. ASKING PEOPLE TO REPEAT ..................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. APOLOGIZING ................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER VII: IMPROVING ENGLISH CONVERSATION SKILLS ...... Error! Bookmark notdefined. Introduction Questions: ................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1) What is your name? ................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 2) Where do you live?.................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3) What do you do? ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4) Are you married? ..................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 5) Where are you from?............................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. HOBBIES/ LEISURE QUESTIONS:............................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 1) What do you like doing in your free time? .............. Error! Bookmark not defined. 2) Do you play any sports? Which sports?................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 3) What kind of films/food/vacations do you like? ...... Error! Bookmark not defined. 4) What do you like to do on weekends? ................... Error! Bookmark not defined.CHAPTER VIII: COMMON MISTAKES FOR ENGLISH LEARNERS ... Error! Bookmark notdefined. Examples of Incorrect English Phrases ......................... Error! Bookmark not defined. HOMOPHONES, HOMONYMS, & HOMOGRAPHS .... Error! Bookmark not defined. Key Definitions: ............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. COMMON LEARNING MISTAKES ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. 1) Forcing Speech without Sufficient Practice............ Error! Bookmark not defined. 2) Grammar Focus....................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 3) Formal English Focus ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 4) Trying to be perfect ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. 5) Relying Solely on English Schools ......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.Chapter IX: BUSINESS ENGLISH VOCABULARY LIST .......... Error! Bookmark not defined.ENRICHMENT EXERCISES ....................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.6|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshell Adjective or Adverb...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. A, An, or The ................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Order of Adjectives ...................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Grammar Check........................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Comparatives and Superlatives .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Paragraph Writing Exercise 1: Building Effective Paragraphs ..Error! Bookmark not defined. Paragraph Writing Exercise 2: What Do You Like to Do for the Holidays? ........ Error! Bookmark not defined. Paragraph Writing Exercise 3: Identifying the Main Idea .........Error! Bookmark not defined. Reading Comprehension Beginner Exercise 1 .......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Reading Comprehension Beginner Exercise 2 .......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Reading Comprehension Intermediate Exercise 1 .... Error! Bookmark not defined. Reading Comprehension Intermediate Exercise 2 .... Error! Bookmark not defined. Reading Comprehension Intermediate Exercise 3 .... Error! Bookmark not defined. Answers ........................................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.About the Team ........................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.7|P age
  • The English Language in a NutshellCHAPTER I – THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ENGLISHThe English language is divided into nine classes. These classes are:  Noun  Article  Adjective  Pronoun  Verb  Adverb  Preposition  Conjunction  InterjectionOf these classes, the noun is the most important, as the other classes depend on thenoun to some extent.NounA Noun identifies the name of any person, place or object. There are two types ofNouns, Proper and Common.Common Nouns are names which belong in common to a group, suchas man or city. Proper Nouns, however, distinguish individual members of a group,such as John or Philadelphia.Nouns can also vary by Person, Number, Gender, and Case.PersonPerson is the relation between the speaker, the individual(s) addressed and the relevantsubject. Persons are First, Second and Third and they represent the speaker, theperson addressed, and the person or object mentioned respectively. The differencebetween the first, second, and third person is if the speaker says, “I, you, or him/her.”If the speaker is speaking in the first person, he or she is talking about himself orherself.Examples:  I love math! (Singular)  We love math! (Plural)8|P age
  • The English Language in a NutshellThe second person is the opposite of the first person, so instead of referring to “I” or“we”, the speaker refers to “you”.Examples:  You love math!  You should learn the fundamentals of engineering before going into the more complex material.The second person is rarely used; however it is used in technical writing, such as givinginstructions.If a person is speaking in the third person singular, the speaker is referring to “he” or“she”. For the third person singular, the singular form of the verb is used:Examples:  He loves math!  She likes working with user interfaces.For the third person plural, however, the speaker would use the plural form of the verb:Example:  They like working with user interfaces.As you can see above, the only change in verb form is the third person singular. For themajority of cases, however, the verb form will remain stable.NumberNumber is the distinction of one from more than one. Singular denotes one person,place, or object while the plural form refers to two or more.Examples of Singular Form: Cat, Dog, House, Woman, SchoolExamples of Plural Form: Cats, Dogs, Houses, Women, SchoolsThe plural is generally formed from the singular by the addition of s or es.GenderGender has the same relation to nouns that sex has to individuals, but while there areonly two sexes, there are four gender types for nouns: masculine, feminine, neutral and9|P age
  • The English Language in a Nutshellcommon. The masculine gender denotes all those of the male kind, the feminine genderall those of the female kind, the neutral gender denotes inanimate objects or whatever isnon-living, and common gender is applied to animate beings in which the genderis indeterminable, such as fish, mouse, bird, etc.CaseCase is the relation one noun has with another noun, verb, or preposition. Thereare three cases, the Nominative, the Possessive and the Objective. The nominative isthe subject which directs the action of the verb. The possessive case denotespossession, and the objective indicates the person or object which is affected by theaction of the verb.ArticleAn article is a word placed before a noun. The articles shows if the noun is particular orgeneral.General Articles: A, ANParticular Articles: THETypically, you should “a” before words that being with consonants and “an” beforewords that begin with vowels.Examples:  a blueprint  a computer  a programmer  an egg  an issue  an orbitExceptionsUse “an” before unsounded “h”. Since the unsounded h has no audible sound, thesound that follows the article is a vowel.Examples:  an honorable public servant  an honest technical error10 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellWhen “u” makes the same sound as “y”, such as in you, or “w” makes the same soundas “w” in won, then “a” is used.Examples:  a union  a united alliance  a one-armed man  a wontonADJECTIVEAn adjective is a word which qualifies a noun with some distinguishing characteristic.Examples of Adjectives used in Business:accredited cut-price offshoreall-night drive-through one-stopanticompetitive fly-by-night overstaffedB2B imperial paperlessB2C incorporated predatorybig infant self-financingbloated land-based self-servicebricks-and-mortar large servicebrisk lean short-staffedbusiness limited tertiarybusiness-to-business market-driven top-heavycollective market-led undermannedcommercial mercantile understaffedcompetitive mom-and-pop unlistedconsumer-facing monopolistic upstartconsumer-to-business multi-agency blue-chipcooperative multinational corporatelycorporate non-profit fly-by-nightC-to-C not-for-profit11 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellPRONOUNA pronoun is a word used in place of a noun to prevent the writer from using the nounrepetitiously.Subject & Object PronounsSubject and object pronouns are used frequently in everyday English language. Asubject pronoun always takes action, and an object pronoun is part of the activity.Example:Jeremy likes playing tennis with Nicole.Jeremy is the subject, so you could also say “He likes playing tennis with Nicole.” In thissentence, Jeremy performs the action of playing tennis with Nicole, so she is the objectbecause she does not perform the action. Subject and object pronouns perform in thesame way.Subject pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, they, weObject pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, themExamples:Subject Pronouns  I might see the movie later.  You have to try the pie.  He lives in Texas.  She visited Europe.  It might be too hot to do the yard work.  They missed the last bus.  We can’t see the road because of the rain.Object Pronouns  Sammie hit me on the head.  I need to tell you something about our manager.  Nancy outperformed him, so she got a bigger raise.  I completed it last week.  Work was terribly boring for us.  Earl introduced them to the regional manager.12 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellPossessive PronounsPossessive pronouns show who owns something. Possessive pronouns are similar topossessive adjectives, however the possessive adjective comes before the object in thesentence and the possessive pronoun is the object of the sentence.Possessive pronouns: mine, his, hers, its, ours, yours, their, theirsExamples:That poodle is my dog. (Possessive adjective, my, comes before the object, dog)The dog is mine. (Possessive pronoun, mine, is the object in the sentence)Here is a list of common pronouns used in the English language:all me theiranother mine theirsany more themanybody most themselvesanyone much theseanything my theyboth myself thiseach neither thoseeither no one useverybody nobody weeveryone none whateverything nothing whateverfew one whichhe other whicheverher others whohers our whoeverherself ours whomhim ourselves whomeverhimself several whosehis she youI some yourit somebody yoursits someone yourselfitself something yourselvesmany that13 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellVERBA verb refers to an action. The form of the verb is determined by tense, mood, and thenumber and person of the noun.Here is a list of common verbs used in business:accept dismiss participateadd dispatch payadmit distribute planadvertise divide presentadvise employ preventafford encourage processapprove establish produceauthorize estimate promiseavoid exchange promoteapprove extend provideauthorize fix purchaseavoid fund raiseborrow improve reachbuild increase receivebuy inform recruitcalculate install reducecancel invest refusechange invoice rejectcharge join remindcheck lend removechoose lengthen replycomplain lower resigncomplete maintain respondconfirm manage returnconsider measure riseconvince mention sellcount obtain senddecide order separatedecrease organize shortendeliver owe splitdevelop own structurediscount pack succeed14 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellADVERBAn adverb is a word which modifies a verb, adjective, or even another adverb.Here is a list of common adverbs:always easily inquisitivelyangrily elegantly irritablyannually enormously joyouslyanxiously enthusiastically justlyawkwardly equally kindlybadly even lazilyblindly eventually lessboastfully exactly looselyboldly faithfully loudlybravely far madlybriefly fondly merrilybrightly foolishly monthlybusily fortunately morecalmly frantically mortallycarefully gently mysteriouslycarelessly gladly nearlycautiously gracefully neatlycourageously greedily nervouslycrossly happily nevercruelly hastily noisilydaily honestly notdefiantly hourly obedientlydeliberately hungrily obnoxiouslydoubtfully innocently often15 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a Nutshellpunctually seldom tenderlyquickly selfishly tenselyquietly seriously thoughtfullyrapidly shakily tightlyrarely sharply tomorrowreally shrilly toorecklessly sometimes truthfullyregularly soon unexpectedlyreluctantly speedily veryrepeatedly stealthily victoriouslyrightfully sternly violentlyroughly successfully vivaciouslyrudely suddenlysadly suspiciouslysafely swiftlyPREPOSITIONA preposition connects nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence.The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the preposition’s object.Examples:  The calculator is on the table.  The printer is beneath the desk.  The blueprint is leaning against the wall.  The servers are beside the restroom.  Kevin held the lamp over the diagram.  Li read her engineering book during chemistry.Here is a list of common prepositions:above after alongacross against among16 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a Nutshellaround for sinceat from throughbefore in throughoutbehind inside tillbelow into tobeneath like towardbeside near underbetween of underneathbeyond off untilbut on upby onto upondespite out withdown outside withinduring over withoutexcept pastCONJUNCTIONA conjunction joins words, phrases, clauses, and sentences together.Examples:  Sanjay and Leonard analyzed the document.  Joseph wanted Italian food, but Tasha opted for Thai.  Nathan ate eggs and bacon before he went to class.  Derrick went to sleep after playing football.  Both my mother and my father are engineers.  Dania is trying to decide whether to go law school or business school.Here is a list of common conjunctions:and nor yetbut for afteror so although17 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a Nutshellas that both…andbecause though either…orbefore till neither…norhow until not only… but alsoif when so…asonce where whether…orsince whetherthan while18 | P a g e
  • The English Language in a NutshellINTERJECTIONAn interjection expresses surprise or a sudden emotion. An exclamation mark usuallyfollows an interjection.Examples:  Ouch, that hurt!  Oh no! I forgot my biotechnology exam is today.  Hey! Watch you coffee so it doesn’t spill on my laptop!  Wow! His technical aptitude is unbelievable!19 | P a g e